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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 15 — Jul. 18, 2011
  • pp: 14223–14232
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Large-aperture Nd:glass laser amplifiers with high pulse repetition rate

A. A. Kuzmin, E. A. Khazanov, and A. A. Shaykin  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 15, pp. 14223-14232 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.014223


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Abstract

Nd:glass amplifiers are used in most of the existed petawatt laser facilities. A typical repetition rate of such lasers is 1 shot per 30 minutes or less. Limitations are thermally induced distortions of radiation and tensile stresses in Nd:glass. An increase of the repetition rate is an urgent problem. We have investigated thermally induced depolarization and thermal lens effects in Nd:glass rods up to 10 cm in diameter at a pump pulse repetition period of 3 minutes. It is shown that the rods have a safety factor of at least 5 before thermal stress induced damage would occur, and despite of their size phase and polarization distortions could be compensated.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

Nd-ion doped glass laser amplifiers are used in the majority of the existing petawatt laser facilities. All available petawatt lasers and those under development may be classified into three types: lasers with Nd:glass amplifying medium [1

1. M. D. Perry, D. Pennington, B. C. Stuart, G. Tietbohl, J. A. Britten, C. Brown, S. Herman, B. Golick, M. Kartz, J. Miller, H. T. Powell, M. Vergino, and V. Yanovsky, “Petawatt laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 24(3), 160–162 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5

5. E. W. Gaul, M. Martinez, J. Blakeney, A. Jochmann, M. Ringuette, D. Hammond, T. Borger, R. Escamilla, S. Douglas, W. Henderson, G. Dyer, A. Erlandson, R. Cross, J. Caird, C. Ebbers, and T. Ditmire, “Demonstration of a 1.1 petawatt laser based on a hybrid optical parametric chirped pulse amplification/mixed Nd:glass amplifier,” Appl. Opt. 49(9), 1676–1681 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], with sapphire (corundum-titanium) amplifying medium [6

6. M. Aoyama, K. Yamakawa, Y. Akahane, J. Ma, N. Inoue, H. Ueda, and H. Kiriyama, “0.85-PW, 33-fs Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 28(17), 1594–1596 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9

9. V. Yanovsky, V. Chvykov, G. Kalinchenko, P. Rousseau, T. Planchon, T. Matsuoka, A. Maksimchuk, J. Nees, G. Cheriaux, G. Mourou, and K. Krushelnick, “Ultra-high intensity- 300-TW laser at 0.1 Hz repetition rate,” Opt. Express 16(3), 2109–2114 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and with parametric amplification in KDP and DKDP crystals [10

10. V. V. Lozhkarev, G. I. Freidman, V. N. Ginzburg, E. V. Katin, E. A. Khazanov, A. V. Kirsanov, G. A. Luchinin, A. N. Mal'shakov, M. A. Martyanov, O. V. Palashov, A. K. Poteomkin, A. M. Sergeev, A. A. Shaykin, and I. V. Yakovlev, “Compact 0.56 petawatt laser system based on optical parametric chirped pulse amplification in KD*P crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(6), 421–427 (2007). [CrossRef]

15

15. O. V. Chekhlov, J. L. Collier, I. N. Ross, P. K. Bates, M. Notley, C. Hernandez-Gomez, W. Shaikh, C. N. Danson, D. Neely, P. Matousek, S. Hancock, and L. Cardoso, “35 J broadband femtosecond optical parametric chirped pulse amplification system,” Opt. Lett. 31(24), 3665–3667 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In the second and third cases, after transformation into the second harmonic, Nd:glass laser radiation is used either for pumping a sapphire crystal or parametric chirped pulse amplifiers, respectively.

