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Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 15 — Jul. 18, 2011
  • pp: 14594–14603
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All-semiconductor active plasmonic system in mid-infrared wavelengths

Debin Li and C. Z. Ning  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 15, pp. 14594-14603 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.014594


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Abstract

Metal-based plasmonics has a wide range of important applications but is subject to several drawbacks. In this paper, we propose and investigate an all-semiconductor-based approach to plasmonics in mid-infrared (MIR) wavelength range using InAs heterostructures. Our results show that InAs heterostructures are ideal for plasmonics with the shortest plasmon wavelength among common semiconductors. More importantly, as we will show, InAs heterostructures are superior to metal-based plasmonics for MIR applications due to much reduced loss, improved confinement, and ease of tunability of resonant wavelengths through carrier density. Finally, we propose and investigate a monolithic all-semiconductor integrated active plasmonic system with active source, waveguide, and detector all integrated on a chip, realizable in a single epitaxial growth process. Such an all semiconductor based system can be advantageous not only in plasmonics, but also in active metamaterials.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

Plasmonics [1

1. H. A. Atwater, “The promise of plasmonics,” Sci. Am. 296(4), 56–62 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,2

2. S. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2007).

] and metamaterials [3

3. N. I. Zheludev, “Applied physics. The road ahead for metamaterials,” Science 328(5978), 582–583 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,4

4. J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] have impacted many fields of research such as detecting and sensing [5

5. T. Okamoto, I. Yamaguchi, and T. Kobayashi, “Local plasmon sensor with gold colloid monolayers deposited upon glass substrates,” Opt. Lett. 25(6), 372–374 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,6

6. A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films,” Langmuir 20(12), 4813–4815 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], nanolasers and spasers [7

7. A. V. Maslov and C. Z. Ning, “Size reduction of a semiconductor nanowire laser by using metal coating,” Proc. SPIE 6468, 646801 (2007).

12

12. R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], sub-wavelength confinement [13

13. H. T. Miyazaki and Y. Kurokawa, “Squeezing visible light waves into a 3-nm-thick and 55-nm-long plasmon cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(9), 097401 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15

15. D. B. Li and C. Z. Ning, “Peculiar features of confinement factors in a metal-semiconductor waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(18), 181109 (2010). [CrossRef]

], optical cloaking [16

16. T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328(5976), 337–339 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and other applications [17

17. A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, “Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 946–950 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19

19. M. I. Stockman, “Spasers explained,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 327–329 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. However, great challenges remain to fully realize many promised potentials, as we describe in the following. First, common metals such as gold or silver have plasmon resonances in blue or deep ultra-violate wavelength ranges. There are no available metals whose plasmon resonances are in the near or mid-infrared (MIR) wavelength range (say from 1 to 10 microns), which is an extremely important wavelength range for detection and sensing [20

20. R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010). [CrossRef]

,21

21. R. Soref, R. E. Peale, and W. Buchwald, “Longwave plasmonics on doped silicon and silicides,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6507–6514 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Second, it is highly desirable for many applications to integrate plasmonic structures with gain materials or with other dielectric materials. These applications include active metamaterials or active plasmonic system containing gain sections. But there is an intrinsic incompatibility of low-quality metal deposition with high-quality epitaxial growth of semiconductors or dielectrics. As a result, many intrinsic plasmonic properties can be masked by the poor metal quality or poor semiconductor-metal interfaces. Third, large metal loss is still a key problem for many plasmonic and metamaterial applications. In addition, the plasmonic resonance frequency (or wavelength) is fixed for a given metal. There is no tunability that could benefit many applications. Thus it is important for plasmonic applications to look into other alternatives to metals such as highly doped semiconductors.

