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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 17 — Aug. 15, 2011
  • pp: 15833–15842
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A design method of lithium niobate on insulator ridge waveguides without leakage loss

Emi Saitoh, Yuki Kawaguchi, Kunimasa Saitoh, and Masanori Koshiba  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 17, pp. 15833-15842 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.015833


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Abstract

We evaluate structural dependency of leakage losses in lithium niobate on insulator ridge waveguides. Generally, shallow ridge waveguides based on isotropic materials have inherent leakage loss for TM-like mode. On the other hand, lithium niobate is anisotropic material, thus the optical properties of lithium niobate based ridge waveguides are different from those of isotopic material based ridge waveguides. In this paper, we investigate leakage losses of lithium niobate on insulator ridge waveguides. We show that the shallow ridge waveguide structure without leakage loss can be realized by choosing the waveguide parameters adequately.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

Due to their high refractive index contrast, silicon photonic wires based on silicon on insulator (SOI) can realize strong field confinement, and be used for ultra compact optical devices such as microring resonators [1

1. B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(4), 549–551 (1998). [CrossRef]

], arrayed waveguide gratings [2

2. T. Fukazawa, F. Ohno, and T. Baba, “Very compact arrayed-waveguide-grating demultiplexer using Si photonic wire waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 5B), L673–L675 (2004). [CrossRef]

], and splitters [3

3. A. Sakai, T. Fukazawa, and T. Baba, “Low loss ultra-small branches in a silicon photonic wire waveguide,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E 85-C, 1033–1038 (2002).

]. Electro-optic modulators are also fabricated [4

4. Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] in SOI, but owing to its weak electro-optic effect [5

5. R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987). [CrossRef]

], silicon is not suitable for such devices. On the other hand, lithium niobate (LN) offers excellent electro-optic, acousto-optic, and nonlinear optical properties [6

6. R. S. Weis and T. K. Gaylord, “Lithium niobate: summary of physical properties and crystal structure,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 37(4), 191–203 (1985). [CrossRef]

], so LN has been applied to various active and passive devices, such as modulators [7

7. E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000). [CrossRef]

], mode converters [8

8. R. C. Alferness, “Efficient waveguide electro-optic TE⇔TM mode converter / wavelength filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36(7), 513–515 (1980). [CrossRef]

], polarizer [9

9. M. Papuchon and S. Vatoux, “Integrated optical polariser on LiNbO3:Ti channel waveguides using proton exchange,” Electron. Lett. 19(16), 612–613 (1983). [CrossRef]

], and lasers [10

10. C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000). [CrossRef]

]. However, most of the reported waveguides were fabricated by using Ti in-diffusion or proton exchange [11

11. M. N. Armenise, “Fabrication techniques of lithium niobate waveguides,” IEE Proc. Pt. J 135, 85–91 (1988).

]. These fabrication techniques induce very small index change, therefore the confinement of electromagnetic fields is not strong. In other words, it is difficult to miniaturize optical devices by using conventional LN waveguides.

Recently, crystal ion slicing combined with wafer bonding is reported as a fabrication method of LN smart guide [12

12. P. Rabiei and P. Gunter, “Optical and electro-optical properties of submicrometer lithium niobate slab waveguides prepared by crystal ion slicing and wafer bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4603–4605 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. This method can realize high index contrast LN on insulator (LNOI) waveguides with submicron core size. Therefore, LNOI can be a good candidate for various integrated functional optical devices. Ridge waveguides and photonic wires are fabricated in LNOI [13

13. P. Rabiei and W. H. Steier, “Lithium niobate ridge waveguides and modulators fabricated using smart guide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 161115 (2005). [CrossRef]

,14

14. H. Hu, R. Ricken, and W. Sohler, “Lithium niobate photonic wires,” Opt. Express 17(26), 24261–24268 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and their applications such as modulators [13

13. P. Rabiei and W. H. Steier, “Lithium niobate ridge waveguides and modulators fabricated using smart guide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 161115 (2005). [CrossRef]

] or microring resonators [15

15. M. Koechlin, F. Sulser, Z. Sitar, G. Poberaj, and P. Günter, “Free-standing lithium niobate microring resonators for hybrid integrated optics,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(4), 251–253 (2010). [CrossRef]

] have been reported. Photonic wires can achieve very strong field confinement, but scattering loss is large owing to side-wall roughness. In Ref [14

14. H. Hu, R. Ricken, and W. Sohler, “Lithium niobate photonic wires,” Opt. Express 17(26), 24261–24268 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], LNOI wire was fabricated and the measured loss was 9.9 dB/cm. The main cause of the loss was scattering loss due to roughness of the side-wall. On the other hand, ridge waveguides achieve low scattering loss due to their low ridge height, although lateral optical confinement is weak. In Ref [13

13. P. Rabiei and W. H. Steier, “Lithium niobate ridge waveguides and modulators fabricated using smart guide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 161115 (2005). [CrossRef]

], scattering loss of fabricated LNOI ridge waveguide was negligible small after polishing for LN film and etching by Argon ion beam milling. Ridge waveguides are also used for lateral electrical access to apply for electro-optical devices, therefore ridge waveguides are important structure for such devices. It is known that shallow ridge waveguides based on isotropic materials have leakage loss which has cyclic minima and dependency on ridge width for TM-like mode [16

16. M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, A. Mitchell, and T. L. Koch, “Width dependence of inherent TM-mode lateral leakage loss in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(6), 429–431 (2007). [CrossRef]

18

18. K. Kakihara, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, “Generalized simple theory for estimating lateral leakage loss behavior in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(23), 5492–5499 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. LN is anisotropic material, and it is reported that LNOI slab waveguides have different characteristics from isotropic waveguides [19

19. G. W. Burr, S. Diziain, and M.-P. Bernal, “Theoretical study of lithium niobate slab waveguides for integrated optics applications,” Opt. Mater. 31(10), 1492–1497 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. Optical characteristics of ridge waveguides relate closely to that of slab waveguides, therefore, we can predict that characteristics of LNOI ridge waveguides are also different from those of isotropic ridge waveguides. In this paper, we investigate leakage loss of LNOI ridge waveguides using vector finite element method (VFEM) [20

20. K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element schme: application to photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 927–933 (2002). [CrossRef]

].

This paper is structured as follows. In section 2, basic theory of leakage loss in ridge waveguides is explained. We show that leakage loss behavior of LNOI is different from that of conventional SOI based ridge waveguides. In section 3, leakage losses of LNOI ridge waveguides are investigated by using VFEM. We show that we can design LNOI ridge waveguide without leakage loss for both TE- and TM-like modes even if ridge is shallow. In section 4, we discuss design methods of ridge waveguides where leakage loss does not exist in details. In section 5, findings are summarized.

2. Theory of leakage loss in ridge waveguides

Inherently, there is leakage loss which depends on ridge width in shallow ridge waveguides [16

16. M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, A. Mitchell, and T. L. Koch, “Width dependence of inherent TM-mode lateral leakage loss in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(6), 429–431 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. The cause of the leakage loss is TE/TM mode conversion at the ridge boundary. This mode conversion makes leakage loss, therefore the leakage loss behavior can be estimated from optical intensity of unguided slab mode converted from guided mode [17

17. M. Koshiba, K. Kakihara, and K. Saitoh, “Reduced lateral leakage losses of TM-like modes in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 33(17), 2008–2010 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,18

18. K. Kakihara, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, “Generalized simple theory for estimating lateral leakage loss behavior in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(23), 5492–5499 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. When the effective index of guided mode in ridge waveguide is lower than that of unguided slab mode in lateral cladding, some guided slab waves are converted to slab mode and leak to lateral cladding due to discontinuity at the ridge boundary. In SOI shallow ridge waveguides, the effective index of TE-slab mode is higher than that of TM-like mode, and therefore, TM-like mode becomes leaky. In this case, some TM polarization waves of TM-like mode are converted to TE polarization waves at the ridge boundary. Some of the converted TE waves radiate directly to the lateral cladding, and combine with TE-slab mode. The other waves are reflected at the ridge wall and across the ridge and radiate to the lateral cladding at another ridge boundary, and also combine with TE-slab mode. These two different converted TE waves are approximately equal in magnitude ϕ 0 and the phase difference is π. We can predict leakage loss behavior using these TE waves of TE-slab mode. To predict leakage loss behavior, we use optical intensity I of TE-slab mode, represented as the following equation [17

17. M. Koshiba, K. Kakihara, and K. Saitoh, “Reduced lateral leakage losses of TM-like modes in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 33(17), 2008–2010 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,18

18. K. Kakihara, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, “Generalized simple theory for estimating lateral leakage loss behavior in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(23), 5492–5499 (2009). [CrossRef]

]:
I2|ϕ0|2(1cosk1w)
(1)
with
k1=k0nTE2(t1)Neff,TM2
(2)
where k 0 is the wavenumber in vacuum, n TE(t 1) is the effective index of TE-slab mode with slab thickness t 1 as shown in Fig. 1(a)
Fig. 1 Cross section of LNOI (a) ridge and (b) slab waveguides.
, N eff,TM is the effective index of TM-like mode in ridge waveguides.

Then, we discuss the case of LNOI ridge waveguides. We consider a LNOI ridge waveguide as shown in Fig. 1(a), where t 1 and t 2 are the slab thicknesses at ridge and lateral cladding regions respectively, and w is the ridge width. We assume under cladding is silica, its index is 1.444, and over cladding is air. We set LN ordinary index and extra-ordinary index as 2.210 and 2.138, respectively. Refractive index distribution of LN depends on crystal cut direction. Z-cut LN is widely used for applications such as modulators, but it is recently reported that X-cut LNOI has unique characteristics [19

19. G. W. Burr, S. Diziain, and M.-P. Bernal, “Theoretical study of lithium niobate slab waveguides for integrated optics applications,” Opt. Mater. 31(10), 1492–1497 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. The effective indices of TE- and TM-slab modes coincide with each other in X-cut Y propagation LNOI slab waveguides, while this phenomenon does not arise in Z-cut LNOI slab waveguides. This is an important feature for the applications such as mode converters. Thus we consider two cut directions, Z-cut and X-cut. We plot the effective indices of TE- and TM-slab modes as a function of slab thickness in Z-cut and X-cut Y propagation slab waveguides as shown in Fig. 1(b) at λ = 1.55 μm in Figs. 2(a) and (b)
Fig. 2 Effective index of slab mode in (a) Z-cut and (b) X-cut Y-propagation LNOI slab waveguides as a function of slab thickness at λ = 1.55 μm.
, respectively, where λ is the wavelength. The effective index of TE-slab mode is always higher than that of TM-slab mode in Z-cut slab waveguides. Therefore,

TM-like mode becomes leaky in Z-cut ridge waveguides and leakage loss behavior is predicted in the same way as SOI ridge waveguides. On the other hand, the effective indices of TE- and TM-slab modes in X-cut slab waveguides coincide with each other at slab thickness of 0.713 μm. We define this slab thickness as t c. If the slab thickness is thinner than t c, the effective index of TE-slab mode is higher than that of TM-slab mode. Therefore, TM-like mode becomes leaky and the leakage loss behavior is predicted in the same way as Z-cut LNOI and SOI. If the slab thickness is thicker than t c, the effective index of TM-slab mode is higher than that of TE-slab mode. Therefore, TE-like mode becomes leaky mode. In this case, we can predict leakage loss behavior using optical intensity of TM-slab mode. We can obtain optical intensity of TM-slab mode from Eq. (1), but we note that k 1 is replaced as
k1=k0nTM2(t1)Neff,TE2
(3)
where n TM(t 1) is the effective index of TM-slab mode with slab thickness t 1 and N eff,TE is the effective index of TE-like mode in ridge waveguide. When the slab thickness equals t c, it is expected that mode conversion does not occur. In other words, it is expected that we can design ridge waveguide without leakage loss for both the TE- and TM-like modes.

3. Evaluation of leakage loss behavior

3.1 Leakage losses of Z-cut LNOI ridge waveguides

We evaluate Z-cut Y propagation LNOI ridge waveguides with t 1 = 0.55 μm and t 2 = 0.5 μm. Figure 3(a)
Fig. 3 (a) Leakage losses of TE- and TM-like modes and (b) optical intensity of TE-slab mode in Z-cut LNOI ridge waveguide with t 1 = 0.55 μm and t 2 = 0.5 μm as a function of ridge width at λ = 1.55 μm.
shows leakage losses as a function of ridge width calculated by the following processes. The waveguide cross section is divided by curvilinear hybrid edge/nodal element. We calculate matrix eigenvalue equation with anisotropic-type perfectly matched layer (PML) [20

20. K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element schme: application to photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 927–933 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. By solving the eigenvalue equation, we obtain the complex propagation constant β. The leakage loss can be calculated by
Leakageloss=8.686Im{β}[dB/m]
(4)
where Im stands for the imaginary part. Figure 3(b) shows optical intensity of TE-slab mode calculated by Eq. (1). We can confirm leakage loss which has cyclic minima for TM-like mode. The ridge width dependency of the leakage loss for TM-like mode well agrees with optical intensity of TE-slab mode shown in Fig. 3(b). Therefore, the leakage loss behavior of Z-cut LNOI ridge waveguides correlates with SOI ridge waveguides.

3.2 Leakage losses of X-cut LNOI ridge waveguides

As shown in Fig. 2(b), the effective indices of TE- and TM-slab modes intersect at t c in X-cut LNOI slab waveguides. At first, we consider two structures of X-cut Y propagation LNOI ridge waveguides; (t 1, t 2) = (0.55 μm, 0.5 μm) and (1.1 μm, 1.0 μm). The first structure is predicted that TM-like mode becomes leaky, and the second one is predicted that TE-like mode becomes leaky. Figure 4(a)
Fig. 4 (a) Leakage losses of TE- and TM-like modes and (b) optical intensity of TE-slab mode in X-cut LNOI ridge waveguide as a function of ridge width with t 1 = 0.55 μm and t 2 = 0.5 μm at λ = 1.55 μm.
shows leakage losses of the first structure. We can see leakage loss for TM-like mode as expected, and its ridge width dependency well agrees with optical intensity of TE-slab mode in Fig. 4(b). Figure 5(a)
Fig. 5 (a) Leakage losses of TE- and TM-like modes and (b) optical intensity of TM-slab mode in X-cut LNOI ridge waveguide with t 1 = 1.0 μm and t 2 = 1.1 μm as a function of ridge width at λ = 1.55 μm.
shows leakage loss of the second structure. We can see leakage loss for TE-like mode, as expected. Its ridge width dependency well agrees with optical intensity of TM-slab mode in Fig. 5(b).

Next, we consider a shallow ridge waveguide with t 1 = 0.723 μm and t 2 = 0.703 μm, where the slab thicknesses, t 1 and t 2, are designed around t c, namely, are determined by the following equation:

(t1+t2)/2=tc
(5)

4. Investigation of structural parameters in ridge waveguides without leakage loss

Next, we consider the case that t c is not located between t 1 and t 2. We consider two structures; (t 1, t 2) = (0.7 μm, 0.65 μm) and (0.735 μm, 0.715 μm). The former/latter structures are the ridge waveguides where t 1 and t 2 are smaller/larger than t c. Figures 11(a), (b)
Fig. 11 (a) Leakage losses of TE- and TM–like modes and (b) effective index in X-cut LNOI ridge waveguide with t 1 = 0.7 μm and t 2 = 0.65 μm as a function of ridge width at λ = 1.55 μm.
and 12(a), (b)
Fig. 12 (a) Leakage losses of TE- and TM-like modes and (b) effective index in X-cut LNOI ridge waveguide with t 1 = 0.735 μm and t 2 = 0.715 μm as a function of ridge width at λ = 1.55 μm.
show leakage losses of TE- and TM-like modes, and effective indices in the first and the second structures, respectively. We can see that TM (TE)-like mode becomes leaky mode when t 1 and t 2 are smaller (larger) than t c. However, leakage losses can be suppressed by designing ridge waveguides with the wide ridge width. These results mean that Eq. (5) is not absolute requirement to eliminate leakage loss from ridge waveguides. But choosing t 1 and t 2 near t c realize non-leakage loss structure with shallow ridge.

5. Conclusion

References and links

1.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(4), 549–551 (1998). [CrossRef]

2.

T. Fukazawa, F. Ohno, and T. Baba, “Very compact arrayed-waveguide-grating demultiplexer using Si photonic wire waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 5B), L673–L675 (2004). [CrossRef]

3.

A. Sakai, T. Fukazawa, and T. Baba, “Low loss ultra-small branches in a silicon photonic wire waveguide,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E 85-C, 1033–1038 (2002).

4.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987). [CrossRef]

6.

R. S. Weis and T. K. Gaylord, “Lithium niobate: summary of physical properties and crystal structure,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 37(4), 191–203 (1985). [CrossRef]

7.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000). [CrossRef]

8.

R. C. Alferness, “Efficient waveguide electro-optic TE⇔TM mode converter / wavelength filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36(7), 513–515 (1980). [CrossRef]

9.

M. Papuchon and S. Vatoux, “Integrated optical polariser on LiNbO3:Ti channel waveguides using proton exchange,” Electron. Lett. 19(16), 612–613 (1983). [CrossRef]

10.

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000). [CrossRef]

11.

M. N. Armenise, “Fabrication techniques of lithium niobate waveguides,” IEE Proc. Pt. J 135, 85–91 (1988).

12.

P. Rabiei and P. Gunter, “Optical and electro-optical properties of submicrometer lithium niobate slab waveguides prepared by crystal ion slicing and wafer bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4603–4605 (2004). [CrossRef]

13.

P. Rabiei and W. H. Steier, “Lithium niobate ridge waveguides and modulators fabricated using smart guide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 161115 (2005). [CrossRef]

14.

H. Hu, R. Ricken, and W. Sohler, “Lithium niobate photonic wires,” Opt. Express 17(26), 24261–24268 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

M. Koechlin, F. Sulser, Z. Sitar, G. Poberaj, and P. Günter, “Free-standing lithium niobate microring resonators for hybrid integrated optics,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(4), 251–253 (2010). [CrossRef]

16.

M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, A. Mitchell, and T. L. Koch, “Width dependence of inherent TM-mode lateral leakage loss in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(6), 429–431 (2007). [CrossRef]

17.

M. Koshiba, K. Kakihara, and K. Saitoh, “Reduced lateral leakage losses of TM-like modes in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 33(17), 2008–2010 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

K. Kakihara, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, “Generalized simple theory for estimating lateral leakage loss behavior in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(23), 5492–5499 (2009). [CrossRef]

19.

G. W. Burr, S. Diziain, and M.-P. Bernal, “Theoretical study of lithium niobate slab waveguides for integrated optics applications,” Opt. Mater. 31(10), 1492–1497 (2009). [CrossRef]

20.

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element schme: application to photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 927–933 (2002). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(130.0130) Integrated optics : Integrated optics
(130.3120) Integrated optics : Integrated optics devices
(130.3730) Integrated optics : Lithium niobate
(230.7370) Optical devices : Waveguides

ToC Category:
Integrated Optics

History
Original Manuscript: April 18, 2011
Revised Manuscript: June 2, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: July 20, 2011
Published: August 4, 2011

Citation
Emi Saitoh, Yuki Kawaguchi, Kunimasa Saitoh, and Masanori Koshiba, "A design method of lithium niobate on insulator ridge waveguides without leakage loss," Opt. Express 19, 15833-15842 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-17-15833


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References

  1. B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(4), 549–551 (1998). [CrossRef]
  2. T. Fukazawa, F. Ohno, and T. Baba, “Very compact arrayed-waveguide-grating demultiplexer using Si photonic wire waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 5B), L673–L675 (2004). [CrossRef]
  3. A. Sakai, T. Fukazawa, and T. Baba, “Low loss ultra-small branches in a silicon photonic wire waveguide,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E 85-C, 1033–1038 (2002).
  4. Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987). [CrossRef]
  6. R. S. Weis and T. K. Gaylord, “Lithium niobate: summary of physical properties and crystal structure,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 37(4), 191–203 (1985). [CrossRef]
  7. E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000). [CrossRef]
  8. R. C. Alferness, “Efficient waveguide electro-optic TE⇔TM mode converter / wavelength filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36(7), 513–515 (1980). [CrossRef]
  9. M. Papuchon and S. Vatoux, “Integrated optical polariser on LiNbO3:Ti channel waveguides using proton exchange,” Electron. Lett. 19(16), 612–613 (1983). [CrossRef]
  10. C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000). [CrossRef]
  11. M. N. Armenise, “Fabrication techniques of lithium niobate waveguides,” IEE Proc. Pt. J 135, 85–91 (1988).
  12. P. Rabiei and P. Gunter, “Optical and electro-optical properties of submicrometer lithium niobate slab waveguides prepared by crystal ion slicing and wafer bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4603–4605 (2004). [CrossRef]
  13. P. Rabiei and W. H. Steier, “Lithium niobate ridge waveguides and modulators fabricated using smart guide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 161115 (2005). [CrossRef]
  14. H. Hu, R. Ricken, and W. Sohler, “Lithium niobate photonic wires,” Opt. Express 17(26), 24261–24268 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Koechlin, F. Sulser, Z. Sitar, G. Poberaj, and P. Günter, “Free-standing lithium niobate microring resonators for hybrid integrated optics,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(4), 251–253 (2010). [CrossRef]
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