The main merit of glass as an inversion medium is a possibility to produce large-aperture elements with high stored energy that can operate at moderate laser intensity well below the optical damage threshold. Damage of the active element above the threshold of admissible thermally induced elastic stresses is a basic, but normally not nearly reached restriction of pulse repetition rate. However, the small heat conductivity of Nd:glass restricts pulse repetition rate significantly. For example, the characteristic cooling time τ of a cylindrical phosphate-glass active element of 10 cm in diameter, corresponding to infinite heat exchange with the environment, is about 30 min [τ = R2/(5.76D), where R is the radius of the active element and D is the thermal diffusivity]. This explains why none of the available petawatt facilities can ensure more than several shots per hour. In practice, lasers operate with shorter pulse repetition rates. If the time interval between pump pulses is set to be shorter than the characteristic time of active element cooling, then gradual accumulation of heat inside the active medium gives rise to pronounced distortions in radiation polarization and phase caused by the photoelastic effect. Thermally induced birefringence in glass was studied in detail theoretically and in experiments in several publications [16

16. W. Koechner, Solid State Laser Engineering (Springer, 2006)

25

25. A. A. Kuz’min, G. A. Luchinin, A. K. Poteomkin, A. A. Soloviev, E. A. Khazanov, and A. A. Shaykin, “Thermally induced distortions in neodymium glass rod amplifiers,” Quantum Electron. 39(10), 895–900 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. However, this problem was left almost unnoticed in publications concerning facilities with pulse energies of 100 J and higher. For example, less than 3% of polarization losses in the entire facility were reported in the paper [26

26. J. Bunkenberg, J. Boles, D. C. Brown, J. Eastman, J. Hoose, R. Hopkins, L. Iwan, S. D. Jacobs, J. H. Kelly, S. Kumpan, S. Letzring, D. Lonobile, L. D. Lund, G. Mourou, S. Refermat, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and K. Walsh, “The omega high-power phosphate-glass system: design and performance,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17(9), 1620–1628 (1981). [CrossRef]

] devoted to the laser complex “Omega”. This situation is typical of single-shot systems in which heat is not accumulated in active elements from shot to shot, and heating by a single pump pulse in the region of radiation is quite uniform and does not result in significant elastic stress.

Increasing pulse repetition rate in powerful lasers is an important problem, where thermally induced radiation distortions start to play a fundamental role. The present paper reports results of theoretical and experimental study of thermally induced distortions of radiation in large-aperture Nd:glass active elements at high pump pulse repetition rate and their influence on the quality of amplified radiation. These elements are used as amplifiers in the 0.56 PW laser complex PEARL [10

10. V. V. Lozhkarev, G. I. Freidman, V. N. Ginzburg, E. V. Katin, E. A. Khazanov, A. V. Kirsanov, G. A. Luchinin, A. N. Mal'shakov, M. A. Martyanov, O. V. Palashov, A. K. Poteomkin, A. M. Sergeev, A. A. Shaykin, and I. V. Yakovlev, “Compact 0.56 petawatt laser system based on optical parametric chirped pulse amplification in KD*P crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(6), 421–427 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. Our research demonstrates that it is possible to create a petawatt laser based on Nd:glass with a record small time interval between pump pulses of not more than three minutes.

2. Theory

Primary attention in our experiments was focused on the investigation of thermally induced depolarization of radiation. This phenomenon is encountered in an anisotropic medium where there exist eigenmodes with different indices of refraction. In an isotropic medium, such as glass, birefringence induced by the photoelastic effect may occur. In the case of interest to us, the matter concerns elastic stresses arising in Nd:glass rod active elements under inhomogeneous heating by pump pulses. This heating causes the change in the dielectric constant tensor [17

17. A. V. Mezenov, L. N. Soms, and A. I. Stepanov, Termooptika Tverdotelnykh Laserov [Thermooptics of Solid-state Lasers] (Mashinostroenie, Leningrad, 1986)

]:
Δεij=n4πijklσkl+2ndndTΔT,
(1)
where σkl is the stress tensor, πijkl is the elastooptic tensor, n is the unperturbed refractive index, and ΔT is the difference between the rod temperature and the temperature of the surrounding medium.

