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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 15 — Jul. 18, 2011
  • pp: 13806–13811
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Large lateral photovoltaic effect observed in nano Al-doped ZnO films

Jing Lu and Hui Wang  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 15, pp. 13806-13811 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.013806


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Abstract

Zinc oxide (ZnO), including a variety of metal-doped ZnO, as one kind of most important photoelectric materials, has been widely investigated and received enormous attention for a series of applications. In this work, we report a new finding which we call as lateral photovoltaic effect (LPE) in a nano Al-doped ZnO (ZAO) film based on ZAO/SiO2/Si homo-heterostructure. This large and stable LPE observed in ZAO is an important supplement to the existing ZnO properties. In addition, all data and analyses demonstrate ZAO film can also be a good candidate for new type position-sensitive detector (PSD) devices.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

Zinc oxide (ZnO) is an important wide-band-gap semiconducting ceramic material with many useful properties. It has been extensively investigated for wide applications in luminescence, ultraviolet (UV) light emitters or light emitting diodes (LEDs), spin functional devices, solar cells, surface acoustic coatings, microsensors and so on [1

1. R. F. Service, “Materials science: will UV lasers beat the blues?” Science 276(5314), 895 (1997). [CrossRef]

6

6. J. Q. Xu, Q. Y. Pan, Y. A. Shun, and Z. Z. Tian, “Grain size control and gas sensing properties of ZnO gas sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 66(1-3), 277–279 (2000). [CrossRef]

]. In order to induce new interesting properties doping different elements has been attempted [7

7. C. G. Van de Walle, “Hydrogen as a cause of doping in zinc oxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(5), 1012–1015 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13

13. S. Blumstengel, S. Sadofev, J. Puls, and F. Henneberger, “An inorganic/organic semiconductor “sandwich” structure grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Adv. Mater. 21(47), 4850–4853 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Alumina doped zinc oxide (ZAO) is one of the most widely reported [14

14. B. S. Chun, H. C. Wu, M. Abid, I. C. Chu, S. Serrano-Guisan, I. V. Shvets, and D. S. Choi, “The effect of deposition power on the electrical properties of Al-doped zinc oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 082109–082111 (2010). [CrossRef]

16

16. X. Jiang, F. L. Wong, M. K. Fung, and S. T. Lee, “Aluminum-doped zinc oxide films as transparent conductive electrode for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1875–1877 (2003). [CrossRef]

] transparent conducting oxide (TCO) for its high stability, low cost and non-toxicity. These substantial advantages make ZAO an important candidate for multifunctional photoelectric materials.

Though ZAO has been treated as a versatile material, serving as a LPE material has never been tried. Here we first report a large and stable LPE observed in this focal film based on ZAO/SiO2/Si homo-heterostructure under a 532 nm laser illumination. In fact since the LPV in response to spot illumination was first discovered by Schottky [17

17. W. Schottky, “Uber den entstehungsort der photoelektronen in kupfer-kupferoxydull-photozellen,” Phys. Z. 31, 913–925 (1930).

] and later expanded by Wallmark in floating Ge p+-n junctions [18

18. J. T. Wallmark, “A new semiconductor photocell using lateral photoeffect,” Proc. IRE 45, 474–483 (1957).

], different systems have been reported such as Ti/Si amorphous-superlattices [19

19. R. H. Willens, “Photoelectronic and electronic properties of Ti/Si amorphous superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(11), 663–665 (1986). [CrossRef]

], modulation-doped AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructure [20

20. N. Tabatabaie, M. H. Meynadier, R. E. Nahory, J. P. Harbison, and L. T. Florez, “Large lateral photovoltaic effect in modulation-doped AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(8), 792–794 (1989). [CrossRef]

], hydrogenated amorphous silicon Schottky barrier structures [21

21. J. Henry and J. Livingstone, “A comparative study of position-sensitive detectors based on Schottky barrier crystalline and amorphous silicon structures,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 12(7), 387–393 (2001). [CrossRef]

], perovskite materials [22

22. K. J. Jin, H.-B. Zhao, H.-B. Lu, L. Liao, and G.-Z. Yang, “Dember effect induced photovoltage in perovskite p-n heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081906 (2007). [CrossRef]

] and metal–semiconductor (MS) like or metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures [23

23. J. Henry and J. Livingstone IV, “Electron-beam fabricated titanium and indium tin oxide position-sensitive detectors,” Int. J. Electron. 88(10), 1057–1065 (2001). [CrossRef]

25

25. C. Q. Yu, H. Wang, and Y. X. Xia, “Giant lateral photovoltaic effect observed in TiO2 dusted metal-semiconductor structure of Ti/TiO2/Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141112 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. Different physical mechanisms have also been proposed including Dember effect [26

26. J. I. Pankove, “Photovoltaic effect at a Schottky barrier,” Opt. Processes Semicond. 14, 314–321 (1971).

], p-n junction mechanism [27

27. H. Niu, T. Matsuda, H. Sadamatsu, and M. Takai, “Application of lateral photovoltaic effect to the measurement of the physical quantities of P-N junctions-sheet resistivity and junction conductance of N2+ implanted Si,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 12, 4 (1976).

] and Schottky barrier mechanism [17

17. W. Schottky, “Uber den entstehungsort der photoelektronen in kupfer-kupferoxydull-photozellen,” Phys. Z. 31, 913–925 (1930).

].

2. Experimental details

The ZAO films (composited of 2% Al2O3, 98% ZnO) were deposited on n-type Si (1 1 1) substrate at room temperature by DC magnetron reactive sputtering. The substrate was covered with a native SiO2 layer of 1.2 nm measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The thickness of the Si wafers is around 0.3 mm and the resistivity is in the range of 50-80 Ωcm. The base pressure of the vacuum system prior to deposition was better than 6.0 × 10−5 Pa. High purity ZAO (>99.9%)) target (60 mm diameter) was used. An argon gas pressure of 0.68Pa was maintained during deposition. The deposition rate, determined by stylus profile meter on thick calibration samples is 1.23Å/s.

All the samples were scanned spatially with a Green Diode laser (5 mW and 532 nm) focused on a roughly 50-μm diameter spot at the ZAO film surface without any spurious illumination (e.g. background light) reaching the samples. All the contacts (less than 1 mm in diameter) to the films were formed by alloying indium and showed no measurable rectifying behavior (perfect ohmic contact). The schematic picture of the experimental set-up for the LPV measurement is shown in the inset of the second figure in this paper. The optical transmittance spectra of the ZAO film was determined by UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer and the wavelength ranged from 200 to 1000 nm. All measurements were taken within 24 hours after the samples taken out of vacuum environment. The distance is 4 mm between two alloying indium contacts.

3. Experimental results

Figure 1
Fig. 1 Optical transmission spectra of 100 nm thick ZAO film
presents the optical transmittance spectra of a 100nm thick ZAO film corrected for the attenuation of a glass substrate. The film is highly transparent in the Vis-IR region with a transmittance between 60% and 90%. It shows that ZAO film is a good transparent conducting oxide in Vis-IR region.

According to extensive works [20

20. N. Tabatabaie, M. H. Meynadier, R. E. Nahory, J. P. Harbison, and L. T. Florez, “Large lateral photovoltaic effect in modulation-doped AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(8), 792–794 (1989). [CrossRef]

,29

29. R. Martins and E. Fortunato, “Role of the resistive layer on the performances of 2D a-Si: H thin film position sensitive detectors,” Thin Solid Films 337(1-2), 158–162 (1999). [CrossRef]

,30

30. E. Fortunato, G. Lavareda, R. Martins, F. Soares, and L. Fernandes, “Large-area 1D thin-film position sensitive detector with high detection resolution,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 51(2-3), 135–142 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], there are three main criteria to judge whether a device is suitable for a PSD. They are the position sensitivity, nonlinearity and spatial resolution. Table 1

Table 1. Results of ZAO-SiO2-Si Structures with Different ZAO Film Thickness

table-icon
View This Table
shows a summery result of the three main criteria on ZAO films with different thickness. As can be seen, all the samples output satisfying sensitivities and show good to excellent nonlinearities for 100μm spatial resolution. The nonlinearity of sample 3 (73.8 nm) gets as low as 3.22% for 100μm spatial resolution. Other samples are also controlled in 6.50% while the usual acceptable nonlinearity is less than 15.00%. All data and analyses demonstrate ZAO may be a candidate for PSDs.

Furthermore, in usual MS or MOS structures there always presents a “thickness effect” between position sensitivity and film thickness. That is an optimum film thickness for the largest position sensitivity always existing within an appropriate thickness range. When film thickness departs away from the optimum point, the LPV will decay monotonously. ZAO films shows different. The attenuation of LPV is not monotonic to film thickness apart from the optimum point instead the outputs keep effective in a wide range. However, the basic mechanism of this anomalous phenomenon is not clear now and needs a further investigation.

Besides it has been well known that ZAO film can act as an antireflection coating with stable physical properties, such as good electrical conductivity and high optical transmittance. This property will help increase stability and service life of devices. From Table 1 and Fig. 2 we find sample 3 gets the least nonlinearity and sample 7gets the largest position sensitivity. Choosing these two as typical ones, we re-measured the LPV 4 weeks later.

Figure 3 (a)
Fig. 3 (a) Comparison of experimental results of sample 3 and 7, 3 and 7 are results of measurement taken within 24 hours out of vacuum environment, 3′ and 7' are results of measurement taken 4 weeks later (b) AFM images (1µm × 1µ m) of sample 3 and 7 in view of flatten and 3d.
is the comparison results, showing this structure retains stable in LPV output. This again proves ZAO film is quite qualified as candidate for PSD. The measurement results also confirm our latest report [31

31. C. Q. Yu, H. Wang, and Y. X. Xia, “Giant lateral photovoltaic effect observed in TiO2 dusted metal-semiconductor structure of Ti/TiO2/Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 3506–3508 (2009).

], an enhanced LPE can be observed by coating a thin oxide layer on the metal surface of MS structure.

4. Physical mechanism

To explain the LPE observed in ZAO film based on ZAO/SiO2/Si homo-heterostructure, we propose the following physical model.

Figure 4 (a)
Fig. 4 (a) Schematic simple equilibrium energy-band diagram of the ZAO/SiO2/Si homo-hererostucture, the native SiO2 layer has a tunneling thickness (1.2 nm) (b) Schematic profile diagram of the excess carrier diffusion on ZAO surface under a spot illumination.
shows the energy band diagram of the ZAO/SiO2/Si system in equilibrium state existing under uniform environment (e.g. background temperature, light and so on).A barrier is formed to integrate the two Fermi levels by energy band bending. The oxide layer has a tunneling thickness(1.2nm) according to extensive works [24

24. S. Q. Xiao, H. Wang, Z. C. Zhao, Y. Z. Gu, Y. X. Xia, and Z. H. Wang, “The Co-film-thickness dependent lateral photoeffect in Co-SiO2-Si metal-oxide-semiconductor structures,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3798–3806 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,30

30. E. Fortunato, G. Lavareda, R. Martins, F. Soares, and L. Fernandes, “Large-area 1D thin-film position sensitive detector with high detection resolution,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 51(2-3), 135–142 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].When ZAO film is illuminated by the 532 nm laser spot, energy is mainly absorbed in Si substrate where generating electron-hole pairs. The generated electrons tunnel through SiO2 into ZAO layer while the holes are left in Si substrate. These excess carriers generate a concentration gradient between the illuminated spot and nun-illuminated zone. Due to the concentration gradient these excess carriers move laterally away from the illuminated spot. Noticeable factor is ZAO film is quite thin (nano scale) and must be described by surface concentration. As a result, with the same number carrier injected, ZAO film concentration is much more influenced.

For better investigation, a quantitative explanation is given in ideal one-dimensional model. According to the diffusion equation in the semiconductor, the distribution of the light induced electrons can be calculated as following:

N(r)=N(0)exp(rλZ).
(1)

Here r is the distance from the laser spot andλz is the electron diffusion length in ZAO film. λz can be written as:

λz=DZτZ=k0TσZτZn0q2.
(2)

Here DZ=k0Tσ/n0q2(according to Einstein relation) is the diffusion constant and τZ is the lifetime of the non-equilibrium electrons of ZAO layer separately. σZ is the conductivity of the ZAO film and n0 is the area density of electrons at equilibrium state.

EFn=EF+k0Tln(Δn/n).
(3)

Here Δnand n are the excess electron density and the equilibrium state electron density.

The LPV can be obtained by calculating the difference of the quasi-Fermi level between the two contact electrodes position A and B in Fig. 4 (b).

