OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 15 — Jul. 18, 2011
  • pp: 14518–14525
« Show journal navigation

Timing jitter optimization of mode-locked Yb-fiber lasers toward the attosecond regime

Youjian Song, Chur Kim, Kwangyun Jung, Hyoji Kim, and Jungwon Kim  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 15, pp. 14518-14525 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.014518


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1302 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We demonstrate ultra-low timing jitter optical pulse trains from free-running, 80 MHz repetition rate, mode-locked Yb-fiber lasers. Timing jitter of various mode-locking conditions at close-to-zero intracavity dispersion (–0.004 to +0.002 ps2 range at 1040 nm center wavelength) is characterized using a sub-20-attosecond-resolution balanced optical cross-correlation method. The measured lowest rms timing jitter is 175 attoseconds when integrated from 10 kHz to 40 MHz (Nyquist frequency) offset frequency range, which corresponds to the record-low timing jitter from free-running mode-locked fiber lasers so far. We also experimentally found the mode-locking conditions of fiber lasers where both ultra-low timing jitter and relative intensity noise can be achieved.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

Ultra-low timing jitter optical pulse trains from femtosecond mode-locked lasers enable extremely high timing-precision scientific and industrial applications such as long-range synchronization of accelerators, free-electron lasers (FELs) [1

1. J. Kim, J. A. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Drift-free femtosecond timing synchronization of remote optical and microwave sources,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 733–736 (2008). [CrossRef]

] and phased-array antennas [2

2. J.-F. Cliché and B. Shillue, “Precision timing control for radioastronomy: maintaining femtosecond synchronization in the Atacama Large Millimeter Array,” IEEE Contr. Syst. Mag. 26(1), 19–26 (2006). [CrossRef]

], precise frequency comb generation [3

3. N. R. Newbury and W. C. Swann, “Low-noise fiber-laser frequency combs,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(8), 1756–1770 (2007). [CrossRef]

], high-resolution optical sampling and analog-to-digital converters (ADC) [4

4. G. C. Valley, “Photonic analog-to-digital converters,” Opt. Express 15(5), 1955–1982 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], low-phase-noise microwave/RF signal generation [5

5. J. Millo, R. Boudot, M. Lours, P. Y. Bourgeois, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, Y. Kersalé, and G. Santarelli, “Ultra-low-noise microwave extraction from fiber-based optical frequency comb,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3707–3709 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7

7. T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” arXiv:1101.3613v3 (2011).

], and coherent synthesis of optical pulses from multiple lasers [8

8. R. K. Shelton, L. S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent optical pulse synthesis from separate femtosecond lasers,” Science 293(5533), 1286–1289 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,9

9. T. R. Schibli, O. Kuzucu, J.-W. Kim, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, F. X. Kaertner, V. Scheuer, and G. Angelow, “Toward single-cycle laser systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(4), 990–1001 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. Highly concentrated photon numbers in an ultrashort (e.g., <100 fs) laser pulse make the pulse temporal position robust against perturbations by photon noise, and it has been theoretically predicted that mode-locked lasers can achieve timing jitter well below a femtosecond [10

10. H. A. Haus and A. Mecozzi, “Noise of mode-locked lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(3), 983–996 (1993). [CrossRef]

12

12. J. Kim and F. X. Kärtner, “Attosecond-precision ultrafast photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(3), 432–456 (2010). [CrossRef]

].

Finding proper mode-locked lasers and mode-locking conditions that achieve minimal timing jitter is important for further advances in these high-precision applications. In doing so, it first requires the accurate timing jitter characterization of mode-locked lasers. Common timing jitter measurement methods based on direct photodetection of the pulse train and phase noise measurement of a selected RF harmonic [13

13. R. P. Scott, C. Langrock, and B. H. Kolner, “High-dynamic-range laser amplitude and phase noise measurement techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 641–655 (2001). [CrossRef]

] have limited dynamic range, which results in ~10 fs measurement resolution. To overcome this resolution limitation, a recently demonstrated balanced optical cross-correlation (BOC) method [14