2. Interband and intraband transitions in a semiconductor

3. Plasmonic features of InAs heterostructures

To achieve high electron density, electrical bias has to be applied. Here we consider a p-GaSb/n-InAs/p-GaSb three layer structure as an example, as shown in the inset of Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Electron density as a function of bias in a GaSb/InAs/GaSb structure (inset). The black and red curves show respectively the electron density at the edge and in the middle of InAs layer. The thickness of each layer in the GaSb/InAs/GaSb structure is shown in the inset.
. We performed a two-dimensional (2D) simulation of this structure using ATLAS [28] assuming InAs layer is uniformly doped at 6 × 1017 cm−3 and GaSb layers are doped at 5 × 1018 cm−3. Forward bias is applied on both GaSb layers. The electron density at the edge and in the middle of InAs layer as a function of bias is shown in Fig. 2 by black and red curves, respectively. Without bias, the electron density at the edge of InAs layer is 8.5 × 1017 cm−3 and that in the middle of InAs layer is 7.7 × 1017 cm−3. Even though higher doping densities can be introduced in each of these layers, these density levels are still too low. The electron density throughout the InAs layer is uniform but not large enough for plasmonic applications. As bias increases, the density at the edge increases faster than that in the middle of InAs layer, resulting in non-uniform distribution in InAs layer. However, since the strongest intensity of a surface mode is usually located at the InAs/GaSb interface, the electron density at the edge of InAs layer is more important for plasmonic application. We can see that the electron density at the edge reaches 1 × 1020 cm−3 at a bias of 4 V, a large enough value for our plasmonic application.

To demonstrate the advantages of plasmonic features of InAs structures, we consider a prototype surface plasmon polariton (SPP) structure: a bi-layer structure with a heavily doped InAs layer (dielectric constant εm) as a metallic layer interfaced with a GaSb layer with a dielectric constant εs. Assume the SPP wave propagates along the InAs/GaSb interface in the z direction, the propagation wavevector kz is given by kz=ωcεsεm/(εs+εm). The quality factor (Q factor) of this mode can be obtained via the definition [29

29. J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, 3rd ed. (Wiley, 1999).

]:
Q=ωWstoredPdissipated=ω2kzv¯E,z
(5)
where kz is the imaginary part of the propagation wavevector and v¯E,zis the average energy velocity of the mode [14

14. D. B. Li and C. Z. Ning, “Giant modal gain, amplified surface plasmon-polariton propagation, and slowing down of energy velocity in a metal-semiconductor-metal structure,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153304 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. Figure 3
Fig. 3 Quality factors vs. wavelength of a SPP mode in an InAs/GaSb structure with different electron concentrations (cm−3), in an Ag/GaSb structure, and in an Au/GaSb structure.
shows the Q factors as a function of wavelength of a SPP mode in an InAs/GaSb structure with different electron concentrations, in an Ag/GaSb structure, and in an Au/GaSb structure. The dip (minimum) in each curve corresponds to the SPP resonance. We can see that the Q-factor of InAs/GaSb structure increases with electron density on the longer wavelength side of plasmon resonance. The situation becomes more complicated below plasmon resonance wavelength. One important result is that the Q factor of InAs/GaSb structure is several times larger than that of Ag/GaSb and Au/GaSb structures. Therefore, highly doped InAs structure is an excellent plasmonic waveguide and is superior to typical metal-based structures.

It is interesting to see how tightly a mode can be bound at the InAs/GaSb interface, since tight confinement of a mode is important for nanophotonic applications. Figure 4
Fig. 4 (a) Normalized energy density and (b) power flux (absolute value) profile across the interface of an InAs/GaSb structure at 3 μm. The effective widths in InAs layer, Wm, and in GaSb layer, Ws, are schematically shown as well. (c) Normalized energy density and (d) power flux (absolute value) profile at 5 μm.
shows normalized energy density and power flux (absolute value) profile across the interface of the InAs/GaSb structure for different electron concentrations in InAs at 3 and 5 μm, respectively. We can see from Figs. 4(a) and 4(b) that the energy and power densities for InAs/GaSb at electron density 6 × 1019 cm−3 are almost flat in both InAs and GaSb layers. This is because the working wavelength is shorter than the SPP resonance wavelength so that SPP mode is very loosely bound at the interface. The situation is the same for the case with density 2 × 1019 cm−3 in Figs. 4(c) and 4(d). The operating wavelength thus has to be longer than the SPP wavelength for better SPP localization. In order to quantitatively describe the mode confinement at the interface, we introduce effective widths (Wt) across the interface as the sum of the width in InAs layer, Wm, and that in GaSb layer, Ws (see Figs. 4(a) and 4(b)). They are defined as the distance from the interface through which the energy or power decays to e−2 of their values at the interface. The three widths measured at the working wavelength of 3 μm are listed in Table 1

