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Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 16 — Aug. 1, 2011
  • pp: 15339–15347
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Analysis of amplitude fluctuation and timing jitter performance of spectrally periodic Talbot filters for optical pulse rate multiplication

Antonio Malacarne and José Azaña  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 16, pp. 15339-15347 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.015339


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Abstract

We analyze simultaneous amplitude fluctuation and timing jitter performance of a set of commonly believed equivalent spectrally periodic phase-only filters for implementing pulse repetition rate multiplication. Whereas amplitude noise and time jitter mitigation is observed in all cases, our analysis reveals different noise performance to that obtained with the classical Talbot filter implementation based on a single dispersive medium. Moreover, different noise improvements are achieved depending on the filter’s spectral period and a mutual interaction between amplitude noise and timing jitter is also observed.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

The generation of ultrashort (femtosecond/picosecond) optical pulses with high or ultra-high repetition rates has attracted considerable attention in recent years since this plays a role of increasing importance in a number of applications such as ultrahigh-bit-rate optical communications, optical sampling, frequency metrology, optical clock schemes [1

1. P. J. Delfyett, S. Gee, S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, K. Kim, S. Lee, and W. Lee, “Ultrafast modelocked semiconductor laser - techniques and applications in networking, instrumentation and signal processing”, The 18th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, LEOS 2005, pp. 38- 39, (2005)

] and microwave photonics systems [2

2. J. Wells, “Faster than fiber: The future of multi-G/s wireless,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 10(3), 104–112 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. Particularly concerning this last mentioned topic, millimeter-wave (MMW) carrier generations using optical pulse trains with 100 GHz repetition-rate or higher have been recently investigated for gigabits wireless access applications [2

2. J. Wells, “Faster than fiber: The future of multi-G/s wireless,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 10(3), 104–112 (2009). [CrossRef]

] and distribution of synchronized photonic MMW waveforms through radio-over-fiber technology [3

3. H.-P. Chuang and C.-B. Huang, “Generation and delivery of 1-ps optical pulses with ultrahigh repetition-rates over 25-km single mode fiber by a spectral line-by-line pulse shaper,” Opt. Express 18(23), 24003–24011 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5

5. A. Hirata, M. Harada, and T. Nagatsuma, “120-GHz wireless link using photonic techniques for generation, modulation, and emission of millimeter-wave signals,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(10), 2145–2153 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. The ability to generate stable pulse sources is extremely important in all these applications, particularly considering that pulse trains produced through conventional techniques, such as actively, passively or hybrid mode-locking, typically suffer from different noise contributions. To be more concrete, pulse-to-pulse amplitude fluctuations and timing jitter are two key factors that limit the performance of high-repetition-rate optical pulse trains in any application relying on the precise regularity and periodicity of these pulse trains.

Notice that the optical filters described in reference [7

7. J. Azaña and S. Gupta, “Complete family of periodic Talbot filters for pulse repetition rate multiplication,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4270–4279 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] can be implemented using simple and compact linearly-chirped fiber Bragg gratings (LC-FBGs) or superimposed LC-FBGs [13

13. J. Azaña, P. Kockaert, R. Slavik, L. R. Chen, and S. LaRochelle, “Generation of a 100-GHz optical pulse train by pulse repetition-rate multiplication using superimposed fiber Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(3), 413–415 (2003). [CrossRef]

,14

14. J. Magné, J. Bolger, M. Rochette, S. LaRochelle, L. R. Chen, B. J. Eggleton, and J. Azaña, “Generation of a 4 × 100 GHz pulse-train from a single-wavelength 10-GHz mode-locked laser using superimposed fiber Bragg gratings and nonlinear conversion,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(5), 2091–2099 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. Indeed, in reference [18

18. M. Oiwa, J. Kim, K. Tsuji, N. Onodera, and M. Saruwatari, “Experimental demonstration of timing jitter reduction based on the temporal Talbot effect using LCFBGs,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics and Conference on Quantum Electronics and Laser Science. CLEO/QELS 2008, paper CTuA3, 2008.