14. J. Kim, J. Chen, J. Cox, and F. X. Kärtner, “Attosecond-resolution timing jitter characterization of free-running mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32(24), 3519–3521 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] can be used. The BOC method is an all-optical timing jitter characterization method that enables extremely high timing resolution (e.g., sub-20 as over the Nyquist frequency in this work) with minimal influence of intensity noise. The BOC method has recently been employed for timing jitter measurement of mode-locked solid-state and fiber lasers. Recent timing jitter measurements of solid-state Cr:LiSAF and Ti:sapphire lasers have shown 156 as and 20 as rms timing jitter, respectively, when integrated from 10 kHz to 10 MHz offset frequency range [15

15. U. Demirbas, A. Benedick, A. Sennaroglu, D. Li, J. Kim, J. G. Fujimoto, and F. X. Kärtner, “Attosecond resolution timing jitter characterization of diode pumped femtosecond Cr:LiSAF lasers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics 2010 (Optical Society of America, 2010), Paper CTuDD6.

,16

16. A. Benedick, U. Demirbas, D. Li, J. G. Fujimoto, and F. X. Kaertner, “Attosecond Ti:sapphire pulse train phase noise,” in CLEO:2011Laser Applications to Photonic Applications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper CFK4. [PubMed]

].

Femtosecond mode-locked fiber lasers [17

17. M. E. Fermann and I. Hartl, “Ultrafast Fiber Laser Technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 191–206 (2009). [CrossRef]

] are attractive as ultralow-jitter signal sources because they are more compact, more robust, easier to build and operate, and lower-cost laser systems compared to solid-state crystal lasers. However, the fiber lasers are more challenging to optimize the noise performance than the solid-state lasers due to larger amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise, complicated pulse evolution dynamics in long fiber, limited pulse energy due to nonlinearities in fiber, and relatively lower cavity Q-factor. As a result, the best timing jitter performance demonstrated from free-running, passively mode-locked Er and Yb fiber lasers has been limited to the order of ~1 fs level so far [18

18. J. A. Cox, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, J. Kim, and F. X. Kärtner, “Complete characterization of quantum-limited timing jitter in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 35(20), 3522–3524 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20

20. Y. Song, K. Jung, and J. Kim, “Impact of pulse dynamics on timing jitter in mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 36(10), 1761–1763 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

2. Experimental setup

3. Timing jitter characterization at close-to-zero intracavity dispersion

The timing jitter spectra at various mode-locking conditions in the stretched-pulse regime are characterized using the BOC method. The typical timing jitter spectra and optical spectra from −0.004 ps2 to +0.001 ps2 range are plotted in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Typical timing jitter spectra and (b) the corresponding optical spectra measured at different mode-locking conditions from a stretched-pulse Yb-fiber laser.
. For comparison, the jitter and optical spectrum at +0.003 ps2 measured in [20

20. Y. Song, K. Jung, and J. Kim, “Impact of pulse dynamics on timing jitter in mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 36(10), 1761–1763 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] is also shown. The timing jitter spectra follow 1/f2 slope from 10 kHz to 1 MHz offset frequency, which indicates the random walk nature directly originated from the ASE noise-induced timing jitter. Interestingly, when the intracavity dispersion approaches zero, the jitter spectral density can be 18 dB lower than the same stretched-pulse laser working at +0.003 ps2 intracavity dispersion.

The integrated timing jitter from 10 kHz to 10 MHz versus intracavity dispersion for different laser mode-locking conditions is plotted in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The rms timing jitter (integrated from 10 kHz to 10 MHz offset frequency) versus intracavity dispersion of different mode-locking conditions. Bottom is the calculated chirp parameter versus intracavity dispersion.
. The lowest integrated timing jitter can be achieved at zero intracavity dispersion. There is asymmetric increase of integrated timing jitter versus intracavity dispersion, which is due to different chirp parameter for positive and negative dispersion. In stretched-pulse fiber lasers, the Kerr effect and dispersion imbalance results in intracavity pulse chirping. The chirp parameter satisfies the following equation according to S. Namiki and H. A. Haus’s analytical theory [21

21. S. Namiki and H. A. Haus, “Noise of the stretched pulse fiber laser: part I—theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(5), 649–659 (1997). [CrossRef]

]:

β=tan{12[arg(αj)arg(gΩg2+jD)]}
(1)

where g is laser amplitude gain, Ωg is HWHM of gain bandwidth of laser medium, D is intracavity dispersion, and α is proportionality factor that depends on the orientation of wave plates and polarizers. For our Yb-fiber lasers, Ωg is 3.9 × 1013 rad/s; g is determined by compensating the cavity loss, which is calculated as ~1; α is between 0.1 and 0.3 for typical NPE mode-locking fiber lasers [21

21. S. Namiki and H. A. Haus, “Noise of the stretched pulse fiber laser: part I—theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(5), 649–659 (1997). [CrossRef]

] and is set to 0.2 in this paper. The calculated chirp parameter versus cavity dispersion is also plotted in Fig. 3. The chirp parameter is nearly zero for negative dispersion, and dramatically increases in magnitude at positive dispersion as shown in Fig. 3. The larger absolute value of chirp parameter results in a longer average intracavity pulse duration, which leads to larger timing jitter. This explains the rapid increase of timing jitter at positive intracavity dispersion. Note that the chirp parameter is non-zero at zero intracavity dispersion. This explains the reason why the integrated timing jitter at zero dispersion is not much reduced compared to the jitter at the slightly negative dispersion (e.g., at −0.004 ps2 in Fig. 3) even though the indirectly-coupled timing jitter is minimized at zero cavity dispersion.

The timing jitter spectral density and the equivalent single-sideband (SSB) phase noise at 10-GHz carrier frequency of the lowest integrated timing jitter condition is shown in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Top: The best timing jitter spectral density measurement result and the equivalent single-sideband (SSB) phase noise at 10-GHz carrier frequency of the Yb-fiber laser operating at zero intracavity dispersion. The RIN-induced timing jitter projected from the measured RIN is also plotted. Bottom: The integrated timing jitter is 175 as [10 kHz – 40 MHz]. Inset: optical spectra of the two Yb-fiber lasers used.
. The net cavity dispersion is 0.000(±0.001) ps2. The inset shows the optical spectra of two lasers with FWHM of ~55 nm. The shot noise level (~10−12 fs2/Hz) is lower than the measured results over the entire Nyquist frequency, which indicates that the measurement is not limited by the BOC resolution. The rms timing jitter integrated from 10 kHz to 40 MHz (Nyquist frequency) offset frequency is 175 as (shown in the bottom of Fig. 4). To our knowledge, this is the lowest high-frequency timing jitter performance measured from mode-locked fiber lasers. The flat jitter spectrum above 7 MHz offset frequency can be explained by the RIN-coupled timing jitter originated from the Kramers-Krönig relation [11

11. R. Paschotta, “Noise of mode-locked lasers (part II): timing jitter and other fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. B 79(2), 163–173 (2004). [CrossRef]

]: the resulting timing jitter spectral density can be expressed by S Δt 2 (f) = RIN(f)/(2πΔfg)2, where Δfg is the gain bandwidth. By using the measured laser RIN of ~10−14/Hz and the gain bandwidth of 45 nm, we can predict the RIN-induced timing jitter spectral density to be ~2 × 10−12 fs2/Hz level, which agrees fairly well with the measured result. For comparison, the RIN-induced timing jitter projected from the measured RIN is also plotted in Fig. 4.

4. Comparison of timing jitter and RIN performances at close-to-zero cavity dispersion

As shown in Fig. 3, mode-locking conditions at the negative dispersion side of the close-to-zero cavity dispersion can support sub-500 as timing jitter. Several mode-locking conditions can achieve ~200 as timing jitter performance besides the 175 as integrated timing jitter at the zero cavity dispersion. At a fixed cavity dispersion, different mode-locking conditions can have more than twice difference in the integrated timing jitter value. In this section, we compare two interesting cases for mode-locking condition dependent timing jitter.