Table 1. Effective Widths in InAs/GaSb Structure at 3 μm

table-icon
View This Table
. The effective widths for InAs/GaSb waveguide at density 6 × 1019 cm−3 are extremely long, corresponding to the flat curve in Figs. 4(a) and 4(b). For larger electron density, the effective widths are small. The total effective width at density 8 × 1019 cm−3 is the smallest one, because the working wavelength is very close to but still longer than the SPP resonance wavelength where the SPP mode has the best confinement. The total effective width at 73 nm is one fortieth of the working wavelength in this case, representing a huge compression of the effective wavelength. There are similar conclusions for the case with working wavelength at 5 μm, with the required density somewhat smaller. Since the Q factor at the SPP resonance is the smallest (see Fig. 3), the electron density in InAs needs to be well controlled to meet the requirement of both quality and confinement in a waveguide design.

4. All-semiconductor plasmonic system

The most interesting aspect of an all-semiconductor plasmonic structure is the possibility of monolithically growing an entire plasmonic system with various components on a chip. To illustrate this exciting aspect, we propose and conduct a design study of an all-semiconductor plasmonic system consisting of a SPP source, a waveguide with integrated amplifiers, and a detector, as shown in Fig. 5(a)
Fig. 5 All-semiconductor active plasmonic system. (a) Schematic of the proposed plasmonic system consisting of a SPP source, a waveguide with amplifiers and a detector. (b) The layer structures of all three components of this system. The material composition, doping type, thickness and polarity of electrodes of each layer are also shown. (c) Illustration of the working principle of the system.
. All three components can be grown in a single epitaxial growth process and each component can be then defined lithographically. The high electron density (on the order of 1020 cm−3) in InAs can be achieved by electrical bias of the doped structures. An active structure is needed to provide gain in the source and amplifier. In addition to InAs and GaSb, AlSb can be used as a barrier material. The layer structures of all three components are identical and shown in Fig. 5(b) where the material composition, doping types, thickness and polarity of electrodes of each layer are also shown. The active region consists of p-AlSb/i-InAs/n-AlSb triple layers, with the intrinsic InAs layer serving as the gain layer. This structure has been shown to be able to produce strong interband gain despite being a type-II structure for the undoped system [27

27. K. Kolokolov and C. Z. Ning, “Doping induced type-II to type-I transition and interband optical gain in InAs/AlSb quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1581–1583 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. The plasmonic structure consists of p-GaSb/n-InAs/p-GaSb triple layers. SPP mode is formed and propagating at the two n-InAs/p-GaSb interfaces, as we studied above in Section 3. The overall working principle of this system is illustrated in Fig. 5(c).

Source: The bias V1 is positive in the source, electrons and holes are thus injected into the i-InAs layer. Optical dipoles formed by the electron-hole pairs in this layer then recombine to excite and transfer energy preferentially to the SPP mode at the two p-GaSb/n-InAs interfaces [30

30. G. W. Ford and W. H. Weber, “Electromagnetic interactions of molecules with metal surfaces,” Phys. Rep. 113(4), 195–287 (1984). [CrossRef]

]. The SPPs are thus generated in the source. If a time-varying signal voltage VS(t) is added to V1, the amplitude of the SPPs will be modulated according to the strength of the signal.

Amplifier: The amplifier functions similar to the source. The bias V1 has the same positive constant value V0 as that in the source. When passing through the amplifier, the SPPs from source will acquire energy emitted from the electron-hole pairs in the i-InAs layer and get amplified.