In the rod geometry there are only three nonzero stress tensor components [17

17. A. V. Mezenov, L. N. Soms, and A. I. Stepanov, Termooptika Tverdotelnykh Laserov [Thermooptics of Solid-state Lasers] (Mashinostroenie, Leningrad, 1986)

]:
σrr=αE1ν(1R20RΔT(t,r)rdr1r20rΔT(t,r)rdr),σϕϕ=αE1ν(1R20RΔT(t,r)rdr+1r20rΔT(t,r)rdrΔT(t,r)),σzz=αE1ν(2R20RΔT(t,r)rdrΔT(t,r)),
(2)
where α is the linear thermal expansion coefficient, ν is the Poisson’s coefficient, E is the modulus of elasticity, R is the rod radius, z, r, and ϕ are the cylindrical coordinates.

Due to the symmetry of the stress tensor and the isotropic property of glass, there exist two eigen waves in the rod polarized in the radial and tangential directions. The thermally induced phase incursions of these waves may be written in the form:
Δψr=2πLλ[dndTΔTαE(1ν){2C2ΔT+C1C2r20rΔTrdr}]+Δψ0,Δψϕ=2πLλ[dndTΔTαE(1ν){(C1+C2)ΔTC1C2r20rΔTrdr}]+Δψ0,
(3)
where Δψ0 = const, L is the rod length, λ is the radiation wave length, C1 = – (n3/2)π1111 and C2 = – (n3/2)π1122 are photoelastic constants.

The birefringence leads to depolarization, i.e. in the case of a linearly polarized wave incident on the active element, the output wave contains an orthogonally polarized component. The ratio of the intensity of this component to the total radiation intensity at the output of the active medium determines the depolarization factor:
Γ=sin2(2ϕ)sin2(δ(r)/2),
(4)
where δ = Δψϕ – Δψr. In practice, it is convenient to consider the aperture-integrated depolarization factor γ – that is the ratio of the energy of the beam polarized orthogonally to the incident radiation to the total beam energy at the output of the active medium.

Assuming that the rod is instantly heated by a pump pulse and that the boundary condition of the convective heat exchange with the environment at r = R is κdT/dr = − αcΔT (κ is the thermal conductivity coefficient and αc is the convective heat exchange coefficient), we can solve the equation for the thermal conductivity in the rod in the form of the series:
ΔT(t,r)=n=1Cnexp(t/τn)J0(qnr),
(5)
where τn=cTρ/(κqn2)is the decay time of the n-th term of the series; сT and ρ are the specific heat and density of the rod, respectively; and qn are the solutions of the equation qJ1(rR)/J0(qR) = αc/κ (J0, 1 are the zero- and first-order Bessel functions of the first kind). The coefficients Cn are determined by the initial temperature distribution in the rod and are proportional to the heat absorbed in the rod.

Equation (3)-(4) connect the temperature and the depolarization distributions. Thus, having measured the depolarization Γ(r,ϕ), we can determine the temperature distribution ΔT(r) and the thermally induced phase for the waves of both polarizations [25

25. A. A. Kuz’min, G. A. Luchinin, A. K. Poteomkin, A. A. Soloviev, E. A. Khazanov, and A. A. Shaykin, “Thermally induced distortions in neodymium glass rod amplifiers,” Quantum Electron. 39(10), 895–900 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. From the experimental viewpoint, it is much easier to measure depolarization than temperature or phase. Equation (5) simulates the temperature diffusion during rod cooling. Equation (3)(5) allow us to simulate the dynamics of thermally induced effects, i.e. the depolarization and the thermal lens.

3. Measurement of thermally induced distortions in large-aperture Nd:glass amplifiers

Nd phosphate glass rod laser amplifiers of large diameter were studied in experiments. Their key specifications are listed in Table 1

Table 1. Characteristics of the studied active elements

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. Eight pulsed gas-discharge lamps in laser heads with mirror reflectors were used for pumping. The pump energy of up to 36.5 kJ was derived from two 200 μF energy storage capacitors charge up to 13.5 kV [27

27. A. K. Poteomkin, K. A. Jurin, A. V. Kirsanov, E. A. Kopelovich, M. V. Kuznetsov, A. A. Kuzmin, F. A. Flat, E. A. Khazanov, and A. A. Shaykin, “Efficient large-aperture Nd:glass rod amplifiers,” Quantum Electron. 41, 487–491 (2011).

]. The active elements were cooled by running water, with the input temperature stabilized to an accuracy of ± 0.1 К. The measured transverse distributions of the gross small signal gain, G0, are depicted in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Distribution of small signal gain (G 0) over the aperture of active elements having diameter 6 cm (a), 8.5 cm (b), and 10 cm (c). The white curves designate cross-sections.
. Its average value <G0> over the cross-section and energy stored in population inversion Wstored are listed in Table 1. A principal optical scheme that was used to measure a small signal gain is shown in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 A principal scheme for measurement of a small signal gain.
. An Nd-YLF master oscillator produced 1 mJ of energy with a pulse duration of about 20 ns. The energy density distributions of the cold and amplified beams after the laser head were measured by a CCD camera. We used a photo diode to monitor the beam energy at the input of the rod.

Dynamics of the integral depolarization γ is shown in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Dynamics of the integral depolarization γ in an active element having a diameter of 6 cm (a), 8.5 cm (b), and 10 cm (c) in a sequence of pump pulses with a repetition rate of 1 pulse per 3 min. The asterisks designate the last pump pulse in the run.
. The vertical lines of the grid correspond to the pump pulse moments (one in three minutes). The asterisks on the horizontal axes designate the last shots in the runs. The plots demonstrate both, establishment of a steady-state mode and the depolarization relaxation after the final pump pulses of a sequence of pulses. Transverse distribution of the depolarization Γ is shown in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (Multimedia online) The depolarization distribution Γ(r,ϕ) in an active element having a diameter of (a) 6 cm (Media 1), (b) 8.5 cm (Media 2), and (c) 10 cm (Media 3); t is the time passed from the instant of the corresponding pump pulse (hours:minutes:seconds)
(Multimedia).

The increase of the integral depolarization after the final pump pulse in the runs (Fig. 3) may be attributed to the rod geometry. Consider an element having a diameter of 10 cm. On completion of the pump pulse sequence, the elastic stresses in the rod are such that the depolarization is close to zero in a rather large area near the active element surface [Fig. 4(c) (Media 3)]. As the rod is cooling down, the stresses reduce according to the Eq. (2). It leads to the decrease of the thermally induced phases Δψϕ and Δψr (Eq. (3). The difference δ between them reduces as well. As a consequence, the number of depolarization fluctuations in the radial direction decreases [this statement follows from the Eq. (4)], i.e., the region occupied by the depolarized radiation broadens, expanding up to the surface of the active element, which is accompanied by an increase of the integral polarization loss γ [Fig. 3(c)].

In our earlier work [25

25. A. A. Kuz’min, G. A. Luchinin, A. K. Poteomkin, A. A. Soloviev, E. A. Khazanov, and A. A. Shaykin, “Thermally induced distortions in neodymium glass rod amplifiers,” Quantum Electron. 39(10), 895–900 (2009). [CrossRef]

] we proposed a technique for calculating temperature distribution in an isotropic active medium by measuring depolarization Γ (see section 2). Using this technique we calculated the changes in the rod temperature distribution ΔT introduced by a single pump pulse (the temperature of the cooling liquid was taken as zero). An example of such calculations for a rod 6 cm in diameter is given in Fig. 5(a)
Fig. 5 The temperature distribution after a single pump pulse (a, solid line), a part of the temperature proportional to the population inversion (a, dash line), and the integral depolarization dynamics (b) in an active element 6 cm in diameter in a sequence of pump pulses with a repetition rate of 1 pulse per 3 min.
.

4. Discussion

Knowing the distribution of heat release in an active element produced by a single pump pulse one can calculate the temperature dynamics in the rod. The results of such computations, namely, radial temperature distributions in active elements in a steady state mode are presented in Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Temperature distribution in active elements having diameter 6 cm (a), 8.5 cm (b), and 10 cm (c) in a steady state mode. Blue curve – the temperature immediately before the pump pulse; red curve – the temperature immediately after the pump pulse.
. As the heat release at the rod periphery is higher than in the center [Fig. 5(a)], temperature gradients after the shot in the steady state are less than before the shot (Fig. 6). This explains the depolarization decrease after the shot [Fig. 5(b) and the insert in it], in spite of the additional heat release. Then, despite rod cooling, the depolarization increases up to a steady state value.

With known temperature distribution one can assess the maximum value of elastic stress in experiments. From the viewpoint of thermomechanical damage, most vulnerable is the surface of the active element as it has a relatively large number of defects (microcracks and so on) [17

17. A. V. Mezenov, L. N. Soms, and A. I. Stepanov, Termooptika Tverdotelnykh Laserov [Thermooptics of Solid-state Lasers] (Mashinostroenie, Leningrad, 1986)

]. For a cylindrical active element, the elastic stress on the surface is given [17

17. A. V. Mezenov, L. N. Soms, and A. I. Stepanov, Termooptika Tverdotelnykh Laserov [Thermooptics of Solid-state Lasers] (Mashinostroenie, Leningrad, 1986)

] by the formula σ = 21/2αE(<T> – T)/(1 – ν), where α is the coefficient of linear heat expansion, E is the modulus of elasticity, ν is the Poisson’s coefficient, and T and <T> are, respectively, the surface temperature and the average temperature in the rod. The maximum admissible value of elastic stress σlim is determined by heat resistance of glass ΔT = (<T> – T)lim. For the KGSS-1621 phosphate glass used in our study, ΔT = 40 K (according to [28

28. L. I. Avakyants, I. M. Buzhinsky, E. I. Koryagina, and V. F. Surkova, “Characteristics of laser glasses (reference survey),” Quantum Electron. 8(4), 423–434 (1978). [CrossRef]

], heat resistance of the GLS-22 glass that has a similar composition is 38 K). The magnitude of maximum elastic stress will then be estimated to be 45 MPa.

Table 2

Table 2. Investigated characteristics of the active elements

table-icon
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represents the calculated values of tensile stress σ in the rods and the focal lengths for the radially and tangentially polarized waves in a regime when the pump pulse repetition period was 3 minutes. It is clear from the Table 2 that the rods have a safety factor of at least 5 before damage. The regime with a repetition rate higher than 1 pulse per 3 minutes is possible but it may be risky. Operation at 15-20% of the damage threshold seems to be quite safe. Our experience shows that the active elements described in our paper can function in such a regime for a long time and none of them has been damaged.

On the basis of the calculated temperature distributions in the active elements, components of the thermally induced stress tensor were found (Eq. (2), which enabled assessing phase distortions of radiation in the amplifiers. The thermally induced phase incursions Δψr and Δψϕ are plotted in Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Phase distortions of radiation in active elements having diameter 6 cm (a), 8.5 cm (b), and 10 cm (c) in a steady state mode (immediately after the pump pulse).
for radially and tangentially polarized waves. When the rod temperature depends only on the longitudinal and radial coordinates, these waves propagate in a cylindrical active element without changes in polarization. Arbitrarily polarized radiation may be decomposed into these eigenmodes, and the quantity δ = Δψr – Δψϕ determines its depolarization at the output of the active element (see section 2), thus allowing depolarization dynamics in the active element to be calculated [Fig. 5(b)]. Comparison of the theoretical and experimental values of depolarization verifies correctness of the calculation of the temperature distribution in the active element after a single pump pulse and of the temperature dynamics and steady-state solution. Examples of such tests are given in Fig. 4 and Fig. 5(b). Clearly, the depolarization distributions over the beam aperture obtained in an experiment and in calculations are in a good agreement (Fig. 4), and the solid theoretical curve for the integral depolarization in Fig. 5(b) coincides well with the experimental points. The error up to 20% is normal for the experiments devoted to the measurement of the radiation intensity. Calculations of the temperature and thermally induced effects were tested in the other active elements (8.5 and 10 cm in diameter) analogously. The values of thermal diffusivity were used in calculations are given in Table 2. Other optical, elastic and photoelastic characteristics of KGSS-1621 glass were chosen equal to the corresponding values for GLS-22 glass which are described in [28

28. L. I. Avakyants, I. M. Buzhinsky, E. I. Koryagina, and V. F. Surkova, “Characteristics of laser glasses (reference survey),” Quantum Electron. 8(4), 423–434 (1978). [CrossRef]

].