The timing jitter spectra measured at −0.004 ps2 and 0.000 ps2 cavity dispersion conditions are plotted in Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The comparison of best achievable timing jitter at 0 ps2 (blue down-triangle and blue curves) and −0.004 ps2 (red up-triangle and red curves) intracavity dispersion. Even the dispersion and optical spectra are different, the jitter spectra and integrated jitter are similar.
. The corresponding integrated timing jitter is marked as red up-triangle (at −0.004 ps2) and blue down-triangle (at 0.000 ps2) in the upper inset of Fig. 5. The FWHM of the output optical spectrum at the zero cavity dispersion is more than twice wider than that of the negative cavity dispersion condition, as shown in the lower inset of Fig. 5. However, the BOC measurement shows that the timing jitter spectra and the resulting integrated jitter (175 as for 0.000 ps2 and 210 as for −0.004 ps2) are very similar even though the dispersion condition and output optical spectra are quite different. This result shows that it is not a necessary condition to operate the fiber laser at the exact zero dispersion in order to achieve ~200 as timing jitter. In the negative cavity dispersion, the reduced chirp parameter enables a low timing jitter performance, even though its indirectly-coupled timing jitter is larger than that of the zero cavity dispersion condition. When we increase the grating pair separation further to get a larger negative cavity dispersion (<-0.004 ps2), the timing jitter increases again because the average pulse duration now becomes significantly longer.

When the cavity dispersion of mode-locked fiber lasers approaches zero, the mode-locking condition can be quite different by changing the NPE strength and finely tuning the grating pair separation. As a result, not all the mode-locking conditions guarantee a sub-200 as timing jitter. For some mode-locking conditions, even when the RF spectrum, optical spectrum, and extra-cavity dechirped pulsewidth are similar, the jitter spectrum can differ much. This is the case as shown by the green up-triangle (at −0.001 ps2) and the blue down-triangle (at 0.000 ps2) of the upper inset in Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The comparison of timing jitter with different mode-locking conditions. Even the dispersion and optical spectra are similar, the jitter spectra and integrated jitter can be significantly different.
. The jitter spectra and optical spectra of these two mode-locking conditions are shown in main part and the lower inset of Fig. 6, respectively. Even the optical spectra look very similar with almost identical dispersion conditions, the integrated timing jitter at −0.001 ps2 in a non-optimal laser condition (390 as) is more than twice larger than that of the best timing jitter at 0.000 ps2 (175 as). This also shows the usefulness of the BOC method that it can serve as an ultra-sensitive timing jitter status monitor, which is necessary for maintaining the fiber lasers in the minimum jitter condition for noise-sensitive applications.

Recently, the RIN of mode-locked fiber lasers has been discussed intensively [24

24. L. Nugent-Glandorf, T. A. Johnson, Y. Kobayashi, and S. A. Diddams, “Impact of dispersion on amplitude and frequency noise in a Yb-fiber laser comb,” Opt. Lett. 36(9), 1578–1580 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27

27. K. Wu, J. H. Wong, P. Shum, S. Fu, C. Ouyang, H. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, A. I. Chernov, E. D. Obraztsova, and J. Chen, “Nonlinear coupling of relative intensity noise from pump to a fiber ring laser mode-locked with carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16663–16670 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In this work, in addition to the timing jitter characterization, we also measured the RIN of the above-mentioned mode-locking conditions. Figure 7
Fig. 7 RIN of the mode-locked Yb-fiber laser with different intracavity dispersion.
shows the measured RIN spectra of various mode-locking conditions of the Yb-fiber laser. The RIN data measured at −0.021 ps2 cavity dispersion corresponds to the soliton regime. The other data are measured in the stretched-pulse regime. The RIN of mode-locked fiber lasers obtained at zero cavity dispersion and negative cavity dispersion is lower than that of positive cavity dispersion in the high offset frequency (>30 kHz), which is similar to the timing jitter measurement results shown in Fig. 3. The lowest RIN can be obtained at close-to-zero intracavity dispersion conditions (−0.004 ps2 to 0 ps2 range), which is consistent with the recent study in [24

24. L. Nugent-Glandorf, T. A. Johnson, Y. Kobayashi, and S. A. Diddams, “Impact of dispersion on amplitude and frequency noise in a Yb-fiber laser comb,” Opt. Lett. 36(9), 1578–1580 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The lower RIN at slightly negative dispersion might be due to the soliton-like pulse formation effect in negative dispersion as explained in [28

28. J. Chen, J. W. Sickler, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High repetition rate, low jitter, low intensity noise, fundamentally mode-locked 167 fs soliton Er-fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 32(11), 1566–1568 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