] it is pointed out how, in order to get an actual timing jitter reduction, a compact solution employing a LC-FBG is practically much more feasible than making use of a spool of fiber, which comes out to be too sensitive to environmental disturbance occurred in the fiber length. For this reason, we believe that the analysis reported here should prove important to design and realize PRRM filters with a customized performance in terms of amplitude fluctuations and timing jitter.

2. Filters design

Based on the general theory presented in reference [7

7. J. Azaña and S. Gupta, “Complete family of periodic Talbot filters for pulse repetition rate multiplication,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4270–4279 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], the same Talbot-based PRRM process can be implemented through different linear optical filter designs, which are formally equivalent. In particular, assuming an input optical pulse train with a repetition rate fin and supposing a desired PRRM process by a factor m, this PRRM operation can be achieved by filtering the original pulse train through either a single dispersive medium (e.g. a spool of fiber or a LC-FBG) or a spectrally periodic phase-only filtering device with a spectral period fixed by the output repetition rate, i.e. fout=p(mfin), where p can be any positive integer. Considering the first case, i.e. linear propagation of an input pulse train through a single first-order dispersive medium, fractional temporal Talbot effect is implemented when the medium’s dispersion coefficient satisfies the following condition:
|Φ¨0|=qm(Tin22π)
(1)
where Tin = 1/fin is the input pulse period, q = 1, 2, 3,... and m = 1, 2, 3,... such that (q/m) is a non-integer and irreducible rational number [6

6. J. Azaña and M. A. Muriel, “Temporal self-imaging effects: theory and application for multiplying pulse repetition rates,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 728–744 (2001). [CrossRef]

]. The corresponding base-band frequency transfer function of the dispersive medium is H(f) ∝ ejΦ(f) with:
Φ(f)=Φ¨02(2πf)2
(2)
where the dispersion coefficient Φ¨0 is in [ps2/rad].

Assuming an ideal input pulse train, not affected by any kind of noise or jitter, the repetition rate of this pulse train would be multiplied by m following linear propagation through a dispersion medium with the first-order chromatic dispersion in Eq. (1). Figure 1
Fig. 1 Spectral phase profiles for the single Talbot filter (single dispersive medium) and several examples of periodic filters corresponding to the PRRM case with m = 4, q = 1 and Tin = 100 ps. Spectral phase profile for the single Talbot filter and for an example of periodic filter (p = 4) for the case m = 4, q = 3 and Tin = 100 ps. All these phase-only filters implement a 10-to-40 GHz PRRM process.
reports the phase function calculated from Eq. (2) with a dashed red line, considering the case of a 10-to-40 GHz PRRM process, with q = 1 and m = 4,

On the other hand, as previously mentioned and as reported in reference [7

7. J. Azaña and S. Gupta, “Complete family of periodic Talbot filters for pulse repetition rate multiplication,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4270–4279 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], an identical PRRM process can be implemented by use of a spectrally periodic phase-only optical filter providing a general spectral phase transfer function:
Φp(f)=k=+Φ(fkpmfin)rect(fkpmfinpmfin)
(3)
with spectral period pm·fin and p = 1, 2, 3,.... Equation (3) basically implies that in each period Φp(f)=Φ(fkpmfin) as defined by the Talbot condition in Eqs. (1)-(2), for f ∈ (-kpmfin/2; kpmfin/2) and k = 0, ±1, ±2, ±3,.... Thus, for a given input pulse rate fin and a given multiplication factor m, we may identify a family made up of an infinite number of phase-only filters, just by changing p (i.e. changing the spectral period of the filter), for each valid value of q. In Fig. 1 several examples of Φp(f) for different values of p, i.e. for different spectral periodicity, are reported, considering the same 10-to-40GHz PRRM process (multiplication factor m = 4) and the two cases q = 1, q = 3. All these filters formally implement the same PRRM process. Please note that a single dispersive medium (i.e. single Talbot filter, dashed and dotted red lines in Fig. 1) is only a particular case of the general family defined by Eq. (3) for the case p→∞. We recall that in practice, the spectrally-periodic quadratic phase filters defined by Eq. (3) can be implemented using superimposed LC-FBGs. A higher value of either the parameter p (spectral period) or the parameter q translates into a larger group-delay excursion in the filter’s transfer function, thus requiring the use of a longer device (the single Talbot filter, based on a single dispersive medium, LC-FBG, is the longest device among all the equivalent filtering configurations).