Except for the small periphery region, the functions Δψr,ϕ(r) in Fig. 7 are well approximated by a parabola: Δψr,ϕ(r) ≈– πr2/(λFr, ϕ). Under this approximation we calculated focal distances of the thermal lens, Fr, ϕ, that are given in Table 2. One can see from the table that the parabolic part of the thermal lens is rather small and may be readily compensated. Astigmatism (Fr ≠ Fϕ) is readily compensated by means of a 90° polarization rotator located between two identical active elements. Higher-order aberrations are strongly peripheral and their influence greatly depends on laser beam diameter and shape.

Note that the phase distributions plotted in Fig. 7 were obtained assuming that by the instant of laser pulse passage the heat from the pump had been fully released in active medium. In practice, the arrival time of the amplified laser pulse must coincide with the instant of maximum population inversion, which is prior to the pump pulse termination. Besides, there exists quantum-defect-generated heat that is released after the radiation transition when the electrons from the lower laser level relax to the ground state. The real temperature distribution at the time of laser pulse arrival is between the limiting distributions depicted in Fig. 6. Thus, the calculated aberration of the thermal lens (Fig. 7) is the upper estimate of real aberrations of laser radiation. The above considerations have almost no impact on calculation of focal distances Fr and Fϕ.

5. Conclusion

The thermally induced effects in large-aperture (6, 8.5 and 10 cm in diameter) Nd:glass rod laser amplifiers have been investigated. It was found in experiments that the pump pulse repetition period may be much lower than the effective time of active element cooling (30 minutes for a rod having a diameter of 10 cm). In our experiments the tolerable repetition rate was found to be 1 pulse per 3 minutes. The path-length difference on the surface and along the axis of the active element was measured to be of order laser wavelength (1 µm). Strong polarization distortions of radiation should be compensated, whereas appearance of a thermal lens may be neglected. The obtained data demonstrate that it is possible to create an Nd:glass laser with a subkilojoule energy of nanosecond pulse and a repetition rate of 1 shot per 3 minutes.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the program of the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences “Extreme Light Fields: Sources and Applications”.

References and links

1.

M. D. Perry, D. Pennington, B. C. Stuart, G. Tietbohl, J. A. Britten, C. Brown, S. Herman, B. Golick, M. Kartz, J. Miller, H. T. Powell, M. Vergino, and V. Yanovsky, “Petawatt laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 24(3), 160–162 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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V. V. Lozhkarev, S. G. Garanin, R. R. Gerke, V. N. Ginzburg, E. V. Katin, A. V. Kirsanov, G. A. Luchinin, A. N. Mal'shakov, M. A. Martyanov, O. V. Palashov, A. K. Poteomkin, N. N. Rukavishnikov, A. M. Sergeev, S. A. Sukharev, E. A. Khazanov, G. I. Freidman, A. V. Charukhchev, A. A. Shaykin, and I. V. Yakovlev, “100-TW femtosecond laser based on parametric amplification,” JETP Lett. 82(4), 178–180 (2005). [CrossRef]

14.

V. V. Lozhkarev, G. I. Freidman, V. N. Ginzburg, E. V. Katin, E. A. Khazanov, A. V. Kirsanov, G. A. Luchinin, A. N. Mal’shakov, M. A. Martyanov, O. V. Palashov, A. K. Poteomkin, A. M. Sergeev, A. A. Shaykin, I. V. Yakovlev, S. G. Garanin, S. A. Sukharev, N. N. Rukavishnikov, A. V. Charukhchev, R. R. Gerke, and V. E. Yashin, “200 TW 45 fs laser based on optical parametric chirped pulse amplification,” Opt. Express 14(1), 446–454 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

O. V. Chekhlov, J. L. Collier, I. N. Ross, P. K. Bates, M. Notley, C. Hernandez-Gomez, W. Shaikh, C. N. Danson, D. Neely, P. Matousek, S. Hancock, and L. Cardoso, “35 J broadband femtosecond optical parametric chirped pulse amplification system,” Opt. Lett. 31(24), 3665–3667 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

W. Koechner, Solid State Laser Engineering (Springer, 2006)

17.

A. V. Mezenov, L. N. Soms, and A. I. Stepanov, Termooptika Tverdotelnykh Laserov [Thermooptics of Solid-state Lasers] (Mashinostroenie, Leningrad, 1986)

18.

Yu. A. Ananiev and N. I. Grishmanova, “Deformation of active elements and thermo-optical constants of Nd-glass,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 12(4), 668–691 (1970).

19.

W. Koechner and D. K. Rice, “Effect of birefringence on the performance of linearly polarized YAG:Nd lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 6(9), 557–566 (1970). [CrossRef]

20.

M. K. Chun and J. T. Bischoff, “Thermal transient effects in optically pumped repetitively pulsed lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 7(5), 200–202 (1971). [CrossRef]

21.

A. A. Mak, V. M. Mit’kin, and L. N. Soms, “On thermo-optical properties of activated glasses,” Optomechan. Ind. 9, 65–66 (1971).

22.

I. B. Vitrishchak, L. N. Soms, and A. A. Tarasov, “On eigenpolarization of a resonator with thermally deformed active element,” J. Tech. Phys. XLIV(5), 1055–1062 (1974).

23.

J. S. Uppal, P. D. Gupta, and D. D. Bhawalkar, “Study of thermally induced active birefringence in Nd:glass laser rods,” J. Appl. Phys. 54(11), 6615–6619 (1983). [CrossRef]

24.

N. Gopi, T. P. S. Nathan, and B. K. Sinha, “Experimental studies of transient, thermal depolarization in a Nd:glass laser rod,” Appl. Opt. 29(15), 2259–2265 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

A. A. Kuz’min, G. A. Luchinin, A. K. Poteomkin, A. A. Soloviev, E. A. Khazanov, and A. A. Shaykin, “Thermally induced distortions in neodymium glass rod amplifiers,” Quantum Electron. 39(10), 895–900 (2009). [CrossRef]

26.

J. Bunkenberg, J. Boles, D. C. Brown, J. Eastman, J. Hoose, R. Hopkins, L. Iwan, S. D. Jacobs, J. H. Kelly, S. Kumpan, S. Letzring, D. Lonobile, L. D. Lund, G. Mourou, S. Refermat, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and K. Walsh, “The omega high-power phosphate-glass system: design and performance,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17(9), 1620–1628 (1981). [CrossRef]

27.

A. K. Poteomkin, K. A. Jurin, A. V. Kirsanov, E. A. Kopelovich, M. V. Kuznetsov, A. A. Kuzmin, F. A. Flat, E. A. Khazanov, and A. A. Shaykin, “Efficient large-aperture Nd:glass rod amplifiers,” Quantum Electron. 41, 487–491 (2011).

28.

L. I. Avakyants, I. M. Buzhinsky, E. I. Koryagina, and V. F. Surkova, “Characteristics of laser glasses (reference survey),” Quantum Electron. 8(4), 423–434 (1978). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(140.3530) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, neodymium
(140.6810) Lasers and laser optics : Thermal effects

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: May 12, 2011
Revised Manuscript: June 10, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: June 21, 2011
Published: July 11, 2011

Citation
A. A. Kuzmin, E. A. Khazanov, and A. A. Shaykin, "Large-aperture Nd:glass laser amplifiers with high pulse repetition rate," Opt. Express 19, 14223-14232 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-15-14223


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References

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  13. V. V. Lozhkarev, S. G. Garanin, R. R. Gerke, V. N. Ginzburg, E. V. Katin, A. V. Kirsanov, G. A. Luchinin, A. N. Mal'shakov, M. A. Martyanov, O. V. Palashov, A. K. Poteomkin, N. N. Rukavishnikov, A. M. Sergeev, S. A. Sukharev, E. A. Khazanov, G. I. Freidman, A. V. Charukhchev, A. A. Shaykin, and I. V. Yakovlev, “100-TW femtosecond laser based on parametric amplification,” JETP Lett. 82(4), 178–180 (2005). [CrossRef]
  14. V. V. Lozhkarev, G. I. Freidman, V. N. Ginzburg, E. V. Katin, E. A. Khazanov, A. V. Kirsanov, G. A. Luchinin, A. N. Mal’shakov, M. A. Martyanov, O. V. Palashov, A. K. Poteomkin, A. M. Sergeev, A. A. Shaykin, I. V. Yakovlev, S. G. Garanin, S. A. Sukharev, N. N. Rukavishnikov, A. V. Charukhchev, R. R. Gerke, and V. E. Yashin, “200 TW 45 fs laser based on optical parametric chirped pulse amplification,” Opt. Express 14(1), 446–454 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. O. V. Chekhlov, J. L. Collier, I. N. Ross, P. K. Bates, M. Notley, C. Hernandez-Gomez, W. Shaikh, C. N. Danson, D. Neely, P. Matousek, S. Hancock, and L. Cardoso, “35 J broadband femtosecond optical parametric chirped pulse amplification system,” Opt. Lett. 31(24), 3665–3667 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. W. Koechner, Solid State Laser Engineering (Springer, 2006)
  17. A. V. Mezenov, L. N. Soms, and A. I. Stepanov, Termooptika Tverdotelnykh Laserov [Thermooptics of Solid-state Lasers] (Mashinostroenie, Leningrad, 1986)
  18. Yu. A. Ananiev and N. I. Grishmanova, “Deformation of active elements and thermo-optical constants of Nd-glass,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 12(4), 668–691 (1970).
  19. W. Koechner and D. K. Rice, “Effect of birefringence on the performance of linearly polarized YAG:Nd lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 6(9), 557–566 (1970). [CrossRef]
  20. M. K. Chun and J. T. Bischoff, “Thermal transient effects in optically pumped repetitively pulsed lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 7(5), 200–202 (1971). [CrossRef]
  21. A. A. Mak, V. M. Mit’kin, and L. N. Soms, “On thermo-optical properties of activated glasses,” Optomechan. Ind. 9, 65–66 (1971).
  22. I. B. Vitrishchak, L. N. Soms, and A. A. Tarasov, “On eigenpolarization of a resonator with thermally deformed active element,” J. Tech. Phys. XLIV(5), 1055–1062 (1974).
  23. J. S. Uppal, P. D. Gupta, and D. D. Bhawalkar, “Study of thermally induced active birefringence in Nd:glass laser rods,” J. Appl. Phys. 54(11), 6615–6619 (1983). [CrossRef]
  24. N. Gopi, T. P. S. Nathan, and B. K. Sinha, “Experimental studies of transient, thermal depolarization in a Nd:glass laser rod,” Appl. Opt. 29(15), 2259–2265 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. A. A. Kuz’min, G. A. Luchinin, A. K. Poteomkin, A. A. Soloviev, E. A. Khazanov, and A. A. Shaykin, “Thermally induced distortions in neodymium glass rod amplifiers,” Quantum Electron. 39(10), 895–900 (2009). [CrossRef]
  26. J. Bunkenberg, J. Boles, D. C. Brown, J. Eastman, J. Hoose, R. Hopkins, L. Iwan, S. D. Jacobs, J. H. Kelly, S. Kumpan, S. Letzring, D. Lonobile, L. D. Lund, G. Mourou, S. Refermat, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and K. Walsh, “The omega high-power phosphate-glass system: design and performance,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17(9), 1620–1628 (1981). [CrossRef]
  27. A. K. Poteomkin, K. A. Jurin, A. V. Kirsanov, E. A. Kopelovich, M. V. Kuznetsov, A. A. Kuzmin, F. A. Flat, E. A. Khazanov, and A. A. Shaykin, “Efficient large-aperture Nd:glass rod amplifiers,” Quantum Electron. 41, 487–491 (2011).
  28. L. I. Avakyants, I. M. Buzhinsky, E. I. Koryagina, and V. F. Surkova, “Characteristics of laser glasses (reference survey),” Quantum Electron. 8(4), 423–434 (1978). [CrossRef]

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