5. Conclusion and discussion

In this paper, we characterized the high-frequency timing jitter and RIN of free-running, stretched-pulse Yb-fiber lasers operating at close-to-zero intracavity dispersion. The measured lowest rms timing jitter is 175 as when integrated from 10 kHz to 40 MHz offset frequency. To our knowledge, this result corresponds to the lowest high-frequency timing jitter from mode-locked fiber lasers so far. This result demonstrates that standard free-running, NPE-based fiber lasers can achieve timing jitter (and equivalent phase noise) performance comparable to solid-state crystal lasers [15

15. U. Demirbas, A. Benedick, A. Sennaroglu, D. Li, J. Kim, J. G. Fujimoto, and F. X. Kärtner, “Attosecond resolution timing jitter characterization of diode pumped femtosecond Cr:LiSAF lasers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics 2010 (Optical Society of America, 2010), Paper CTuDD6.

,16

16. A. Benedick, U. Demirbas, D. Li, J. G. Fujimoto, and F. X. Kaertner, “Attosecond Ti:sapphire pulse train phase noise,” in CLEO:2011Laser Applications to Photonic Applications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper CFK4. [PubMed]

] and the best commercial microwave sources (such as sapphire-loaded cavity oscillators) with much reduced cost and engineering complexity. Another interesting finding is that both the lowest timing jitter and RIN can be obtained in a narrow range of close-to-zero dispersion (in this work, from −0.004 ps2 to 0 ps2), which is fairly consistent with the recent study on the optimization of fceo noise at zero dispersion [24

24. L. Nugent-Glandorf, T. A. Johnson, Y. Kobayashi, and S. A. Diddams, “Impact of dispersion on amplitude and frequency noise in a Yb-fiber laser comb,” Opt. Lett. 36(9), 1578–1580 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Since choosing the right mode-locking condition at a given intracavity dispersion is also important for the optimization of timing jitter, the BOC method can be used as an ultra-sensitive, real-time jitter monitor to find and maintain the best performance. Note that the Yb-fiber laser used in this work is not fully optimized for the lowest possible timing jitter operation because of the low cavity Q (four bounces on grating pair in one round-trip contribute 85% power loss). Higher Q fiber lasers (e.g., all-fiber implementation) operating at close-to-zero cavity dispersion are expected to have timing jitter well below 100 as in the near future.

Acknowledgment

This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MEST, 2010-0003974).

References and links

1.

J. Kim, J. A. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Drift-free femtosecond timing synchronization of remote optical and microwave sources,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 733–736 (2008). [CrossRef]

2.

J.-F. Cliché and B. Shillue, “Precision timing control for radioastronomy: maintaining femtosecond synchronization in the Atacama Large Millimeter Array,” IEEE Contr. Syst. Mag. 26(1), 19–26 (2006). [CrossRef]

3.

N. R. Newbury and W. C. Swann, “Low-noise fiber-laser frequency combs,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(8), 1756–1770 (2007). [CrossRef]

4.

G. C. Valley, “Photonic analog-to-digital converters,” Opt. Express 15(5), 1955–1982 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

J. Millo, R. Boudot, M. Lours, P. Y. Bourgeois, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, Y. Kersalé, and G. Santarelli, “Ultra-low-noise microwave extraction from fiber-based optical frequency comb,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3707–3709 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

J. Kim and F. X. Kärtner, “Microwave signal extraction from femtosecond mode-locked lasers with attosecond relative timing drift,” Opt. Lett. 35(12), 2022–2024 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” arXiv:1101.3613v3 (2011).

8.

R. K. Shelton, L. S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent optical pulse synthesis from separate femtosecond lasers,” Science 293(5533), 1286–1289 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

T. R. Schibli, O. Kuzucu, J.-W. Kim, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, F. X. Kaertner, V. Scheuer, and G. Angelow, “Toward single-cycle laser systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(4), 990–1001 (2003). [CrossRef]

10.

H. A. Haus and A. Mecozzi, “Noise of mode-locked lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(3), 983–996 (1993). [CrossRef]

11.

R. Paschotta, “Noise of mode-locked lasers (part II): timing jitter and other fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. B 79(2), 163–173 (2004). [CrossRef]

12.

J. Kim and F. X. Kärtner, “Attosecond-precision ultrafast photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(3), 432–456 (2010). [CrossRef]

13.