Detector: The bias V1 in the detector is negative, so the i-InAs layer is depleted. The incoming SPPs are then absorbed by InAs layers of the detector. The portion of the energy absorbed by the i-InAs initiates the generation of the electrons and holes in this layer which can be collected through the electrodes of the reversely biased p-i-n structure. Since the density of generated carriers is proportional to the amplitude of the arrived SPPs, the signal from the source is demodulated and detected by the detector. Note that the gain spectrum provided by the active region has a peak frequency larger than InAs bandgap, as shown earlier [27

27. K. Kolokolov and C. Z. Ning, “Doping induced type-II to type-I transition and interband optical gain in InAs/AlSb quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1581–1583 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. Therefore, most of the energy of the SPP mode can be absorbed by the InAs layer in the detector.

We performed a 2D simulation of this system using ATLAS assuming the layers in the active structure are uniformly doped at 2.5 × 1018 cm−3 and the layers in the plasmonic structure are doped at 5 × 1018 cm−3. The electron and hole densities were calculated at V1 = 0.8 V (source and amplifier) and V2 = 5 V, and their profiles are shown in Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Electron and hole density profiles along x axis at V1 = 0.8 V and V2 = 5 V in the plasmonic system.
. The metallic InAs layer is located from x = 90 to 110 nm. At the edge of this layer, the maximum electron density is about 1.5 × 1020 cm−3 while the hole density is lower than 1 × 1014 cm−3. This situation is exactly what we need for the InAs application as a metal. In the middle of the metallic InAs layer (x = 100 nm), the minimum electron density is about 4.2 × 1019 cm−3, ensuring the maximum real part of the dielectric constant of InAs is still negative in the layer. Therefore this InAs layer can be treated as a pure metallic layer. Note that the hole density at the edge of GaSb layer is higher than the electron density at the edge of InAs layer, the metallic property of GaSb due to hole absorption thus needs to be considered. The collective motion of high-density holes can also be approximated by Drude model and the treatment of dielectric function of GaSb is similar to that shown in Section 2 for InAs. The InAs gain layer is located from x = 50 to 70 nm. The carrier density on the right half of this layer is not uniform because holes are preferentially swept from the middle AlSb layer into the GaSb layer on the right instead into the InAs layer on the left, leading to low hole density on the right half of InAs gain layer. The carrier density is, however, high and uniform enough on the left half of this InAs layer, which can still provide high material gain to the whole system.

5. Conclusion

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) program Nanoscale Architectures of Coherent Hyper-Optical Sources (NACHOS).

References and links

1.

H. A. Atwater, “The promise of plasmonics,” Sci. Am. 296(4), 56–62 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

S. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2007).

3.

N. I. Zheludev, “Applied physics. The road ahead for metamaterials,” Science 328(5978), 582–583 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

T. Okamoto, I. Yamaguchi, and T. Kobayashi, “Local plasmon sensor with gold colloid monolayers deposited upon glass substrates,” Opt. Lett. 25(6), 372–374 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films,” Langmuir 20(12), 4813–4815 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

A. V. Maslov and C. Z. Ning, “Size reduction of a semiconductor nanowire laser by using metal coating,” Proc. SPIE 6468, 646801 (2007).

8.

M. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007). [CrossRef]

9.

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C. Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11107–11112 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

C. Z. Ning, “Semiconductor nanolasers,” Phys. Status Solidi 247, 774–788 (2010) (b).

11.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

H. T. Miyazaki and Y. Kurokawa, “Squeezing visible light waves into a 3-nm-thick and 55-nm-long plasmon cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(9), 097401 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

D. B. Li and C. Z. Ning, “Giant modal gain, amplified surface plasmon-polariton propagation, and slowing down of energy velocity in a metal-semiconductor-metal structure,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153304 (2009). [CrossRef]

15.

D. B. Li and C. Z. Ning, “Peculiar features of confinement factors in a metal-semiconductor waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(18), 181109 (2010). [CrossRef]

16.

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328(5976), 337–339 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, “Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 946–950 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

S. P. Burgos, R. de Waele, A. Polman, and H. A. Atwater, “A single-layer wide-angle negative-index metamaterial at visible frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 9(5), 407–412 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

M. I. Stockman, “Spasers explained,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 327–329 (2008). [CrossRef]

20.

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010). [CrossRef]

21.

R. Soref, R. E. Peale, and W. Buchwald, “Longwave plasmonics on doped silicon and silicides,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6507–6514 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

S. Adachi, “Model dielectric constants of GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InP, InAs, and InSb,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 35(14), 7454–7463 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

E. Burstein, “Anomalous optical absorption limit in InSb,” Phys. Rev. 93(3), 632–633 (1954). [CrossRef]

24.

H. Kroemer, “The 6.1 Å family (InAs, GaSb, AlSb) and its heterostructures: a selective review,” Physica E 20(3-4), 196–203 (2004). [CrossRef]

25.

D. C. Larrabee, G. A. Khodaparast, J. Kono, K. Ueda, Y. Nakajima, M. Nakai, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, K. I. Kolokolov, J. Li, and C. Z. Ning, “Temperature dependence of intersubband transitions in InAs/AlSb quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(19), 3936–3938 (2003). [CrossRef]

26.

J. Li, K. I. Kolokolov, C. Z. Ning, D. C. Larrabee, G. A. Khodaparast, J. Kono, K. Ueda, Y. Nakajima, S. Sasa, and M. Inoue, “Intersubband transitions in InAs/AlSb quantum wells,” in Progress in Semiconductors II: Electronic and Optoelectronic Applications, MRS Proceedings (2003), Vol. 744, p. 571.

27.

K. Kolokolov and C. Z. Ning, “Doping induced type-II to type-I transition and interband optical gain in InAs/AlSb quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1581–1583 (2003). [CrossRef]

28.

www.silvaco.com.

29.

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, 3rd ed. (Wiley, 1999).

30.

G. W. Ford and W. H. Weber, “Electromagnetic interactions of molecules with metal surfaces,” Phys. Rep. 113(4), 195–287 (1984). [CrossRef]

31.

www.comsol.com.

OCIS Codes
(130.6750) Integrated optics : Systems
(230.7370) Optical devices : Waveguides
(250.5403) Optoelectronics : Plasmonics

ToC Category:
Integrated Optics

History
Original Manuscript: May 10, 2011
Revised Manuscript: June 29, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: July 3, 2011
Published: July 14, 2011

Citation
Debin Li and C. Z. Ning, "All-semiconductor active plasmonic system in mid-infrared wavelengths," Opt. Express 19, 14594-14603 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-15-14594


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References

  1. H. A. Atwater, “The promise of plasmonics,” Sci. Am. 296(4), 56–62 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2007).
  3. N. I. Zheludev, “Applied physics. The road ahead for metamaterials,” Science 328(5978), 582–583 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. Okamoto, I. Yamaguchi, and T. Kobayashi, “Local plasmon sensor with gold colloid monolayers deposited upon glass substrates,” Opt. Lett. 25(6), 372–374 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films,” Langmuir 20(12), 4813–4815 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. V. Maslov and C. Z. Ning, “Size reduction of a semiconductor nanowire laser by using metal coating,” Proc. SPIE 6468, 646801 (2007).
  8. M. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007). [CrossRef]
  9. M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C. Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11107–11112 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. Z. Ning, “Semiconductor nanolasers,” Phys. Status Solidi 247, 774–788 (2010) (b).
  11. M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. T. Miyazaki and Y. Kurokawa, “Squeezing visible light waves into a 3-nm-thick and 55-nm-long plasmon cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(9), 097401 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. B. Li and C. Z. Ning, “Giant modal gain, amplified surface plasmon-polariton propagation, and slowing down of energy velocity in a metal-semiconductor-metal structure,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153304 (2009). [CrossRef]
  15. D. B. Li and C. Z. Ning, “Peculiar features of confinement factors in a metal-semiconductor waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(18), 181109 (2010). [CrossRef]
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