The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the evolution of simultaneous amplitude fluctuations and timing jitter from an input pulse train to the output one of a PRRM designed to achieve an m-fold PRRM process. Different filtering configurations, i.e. characterized by different spectral periods (p parameters) and different q parameters, as defined in the general Eq. (3), will be evaluated and compared. Amplitude noise and timing jitter smoothing by temporal Talbot effect in a single dispersive medium has been previously studied [15

15. D. Pudo and L. R. Chen, “Simple estimation of pulse amplitude noise and timing jitter evolution through the temporal Talbot effect,” Opt. Express 15(10), 6351–6357 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17

17. C. Fernández-Pousa, F. Mateos, L. Chantada, M. Flores-Arias, C. Bao, M. Pérez, and C. Gómez-Reino, “Timing jitter smoothing by Talbot effect. II. Intensity spectrum,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22(4), 753–763 (2005). [CrossRef]

]; however, to our knowledge, no studies on the noise performance of the more general Talbot filters defined by Eq. (3), e.g. as the spectral period of the filters is varied, has been reported to date. Noise mitigation of optical pulse trains through integer or fractional temporal Talbot effect is a very well known property of dispersive media, but no comparison between the noise performance of periodic phase-only filters and that of single dispersive media, to achieve the same Talbot-based PRRM process, have been carried out so far. Furthermore, whereas in reference [15

15. D. Pudo and L. R. Chen, “Simple estimation of pulse amplitude noise and timing jitter evolution through the temporal Talbot effect,” Opt. Express 15(10), 6351–6357 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] a detailed amplitude noise and timing jitter performance analysis of Talbot-based PRRMs has been carried out (for the single dispersive medium case), authors did not consider the situation of simultaneous amplitude fluctuations and timing jitter; our numerical analysis reported here considers this more practical situation, showing how these two kinds of noise may in a certain way affect each other.

3. Simulation results and discussion

Let us first define the input signal employed for the numerical analysis presented in this paper. In order to test the performance of the above-mentioned spectral phase-only filters, an input train of Nin = 1000 Gaussian pulses with a period Tin = 100 ps (fin = 10GHz) and an individual pulse width (FWHM) τFWHM =5 ps is considered. To emulate a realistic case, we assume that each of the input pulses is affected by both amplitude and timing jitter. Thus, the input pulse train may be expressed by:
s(t)=n=1NinAnp(tnTinτn)
(4)
where p(t) represents the individual short Gaussian pulse with a normalized peak amplitude, An is the n-th extraction of a normal random variable with mean 1 and standard deviation σA = 0.06 (6% of ideal amplitude), governing the random independent amplitude fluctuation, and τn is the n-th extraction of a normal random variable with mean 0 and standard deviation στ = 0.3 ps (6% of the FWHM), governing the random independent timing jitter.

Considering the generic filter transfer function Hp(f) = ejΦp(f) where Φp(f) is described by Eq. (3), through numerical simulations, we calculated the output signal as:
o(t)=F1{S(f)Hp(f)}
(5)
where S(f) is the Fourier transform of s(t) and F−1 stands for the inverse Fourier transform.

In order to evaluate both amplitude fluctuations and timing jitter of the output pulse train, the temporal position and amplitude of the peak at each output period (with temporal duration Tin/m) was collected, extracting for each set the standard deviation στout and σAout, respectively. Then, for each kind of filter, a timing jitter ratio τratio = στoutτ and an amplitude fluctuation ratio Aratio = σAoutA have been defined so as to estimate the improvement in terms of noise performance for each filter. The behaviors of timing jitter and amplitude fluctuation ratios are reported in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Timing jitter ratio assuming input timing jitter only (a), amplitude fluctuation ratio assuming input amplitude fluctuation only (b), both timing jitter and amplitude fluctuation ratios assuming simultaneous input timing jitter and amplitude fluctuation (c). All cases plotted versus factor p (changing the filter frequency period) for q=1, m=4, Tin=100ps.
-4
Fig. 4 Same captions as for Fig. 3 with q=3.
, for the case m = 4, Tin = 100ps, with q = 1 and q = 3, respectively. In both figures, τratio and Aratio are plotted for different spectral periods (i.e. versus p) and compared with the single Talbot filter case (dashed lines). Moreover, for each value of q, we reported three different cases when only timing jitter (a), only amplitude fluctuation (b) and both of them (c) are applied. When q = 1 timing jitter and amplitude fluctuation seem to be essentially independent (τratio in Fig. 3(a), (c) are identical, Aratio in Fig. 3(b), (c) are identical), whereas for q = 3 amplitude fluctuation performance reveals a worsening when timing jitter is present as well (Aratio in Fig. 4(b), (c) are different).

The general fundamental remark here is that even though mitigation of the amplitude fluctuation and timing jitter is always observed, each periodic filter (i.e. each value of p) presents a different, specific noise performance and is not equivalent to the single Talbot filter case, unless the factor p is sufficiently high. In the case q = 1, the amplitude fluctuation and time jitter improvements are both more significant as the spectral period (p parameter) is increased, regardless of whether the two noise contributions are considered separately or simultaneously; as a result, the best performance is always achieved for the single Talbot filter case. Focusing on the case where both noises are present (Fig. 3(c) and Fig. 4(c)), another interesting observation is the highly different behavior of the amplitude fluctuation between the two cases q = 1 and q = 3, revealing a sort of mutual interaction between the two kinds of noise for q = 3. For higher values of q (q = 5, 7, 9...) we have observed that the amplitude fluctuation exhibits a similar trend to that reported in Fig. 4(c) for q = 3. To be more concrete, in the case q = 3 (simultaneous presence of amplitude and time jitters, Fig. 4(c)), for several specific values of p, the amplitude fluctuation improvement is more pronounced than that of the single Talbot filter and in particular, for p = 4, 5 this improvement is even slightly better than that of the single Talbot filter for q = 1 (Fig. 3(c)).

In general, the noise ratios (both τratio and Aratio) thresholds for the single Talbot filter decrease as the input pulse duty cycle (or the multiplication factor m [15

15. D. Pudo and L. R. Chen, “Simple estimation of pulse amplitude noise and timing jitter evolution through the temporal Talbot effect,” Opt. Express 15(10), 6351–6357 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]) is decreased, see results in Fig. 5(a)
Fig. 5 Timing jitter and amplitude fluctuation ratios assuming simultaneous input timing jitter with σt = 2% and amplitude fluctuation with σA = 12%, for q=3, m=4, Tin=100ps.
. Furthermore, for a given duty cycle, by increasing the value of q from 1 to 3, the timing jitter ratio is improved whereas the amplitude fluctuation ratio gets worse (Fig. 5(a)); then, for higher values of q, i.e. 5, 7, 9..., the results in terms of amplitude fluctuation and time jitter performances are essentially the same as those obtained for q = 3.

To make more clear why the trend of plots in Fig. 4(c) (q = 3) looks so different from Fig. 3(c) (q = 1), we believe that the key point is that amplitude fluctuation and timing jitter are not completely independent with respect to each other for the cases where q>1. From additional simulations (not included in the present manuscript), it comes out that the filtering process itself leading to a mitigation of either timing jitter or amplitude fluctuation (through any of the alternative Talbot filtering configurations) induces additional amplitude fluctuation or timing jitter component (which increases with p) at the filter output, respectively. Furthermore, the amount of such induced amplitude fluctuation/timing jitter increases by increasing the input timing jitter/amplitude fluctuation to be mitigated. Thus, the induced amplitude fluctuation/timing jitter can degrade the filter performance, especially for the single Talbot filter or for the periodic phase filters with high values of p. As an example, we show in Fig. 5 that considering a timing jitter with σt = 2% and an amplitude jitter with σA = 12%, a result with opposite behavior to the one reported in Fig. 4(c) has been obtained.

Another important figure of merit in a PRRM process is the extinction ratio (ER) of the output pulse train, generally defined as the ratio between the amplitude peak of each pulse and the pedestal level between pulses. Since in our simulations no pedestal is assumed at the input pulse train, the input ER is consequently assumed to approach infinity. Considering a signal affected by stochastic noises, as in our analysis, we can define here an average output ER as the ratio between the average of the pulse peak amplitudes of all the m·Nin output pulses and the average of the output pedestal level over the entire pulse train. In particular, we define the pedestal of the n-th output period to be the signal ranging from the “time position of the n-th peak” + 2τFWHM to the “time position of the (n+1)-th peak” - 2τFWHM. The average ER for the single Talbot filter decreases as the input duty cycle is increased, as reported in Fig. 6(b)
Fig. 6 (a) Timing jitter and amplitude fluctuation ratios versus the input duty cycle for the cases q = 1, 3. (b) Average output extinction ratio (ER) versus the input duty cycle for different values of q. The two plots report results for the single Talbot filter for m = 4, σt = σA = 6%. (c) Average ER versus parameter p for periodic filters for several values of q.
. Moreover, this result is almost independent on the value of q. Finally, when analyzing the output average ER behavior for different spectral periods (Fig. 6(c)), we observe that the ER fluctuates over a range of less than 1 dB and there is not a particularly relevant dependence with respect to the parameter q; this observation applies to all cases except for p = 1, for which the ER reaches ~60 dB for any value of q.

4. Conclusion

We have presented a detailed numerical analysis on the simultaneous timing jitter and amplitude fluctuation performance of the complete set of formally equivalent spectrally periodic parabolic phase-only filters aimed at implementing Talbot-based pulse rate multiplication of optical pulse trains. In particular we have demonstrated different noise performance depending on the filters’ spectral periodicity. In general, the filters help mitigating the input amplitude and time-jitter noise characteristics while providing the desired rate multiplication operation. The improvements in the amplitude fluctuation and time jitter are generally more pronounced when using a filter with an increased spectral period, the best improvement being then achieved for the single Talbot filter (single dispersive medium). However, we have identified a number of cases (for higher values of the parameter q) for which the improvements in the amplitude fluctuation are better than in the equivalent single Talbot case. Furthermore we analyzed noise performance for different input pulse train duty cycles and at last, we also evaluated the effect of these filters on the pedestal level between output pulses.

The analysis reported here should prove very useful to realize, e.g. through superimposed linearly-chirped FBGs, pulse rate multipliers with optimized amplitude fluctuation and timing jitter performances.

References and links

1.

P. J. Delfyett, S. Gee, S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, K. Kim, S. Lee, and W. Lee, “Ultrafast modelocked semiconductor laser - techniques and applications in networking, instrumentation and signal processing”, The 18th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, LEOS 2005, pp. 38- 39, (2005)

2.

J. Wells, “Faster than fiber: The future of multi-G/s wireless,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 10(3), 104–112 (2009). [CrossRef]

3.

H.-P. Chuang and C.-B. Huang, “Generation and delivery of 1-ps optical pulses with ultrahigh repetition-rates over 25-km single mode fiber by a spectral line-by-line pulse shaper,” Opt. Express 18(23), 24003–24011 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

F.-M. Kuo, J.-W. Shi, H.-C. Chiang, H.-P. Chuang, H.-K. Chiou, C.-L. Pan, N.-W. Chen, H.-J. Tsai, and C.-B. Huang, “Spectral Power Enhancement in a 100 GHz Photonic Millimeter-Wave Generator Enabled by Spectral Line-by-Line Pulse Shaping,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(5), 719–727 (2010). [CrossRef]

5.

A. Hirata, M. Harada, and T. Nagatsuma, “120-GHz wireless link using photonic techniques for generation, modulation, and emission of millimeter-wave signals,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(10), 2145–2153 (2003). [CrossRef]

6.

J. Azaña and M. A. Muriel, “Temporal self-imaging effects: theory and application for multiplying pulse repetition rates,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 728–744 (2001). [CrossRef]

7.

J. Azaña and S. Gupta, “Complete family of periodic Talbot filters for pulse repetition rate multiplication,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4270–4279 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

K. Tai, A. Tomita, J. L. Jewell, and A. Hasegawa, “Generation of subpicosecond solitonlike optical pulses at 0.3 THz repetition rate by induced modulational instability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(5), 236–238 (1986). [CrossRef]

9.

J. Azaña and M. A. Muriel, “Technique for multiplying the repetition rates of periodic trains of pulses by means of a temporal self-imaging effect in chirped fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett. 24(23), 1672–1674 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

S. Longhi, M. Marano, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, M. Belmonte, B. Agogliati, L. Arcangeli, V. Pruneri, M. N. Zervas, and M. Ibsen, “40-GHz pulse-train generation at 1.5 mum with a chirped fiber grating as a frequency multiplier,” Opt. Lett. 25(19), 1481–1483 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

J. H. Lee, Y. Chang, Y. G. Han, S. Kim, and S. Lee, “2 ~ 5 times tunable repetition-rate multiplication of a 10 GHz pulse source using a linearly tunable, chirped fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Express 12(17), 3900–3905 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

J. Caraquitena, Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Tunable pulse repetition-rate multiplication using phase-only line-by-line pulse shaping,” Opt. Lett. 32(6), 716–718 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

J. Azaña, P. Kockaert, R. Slavik, L. R. Chen, and S. LaRochelle, “Generation of a 100-GHz optical pulse train by pulse repetition-rate multiplication using superimposed fiber Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(3), 413–415 (2003). [CrossRef]

14.

J. Magné, J. Bolger, M. Rochette, S. LaRochelle, L. R. Chen, B. J. Eggleton, and J. Azaña, “Generation of a 4 × 100 GHz pulse-train from a single-wavelength 10-GHz mode-locked laser using superimposed fiber Bragg gratings and nonlinear conversion,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(5), 2091–2099 (2006). [CrossRef]

15.

D. Pudo and L. R. Chen, “Simple estimation of pulse amplitude noise and timing jitter evolution through the temporal Talbot effect,” Opt. Express 15(10), 6351–6357 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

C. Fernández-Pousa, F. Mateos, L. Chantada, M. Flores-Arias, C. Bao, M. Pérez, and C. Gómez-Reino, “Timing jitter smoothing by Talbot effect. I. Variance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21(6), 1170–1177 (2004). [CrossRef]

17.

C. Fernández-Pousa, F. Mateos, L. Chantada, M. Flores-Arias, C. Bao, M. Pérez, and C. Gómez-Reino, “Timing jitter smoothing by Talbot effect. II. Intensity spectrum,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22(4), 753–763 (2005). [CrossRef]

18.

M. Oiwa, J. Kim, K. Tsuji, N. Onodera, and M. Saruwatari, “Experimental demonstration of timing jitter reduction based on the temporal Talbot effect using LCFBGs,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics and Conference on Quantum Electronics and Laser Science. CLEO/QELS 2008, paper CTuA3, 2008.

OCIS Codes
(030.4280) Coherence and statistical optics : Noise in imaging systems
(070.6760) Fourier optics and signal processing : Talbot and self-imaging effects
(100.5090) Image processing : Phase-only filters
(320.5540) Ultrafast optics : Pulse shaping
(320.5550) Ultrafast optics : Pulses

ToC Category:
Ultrafast Optics

History
Original Manuscript: May 12, 2011
Revised Manuscript: July 14, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: July 18, 2011
Published: July 26, 2011

Citation
Antonio Malacarne and José Azaña, "Analysis of amplitude fluctuation and timing jitter performance of spectrally periodic Talbot filters for optical pulse rate multiplication," Opt. Express 19, 15339-15347 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-16-15339


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References

  1. P. J. Delfyett, S. Gee, S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, K. Kim, S. Lee, and W. Lee, “Ultrafast modelocked semiconductor laser - techniques and applications in networking, instrumentation and signal processing”, The 18th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, LEOS 2005, pp. 38- 39, (2005)
  2. J. Wells, “Faster than fiber: The future of multi-G/s wireless,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 10(3), 104–112 (2009). [CrossRef]
  3. H.-P. Chuang and C.-B. Huang, “Generation and delivery of 1-ps optical pulses with ultrahigh repetition-rates over 25-km single mode fiber by a spectral line-by-line pulse shaper,” Opt. Express 18(23), 24003–24011 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. F.-M. Kuo, J.-W. Shi, H.-C. Chiang, H.-P. Chuang, H.-K. Chiou, C.-L. Pan, N.-W. Chen, H.-J. Tsai, and C.-B. Huang, “Spectral Power Enhancement in a 100 GHz Photonic Millimeter-Wave Generator Enabled by Spectral Line-by-Line Pulse Shaping,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(5), 719–727 (2010). [CrossRef]
  5. A. Hirata, M. Harada, and T. Nagatsuma, “120-GHz wireless link using photonic techniques for generation, modulation, and emission of millimeter-wave signals,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(10), 2145–2153 (2003). [CrossRef]
  6. J. Azaña and M. A. Muriel, “Temporal self-imaging effects: theory and application for multiplying pulse repetition rates,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 728–744 (2001). [CrossRef]
  7. J. Azaña and S. Gupta, “Complete family of periodic Talbot filters for pulse repetition rate multiplication,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4270–4279 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. Tai, A. Tomita, J. L. Jewell, and A. Hasegawa, “Generation of subpicosecond solitonlike optical pulses at 0.3 THz repetition rate by induced modulational instability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(5), 236–238 (1986). [CrossRef]
  9. J. Azaña and M. A. Muriel, “Technique for multiplying the repetition rates of periodic trains of pulses by means of a temporal self-imaging effect in chirped fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett. 24(23), 1672–1674 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. Longhi, M. Marano, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, M. Belmonte, B. Agogliati, L. Arcangeli, V. Pruneri, M. N. Zervas, and M. Ibsen, “40-GHz pulse-train generation at 1.5 mum with a chirped fiber grating as a frequency multiplier,” Opt. Lett. 25(19), 1481–1483 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. H. Lee, Y. Chang, Y. G. Han, S. Kim, and S. Lee, “2 ~ 5 times tunable repetition-rate multiplication of a 10 GHz pulse source using a linearly tunable, chirped fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Express 12(17), 3900–3905 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Caraquitena, Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Tunable pulse repetition-rate multiplication using phase-only line-by-line pulse shaping,” Opt. Lett. 32(6), 716–718 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. Azaña, P. Kockaert, R. Slavik, L. R. Chen, and S. LaRochelle, “Generation of a 100-GHz optical pulse train by pulse repetition-rate multiplication using superimposed fiber Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(3), 413–415 (2003). [CrossRef]
  14. J. Magné, J. Bolger, M. Rochette, S. LaRochelle, L. R. Chen, B. J. Eggleton, and J. Azaña, “Generation of a 4 × 100 GHz pulse-train from a single-wavelength 10-GHz mode-locked laser using superimposed fiber Bragg gratings and nonlinear conversion,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(5), 2091–2099 (2006). [CrossRef]
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