R. P. Scott, C. Langrock, and B. H. Kolner, “High-dynamic-range laser amplitude and phase noise measurement techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 641–655 (2001). [CrossRef]

14.

J. Kim, J. Chen, J. Cox, and F. X. Kärtner, “Attosecond-resolution timing jitter characterization of free-running mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32(24), 3519–3521 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

U. Demirbas, A. Benedick, A. Sennaroglu, D. Li, J. Kim, J. G. Fujimoto, and F. X. Kärtner, “Attosecond resolution timing jitter characterization of diode pumped femtosecond Cr:LiSAF lasers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics 2010 (Optical Society of America, 2010), Paper CTuDD6.

16.

A. Benedick, U. Demirbas, D. Li, J. G. Fujimoto, and F. X. Kaertner, “Attosecond Ti:sapphire pulse train phase noise,” in CLEO:2011Laser Applications to Photonic Applications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper CFK4. [PubMed]

17.

M. E. Fermann and I. Hartl, “Ultrafast Fiber Laser Technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 191–206 (2009). [CrossRef]

18.

J. A. Cox, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, J. Kim, and F. X. Kärtner, “Complete characterization of quantum-limited timing jitter in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 35(20), 3522–3524 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

T. K. Kim, Y. Song, K. Jung, C. H. Nam, and J. Kim, “Sub-femtosecond timing jitter optical pulse trains from mode-locked Er-fiber lasers,” in CLEO:2011Laser Applications to Photonic Applications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper CTuA5. [PubMed]

20.

Y. Song, K. Jung, and J. Kim, “Impact of pulse dynamics on timing jitter in mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 36(10), 1761–1763 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

S. Namiki and H. A. Haus, “Noise of the stretched pulse fiber laser: part I—theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(5), 649–659 (1997). [CrossRef]

22.

R. Paschotta, “Timing jitter and phase noiseof mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5041–5054 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

W. H. Knox, “In situ measurement of complete intracavity dispersion in an operating Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 17(7), 514–516 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

L. Nugent-Glandorf, T. A. Johnson, Y. Kobayashi, and S. A. Diddams, “Impact of dispersion on amplitude and frequency noise in a Yb-fiber laser comb,” Opt. Lett. 36(9), 1578–1580 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

I. L. Budunoğlu, C. Ulgüdür, B. Oktem, and F. Ö. Ilday, “Intensity noise of mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2516–2518 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Broadband phase noise suppression in a Yb-fiber frequency comb,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 743–745 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27.

K. Wu, J. H. Wong, P. Shum, S. Fu, C. Ouyang, H. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, A. I. Chernov, E. D. Obraztsova, and J. Chen, “Nonlinear coupling of relative intensity noise from pump to a fiber ring laser mode-locked with carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16663–16670 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

28.

J. Chen, J. W. Sickler, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High repetition rate, low jitter, low intensity noise, fundamentally mode-locked 167 fs soliton Er-fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 32(11), 1566–1568 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(120.0120) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology
(270.2500) Quantum optics : Fluctuations, relaxations, and noise
(320.7090) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast lasers
(060.3510) Fiber optics and optical communications : Lasers, fiber

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: June 2, 2011
Revised Manuscript: July 7, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: July 7, 2011
Published: July 13, 2011

Citation
Youjian Song, Chur Kim, Kwangyun Jung, Hyoji Kim, and Jungwon Kim, "Timing jitter optimization of mode-locked Yb-fiber lasers toward the attosecond regime," Opt. Express 19, 14518-14525 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-15-14518