LPV={[EFn(B)EFn(A)]/q}=(k0T/q)ln[Δn(B)/Δn(A)].
(4)

Substituted Δn(B)and Δn(A) in Eq. (4) byΔn(A,B)=ΔNexp[(|x±L|)/λz], L is the half distance between A and B while x is the laser spot position shown in Fig. 4 (b) Eq. (4) can be written as following:

LPV=(2k0T/qλZ)x.(4)

5. Conclusion

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grants 10974135 and 60776035 and in part by the National Minister of Education Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University (PCSIRT).

References and links

1.

R. F. Service, “Materials science: will UV lasers beat the blues?” Science 276(5314), 895 (1997). [CrossRef]

2.

T. Dietl, H. Ohno, F. Matsukura, J. Cibert, and D. Ferrand, “Zener model description of ferromagnetism in zinc-blende magnetic semiconductors,” Science 287(5455), 1019–1022 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

S. Cho, J. Ma, Y. Kim, Y. Sun, G. K. L. Wong, and J. B. Ketterson, “Photoluminescence and ultraviolet lasing of polycrystalline ZnO thin films prepared by the oxidation of the metallic Zn,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(18), 2761–2763 (1999). [CrossRef]

4.

I.-S. Jeong, J. H. Kim, and S. Im, “Ultraviolet-enhanced photodiode employing n-ZnO/p-Si structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2946–2948 (2003). [CrossRef]

5.

S. Muthukumar, C. R. Gorla, N. W. Emanetoglu, S. Liang, and Y. Lu, “Control of morphology and orientation of ZnO thin films grown on SiO2/Si substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 225(2-4), 197–201 (2001). [CrossRef]

6.

J. Q. Xu, Q. Y. Pan, Y. A. Shun, and Z. Z. Tian, “Grain size control and gas sensing properties of ZnO gas sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 66(1-3), 277–279 (2000). [CrossRef]

7.

C. G. Van de Walle, “Hydrogen as a cause of doping in zinc oxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(5), 1012–1015 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

S. Kohiki, M. Nishitani, T. Wada, and T. Hirao, “Enhanced conductivity of zinc oxide thin films by ion implantation of hydrogen atoms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(21), 2876–2878 (1994). [CrossRef]

9.

S.-M. Park, T. Ikegami, and K. Ebihara, “Effects of substrate temperature on the properties of Ga-doped ZnO by pulsed laser deposition,” Thin Solid Films 513(1-2), 90–94 (2006). [CrossRef]

10.

Z. R. Tian, J. A. Voigt, J. Liu, B. McKenzie, M. J. McDermott, M. A. Rodriguez, H. Konishi, and H. Xu, “Complex and oriented ZnO nanostructures,” Nat. Mater. 2(12), 821–826 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

J. Hu and R. G. Gordon, “Textured fluorine-doped ZnO films by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition and their use in amorphous silicon solar cells,” Sol. Cells 30(1-4), 437–450 (1991). [CrossRef]

12.

S. Sadofev, S. Blumstengel, J. Cui, J. Puls, S. Rogaschewski, P. Schäfer, and F. Henneberger, “Visible band-gap ZnCdO heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201907 (2006). [CrossRef]

13.

S. Blumstengel, S. Sadofev, J. Puls, and F. Henneberger, “An inorganic/organic semiconductor “sandwich” structure grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Adv. Mater. 21(47), 4850–4853 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

B. S. Chun, H. C. Wu, M. Abid, I. C. Chu, S. Serrano-Guisan, I. V. Shvets, and D. S. Choi, “The effect of deposition power on the electrical properties of Al-doped zinc oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 082109–082111 (2010). [CrossRef]

15.

O. Bamiduro, H. Mustafa, R. Mundle, R. B. Konda, and A. K. Pradhan, “Metal-like conductivity in transparent Al:ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 252108 (2007). [CrossRef]

16.

X. Jiang, F. L. Wong, M. K. Fung, and S. T. Lee, “Aluminum-doped zinc oxide films as transparent conductive electrode for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1875–1877 (2003). [CrossRef]

17.

W. Schottky, “Uber den entstehungsort der photoelektronen in kupfer-kupferoxydull-photozellen,” Phys. Z. 31, 913–925 (1930).

18.

J. T. Wallmark, “A new semiconductor photocell using lateral photoeffect,” Proc. IRE 45, 474–483 (1957).

19.

R. H. Willens, “Photoelectronic and electronic properties of Ti/Si amorphous superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(11), 663–665 (1986). [CrossRef]

20.

N. Tabatabaie, M. H. Meynadier, R. E. Nahory, J. P. Harbison, and L. T. Florez, “Large lateral photovoltaic effect in modulation-doped AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(8), 792–794 (1989). [CrossRef]

21.

J. Henry and J. Livingstone, “A comparative study of position-sensitive detectors based on Schottky barrier crystalline and amorphous silicon structures,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 12(7), 387–393 (2001). [CrossRef]

22.

K. J. Jin, H.-B. Zhao, H.-B. Lu, L. Liao, and G.-Z. Yang, “Dember effect induced photovoltage in perovskite p-n heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081906 (2007). [CrossRef]

23.

J. Henry and J. Livingstone IV, “Electron-beam fabricated titanium and indium tin oxide position-sensitive detectors,” Int. J. Electron. 88(10), 1057–1065 (2001). [CrossRef]

24.

S. Q. Xiao, H. Wang, Z. C. Zhao, Y. Z. Gu, Y. X. Xia, and Z. H. Wang, “The Co-film-thickness dependent lateral photoeffect in Co-SiO2-Si metal-oxide-semiconductor structures,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3798–3806 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

C. Q. Yu, H. Wang, and Y. X. Xia, “Giant lateral photovoltaic effect observed in TiO2 dusted metal-semiconductor structure of Ti/TiO2/Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141112 (2009). [CrossRef]

26.

J. I. Pankove, “Photovoltaic effect at a Schottky barrier,” Opt. Processes Semicond. 14, 314–321 (1971).

27.

H. Niu, T. Matsuda, H. Sadamatsu, and M. Takai, “Application of lateral photovoltaic effect to the measurement of the physical quantities of P-N junctions-sheet resistivity and junction conductance of N2+ implanted Si,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 12, 4 (1976).

28.

L. Du and H. Wang, “Infrared laser induced lateral photovoltaic effect observed in Cu(2)O nanoscale film,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9113–9118 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

29.

R. Martins and E. Fortunato, “Role of the resistive layer on the performances of 2D a-Si: H thin film position sensitive detectors,” Thin Solid Films 337(1-2), 158–162 (1999). [CrossRef]

30.

E. Fortunato, G. Lavareda, R. Martins, F. Soares, and L. Fernandes, “Large-area 1D thin-film position sensitive detector with high detection resolution,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 51(2-3), 135–142 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

31.

C. Q. Yu, H. Wang, and Y. X. Xia, “Giant lateral photovoltaic effect observed in TiO2 dusted metal-semiconductor structure of Ti/TiO2/Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 3506–3508 (2009).

OCIS Codes
(040.5160) Detectors : Photodetectors
(040.5350) Detectors : Photovoltaic
(310.6845) Thin films : Thin film devices and applications

ToC Category:
Detectors

History
Original Manuscript: May 9, 2011
Revised Manuscript: June 6, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: June 7, 2011
Published: July 5, 2011

Citation
Jing Lu and Hui Wang, "Large lateral photovoltaic effect observed in nano Al-doped ZnO films," Opt. Express 19, 13806-13811 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-15-13806


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References

  1. R. F. Service, “Materials science: will UV lasers beat the blues?” Science 276(5314), 895 (1997). [CrossRef]
  2. T. Dietl, H. Ohno, F. Matsukura, J. Cibert, and D. Ferrand, “Zener model description of ferromagnetism in zinc-blende magnetic semiconductors,” Science 287(5455), 1019–1022 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Cho, J. Ma, Y. Kim, Y. Sun, G. K. L. Wong, and J. B. Ketterson, “Photoluminescence and ultraviolet lasing of polycrystalline ZnO thin films prepared by the oxidation of the metallic Zn,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(18), 2761–2763 (1999). [CrossRef]
  4. I.-S. Jeong, J. H. Kim, and S. Im, “Ultraviolet-enhanced photodiode employing n-ZnO/p-Si structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2946–2948 (2003). [CrossRef]
  5. S. Muthukumar, C. R. Gorla, N. W. Emanetoglu, S. Liang, and Y. Lu, “Control of morphology and orientation of ZnO thin films grown on SiO2/Si substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 225(2-4), 197–201 (2001). [CrossRef]
  6. J. Q. Xu, Q. Y. Pan, Y. A. Shun, and Z. Z. Tian, “Grain size control and gas sensing properties of ZnO gas sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 66(1-3), 277–279 (2000). [CrossRef]
  7. C. G. Van de Walle, “Hydrogen as a cause of doping in zinc oxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(5), 1012–1015 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. Kohiki, M. Nishitani, T. Wada, and T. Hirao, “Enhanced conductivity of zinc oxide thin films by ion implantation of hydrogen atoms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(21), 2876–2878 (1994). [CrossRef]
  9. S.-M. Park, T. Ikegami, and K. Ebihara, “Effects of substrate temperature on the properties of Ga-doped ZnO by pulsed laser deposition,” Thin Solid Films 513(1-2), 90–94 (2006). [CrossRef]
  10. Z. R. Tian, J. A. Voigt, J. Liu, B. McKenzie, M. J. McDermott, M. A. Rodriguez, H. Konishi, and H. Xu, “Complex and oriented ZnO nanostructures,” Nat. Mater. 2(12), 821–826 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. Hu and R. G. Gordon, “Textured fluorine-doped ZnO films by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition and their use in amorphous silicon solar cells,” Sol. Cells 30(1-4), 437–450 (1991). [CrossRef]
  12. S. Sadofev, S. Blumstengel, J. Cui, J. Puls, S. Rogaschewski, P. Schäfer, and F. Henneberger, “Visible band-gap ZnCdO heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201907 (2006). [CrossRef]
  13. S. Blumstengel, S. Sadofev, J. Puls, and F. Henneberger, “An inorganic/organic semiconductor “sandwich” structure grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Adv. Mater. 21(47), 4850–4853 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. B. S. Chun, H. C. Wu, M. Abid, I. C. Chu, S. Serrano-Guisan, I. V. Shvets, and D. S. Choi, “The effect of deposition power on the electrical properties of Al-doped zinc oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 082109–082111 (2010). [CrossRef]
  15. O. Bamiduro, H. Mustafa, R. Mundle, R. B. Konda, and A. K. Pradhan, “Metal-like conductivity in transparent Al:ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 252108 (2007). [CrossRef]
  16. X. Jiang, F. L. Wong, M. K. Fung, and S. T. Lee, “Aluminum-doped zinc oxide films as transparent conductive electrode for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1875–1877 (2003). [CrossRef]
  17. W. Schottky, “Uber den entstehungsort der photoelektronen in kupfer-kupferoxydull-photozellen,” Phys. Z. 31, 913–925 (1930).
  18. J. T. Wallmark, “A new semiconductor photocell using lateral photoeffect,” Proc. IRE 45, 474–483 (1957).
  19. R. H. Willens, “Photoelectronic and electronic properties of Ti/Si amorphous superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(11), 663–665 (1986). [CrossRef]
  20. N. Tabatabaie, M. H. Meynadier, R. E. Nahory, J. P. Harbison, and L. T. Florez, “Large lateral photovoltaic effect in modulation-doped AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(8), 792–794 (1989). [CrossRef]
  21. J. Henry and J. Livingstone, “A comparative study of position-sensitive detectors based on Schottky barrier crystalline and amorphous silicon structures,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 12(7), 387–393 (2001). [CrossRef]
  22. K. J. Jin, H.-B. Zhao, H.-B. Lu, L. Liao, and G.-Z. Yang, “Dember effect induced photovoltage in perovskite p-n heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081906 (2007). [CrossRef]
  23. J. Henry and J. Livingstone, “Electron-beam fabricated titanium and indium tin oxide position-sensitive detectors,” Int. J. Electron. 88(10), 1057–1065 (2001). [CrossRef]
  24. S. Q. Xiao, H. Wang, Z. C. Zhao, Y. Z. Gu, Y. X. Xia, and Z. H. Wang, “The Co-film-thickness dependent lateral photoeffect in Co-SiO2-Si metal-oxide-semiconductor structures,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3798–3806 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. C. Q. Yu, H. Wang, and Y. X. Xia, “Giant lateral photovoltaic effect observed in TiO2 dusted metal-semiconductor structure of Ti/TiO2/Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141112 (2009). [CrossRef]
  26. J. I. Pankove, “Photovoltaic effect at a Schottky barrier,” Opt. Processes Semicond. 14, 314–321 (1971).
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