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. J. Kim, J. A. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Drift-free femtosecond timing synchronization of remote optical and microwave sources,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 733–736 (2008). [CrossRef]
  2. J.-F. Cliché and B. Shillue, “Precision timing control for radioastronomy: maintaining femtosecond synchronization in the Atacama Large Millimeter Array,” IEEE Contr. Syst. Mag. 26(1), 19–26 (2006). [CrossRef]
  3. N. R. Newbury and W. C. Swann, “Low-noise fiber-laser frequency combs,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(8), 1756–1770 (2007). [CrossRef]
  4. G. C. Valley, “Photonic analog-to-digital converters,” Opt. Express 15(5), 1955–1982 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Millo, R. Boudot, M. Lours, P. Y. Bourgeois, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, Y. Kersalé, and G. Santarelli, “Ultra-low-noise microwave extraction from fiber-based optical frequency comb,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3707–3709 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Kim and F. X. Kärtner, “Microwave signal extraction from femtosecond mode-locked lasers with attosecond relative timing drift,” Opt. Lett. 35(12), 2022–2024 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” arXiv:1101.3613v3 (2011).
  8. R. K. Shelton, L. S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent optical pulse synthesis from separate femtosecond lasers,” Science 293(5533), 1286–1289 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. R. Schibli, O. Kuzucu, J.-W. Kim, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, F. X. Kaertner, V. Scheuer, and G. Angelow, “Toward single-cycle laser systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(4), 990–1001 (2003). [CrossRef]
  10. H. A. Haus and A. Mecozzi, “Noise of mode-locked lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(3), 983–996 (1993). [CrossRef]
  11. R. Paschotta, “Noise of mode-locked lasers (part II): timing jitter and other fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. B 79(2), 163–173 (2004). [CrossRef]
  12. J. Kim and F. X. Kärtner, “Attosecond-precision ultrafast photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(3), 432–456 (2010). [CrossRef]
  13. R. P. Scott, C. Langrock, and B. H. Kolner, “High-dynamic-range laser amplitude and phase noise measurement techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 641–655 (2001). [CrossRef]
  14. J. Kim, J. Chen, J. Cox, and F. X. Kärtner, “Attosecond-resolution timing jitter characterization of free-running mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32(24), 3519–3521 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. U. Demirbas, A. Benedick, A. Sennaroglu, D. Li, J. Kim, J. G. Fujimoto, and F. X. Kärtner, “Attosecond resolution timing jitter characterization of diode pumped femtosecond Cr:LiSAF lasers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics 2010 (Optical Society of America, 2010), Paper CTuDD6.
  16. A. Benedick, U. Demirbas, D. Li, J. G. Fujimoto, and F. X. Kaertner, “Attosecond Ti:sapphire pulse train phase noise,” in CLEO:2011—Laser Applications to Photonic Applications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper CFK4. [PubMed]
  17. M. E. Fermann and I. Hartl, “Ultrafast Fiber Laser Technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 191–206 (2009). [CrossRef]
  18. J. A. Cox, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, J. Kim, and F. X. Kärtner, “Complete characterization of quantum-limited timing jitter in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 35(20), 3522–3524 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. T. K. Kim, Y. Song, K. Jung, C. H. Nam, and J. Kim, “Sub-femtosecond timing jitter optical pulse trains from mode-locked Er-fiber lasers,” in CLEO:2011—Laser Applications to Photonic Applications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper CTuA5. [PubMed]
  20. Y. Song, K. Jung, and J. Kim, “Impact of pulse dynamics on timing jitter in mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 36(10), 1761–1763 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. S. Namiki and H. A. Haus, “Noise of the stretched pulse fiber laser: part I—theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(5), 649–659 (1997). [CrossRef]
  22. R. Paschotta, “Timing jitter and phase noiseof mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5041–5054 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. W. H. Knox, “In situ measurement of complete intracavity dispersion in an operating Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 17(7), 514–516 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. L. Nugent-Glandorf, T. A. Johnson, Y. Kobayashi, and S. A. Diddams, “Impact of dispersion on amplitude and frequency noise in a Yb-fiber laser comb,” Opt. Lett. 36(9), 1578–1580 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. I. L. Budunoğlu, C. Ulgüdür, B. Oktem, and F. Ö. Ilday, “Intensity noise of mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2516–2518 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Broadband phase noise suppression in a Yb-fiber frequency comb,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 743–745 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. K. Wu, J. H. Wong, P. Shum, S. Fu, C. Ouyang, H. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, A. I. Chernov, E. D. Obraztsova, and J. Chen, “Nonlinear coupling of relative intensity noise from pump to a fiber ring laser mode-locked with carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16663–16670 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. J. Chen, J. W. Sickler, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High repetition rate, low jitter, low intensity noise, fundamentally mode-locked 167 fs soliton Er-fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 32(11), 1566–1568 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited