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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 17 — Aug. 15, 2011
  • pp: 16346–16355
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Ultrafast nonlinear optical response of photoconductive ZnO films with fluorine nanoparticles

C. Torres-Torres, J. H. Castro-Chacón, L. Castañeda, R. Rangel Rojo, R. Torres-Martínez, L. Tamayo-Rivera, and A. V. Khomenko  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 17, pp. 16346-16355 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.016346


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Abstract

The absorptive and refractive third order nonlinear optical properties exhibited by a ZnO thin solid film with fluorine nanoparticles were studied with picosecond and femtosecond pulses using different techniques. We were able to evaluate the photoconductivity of the material and the quenching of the induced birefringence observed in the presence of two-photon absorption. The samples were prepared by a chemical spray deposition technique. In order to investigate the different contributions of the third order nonlinearities of the film, we analyzed the vectorial self-diffraction effect and the optical Kerr transmittance observed in the sample. A dominantly absorptive nonlinearity was measured at a 532 nm wavelength with 50 ps pulses, while nonlinear refraction was found to be negligible in this regime. On the other side, a pure electronic refractive third order nonlinearity without the contribution of nonlinear absorption was detected at 830 nm with 80 fs pulse duration. A quasi-instantaneous optical response and a strong enhancement in the ultrafast nonlinear refraction with the inhibition of the picosecond two-photon absorption mechanism were measured for the case of the femtosecond excitation.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

Beside their tiny size, one of the most amazing and shocking features of the nanostructured media seem to be their strong and exceptional optical behavior. The morphology, size or density of the Nanoparticles (NPs) confined in a media can originate the modulation of effects or the control of physical perturbations that can be particularly enhanced or inhibited in comparison with phenomena in bulk materials. These characteristics have attracted considerable attention to these nanocomposites, and it has eventually generated numerous potential applications in several areas like medicine [1

1. P. C. Chen, S. C. Mwakwari, and A. K. Oyelere, “Gold nanoparticles: From nanomedicine to nanosensing,” Nanotechnol. Sci. Appl. 1, 45–65 (2008).

], photonics [2

2. H. Rigneault, J.-M. Lourtiouz, C. Delalande, and A. Leven, Nanophotonics (ISTE Ltd, Newport Beach, CA, USA, 2006).

] and plasmonics [3

3. J. Z. Zhang and C. Noguez, “Plasmonic optical properties and applications of metal nanostructures,” Plasmonics 3(4), 127–150 (2008). [CrossRef]

]; but the distinctive possibility of building nanostructures with a huge number of ultrafast applications makes them especially attractive for all-optical telecommunication devices [4

4. E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311(5758), 189–193 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. A lot of research developed all over the world seem to point out prospects to obtain a fast and powerful nonlinear response of optical media with the combination of optical properties of NPs; added to the versatility of preparation methods used for their fabrication and design of their nonlinear optical features [5

5. D. Torres-Torres, M. Trejo-Valdez, L. Castañeda, C. Torres-Torres, L. Tamayo-Rivera, R. C. Fernández-Hernández, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, J. Muñoz-Saldaña, R. Rangel-Rojo, and A. Oliver, “Inhibition of the two-photon absorption response exhibited by a bilayer TiO2 film with embedded Au nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16406–16417 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Several possibilities suggest that temperature changes can easily induce significant changes on the absorptive and refractive properties of nanostructured materials [6

6. C. Torres-Torres, A. López-Suárez, L. Tamayo-Rivera, R. Rangel-Rojo, A. Crespo-Sosa, J. C. Alonso, and A. Oliver, “Thermo-optic effect and optical third order nonlinearity in nc-Si embedded in a silicon-nitride film,” Opt. Express 16(22), 18390–18396 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Furthermore, the duration of the excitation of the particles can be linked to physical mechanisms that generate different effects [7

7. C. Torres-Torres, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, L. Rodríguez-Fernández, and A. Oliver, “Optical third order nonlinearity by nanosecond and picosecond pulses in Cu nanoparticles in ion-implanted silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(1), 014306 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. Specific morphologies of nanostructures can be responsible of unexpected resonant mechanisms of nonlinear optical absorption [8

8. C. Torres-Torres, M. Trejo-Valdez, H. Sobral, P. Santiago-Jacinto, and J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, “Stimulated emission and optical third order nonlinearity in Li-doped ZnO nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(31), 13515–13521 (2009). [CrossRef]

]; and moreover, it can be possible that completely opposite optical effects can be exhibited by the same nanostructured material only with the modification of their size and particle density [9

9. A. López-Suárez, C. Torres-Torres, R. Rangel-Rojo, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, G. Santana, J. C. Alonso, A. Ortiz, and A. Oliver, “Modification of the nonlinear optical absorption and optical Kerr response exhibited by nc-Si embedded in a silicon-nitride film,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10056–10068 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,10

10. J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, V. Rodríguez-Iglesias, H.-G. Silva-Pereyra, C. Torres-Torres, A.-L. Santiago-Ramírez, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, L. Rodríguez-Fernández, A. López-Suárez, and A. Oliver, “Anisotropic linear and nonlinear optical properties from anisotropy-controlled metallic nanocomposites,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12849–12868 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Evidently, all of these circumstances imply that the mechanisms associated to the optical properties of nanostructured samples can be controlled in order to enhance their nonlinear optical response [11

11. R. Rangel-Rojo, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, C. Torres-Torres, A. Oliver, L. Rodríguez-Fernández, A. Crespo-Sosa, J. C. Cheang-Wong, J. McCarthy, H. T. Bookey, and A. K. Kar, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of aligned elongated silver nanoparticles in silica,” in Silver Nanoparticles (InTech, 2010).

]. More to the point, it has been showed that control of the electrical parameters of photoconductive materials can generate extraordinary modifications of the transmittance of optical waves [12

12. A. Gaur, D. K. Sharma, D. S. Ahlawat, and N. Singh, “Multiphoton photoconductivity and optical nonlinearities in ZnSe and CdSe direct band gap crystals,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(3), 260–264 (2007). [CrossRef]

,13

13. D. Tsiulyanu, G. Golban, E. Kolomeyko, and O. Melnic, “Photoconductivity and optical absorption of dimorphite thin films,” Phys. Status Solidi 197(1), 61–64 (1996) (b). [CrossRef]

]; and therefore there must be noticeable consequences in the resulting optical Kerr effect for intense optical beams.

In this work the ultrafast nonlinear optical response of a photoconductive ZnO thin film with embedded fluorine nanoparticles is studied using a vectorial self-diffraction technique with picosecond pulses at 532 nm, and the time-resolved optical Kerr gate technique with 830 nm femtosecond pulses. A purely electronic nonlinear refraction was measured for the femtosecond pulses, and a two-photon photoconductive effect was identified for the picosecond case. The contribution of the photoconductivity to the absorptive response was evaluated for optical excitations with 50ps pulse duration, and we were able to control the manifestation of these different effects by reducing to the femtosecond regime the pulse duration of the incident pulses.

2. Theory

E=E++E.
(1)

The two induced gratings, Ψα and ΨK, from nonlinear absorption and induced birefringence, respectively, can be written in terms of the incident and self-diffracted waves as

Ψα=2πDβλ|E1+E2+E3+E4|2,
(2)
ΨK±=4π2Dn0λ[A|E1±+E2±+E3±+E4±|2+(A+B)|E1+E2+E3+E4|2],
(3)

where β is the nonlinear absorption coefficient, λ is the wavelength, and A=Re[6χ1122(3)] and B=Re[6χ1221(3)] are the components of the third-order susceptibility tensor, χ (3), for an isotropic material [19

19. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, San Diego, 1992).

].

For a photoconductive semiconductor sample where a two photon interaction can take place, as a first approximation, there is a clear relation between the photoconductivity and the two-photon absorption (TPA) coefficient. If we consider that the quantum efficiency of the photoconductivity is 100%, and the following condition is satisfied:

α0β<I<1βz,
(4)

where αo and β are the linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients, respectively, z is the propagation length in the nonlinear media, and I is the total optical irradiance illuminating the sample. Then the photocurrent J in a semiconductor sample can be estimated as [20

20. H. Folliot, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, T. Krug, L. A. Dunbar, J. Hegarty, J. F. Donegan, and L. P. Barry, “Two-photon-induced photoconductivity enhancement in semiconductor microcavities: a theoretical investigation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19(10), 2396–2402 (2002). [CrossRef]

]

J=eS2hνβI02z,
(5)

where S represents the illuminated area, h is the Plank constant, ν is the optical frequency and e is the charge of an electron.

For such an instance, we write the amplitude transmittance function as

T^(x,z)=Ψ±(x,z)exp(α(I)z2),
(6)

with

Ψ±(x,z)=Ψα+ΨK±.
(7)

In our case, α(I)=αo+βI. It is possible to calculate the electric field of the transmitted and self-diffracted waves by means of the Fourier transform of the product between the amplitude transmittance function T^(x) and the incident field E. The electric fields thus calculated are

E1±(z)=[E1±0J0(Ψ±(1))+(iE2±0iE3±0)J1(Ψ±(1))E4±0J2(Ψ±(1))]exp(iΨ±(0)α(I)z2),
(8)
E2±(z)=[E2±0J0(Ψ±(1))+(iE4±0iE1±0)J1(Ψ±(1))E3±0J2(Ψ±(1))]exp(iΨ±(0)α(I)z2),
(9)
E3±(z)=[E3±0J0(Ψ±(1))+iE1±0J1(Ψ±(1))E2±0J2(Ψ±(1))iE4±0J3(Ψ±(1))]exp(iΨ±(0)α(I)z2),
(10)
E4±(z)=[E4±0J0(Ψ±(1))iE2±0J1(Ψ±(1))E1±0J2(Ψ±(1))+iE3±0J3(Ψ±(1))]exp(iΨ±(0)α(I)z2),
(11)

where E (z) and E (z) are the complex amplitudes of the circular components of the transmitted waves beams; E (z) and E 4 ±(z) are the amplitudes of the self-diffracted waves, while E1±0, E2±0, E3±0 and E4±0 are the amplitudes of the incident and self-diffracted waves at the surface of the sample. Jm± (1)) stands for the Bessel function of order m and

Ψ±(0)=4π2zn0λ[(A+n0β2π)j=14|Ej±|2+(A+B+n0β2π)j=14|Ej|2],
(12)
Ψ±(1)=4π2zn0λ[(A+n0β2π)j=13k=24Ej±Ek±*+(A+B+n0β2π)j=13k=24EjEk*]
(13)

are the nonlinear phase changes.

3. Experiment

3.1. Processing route of the samples

3.2. Picosecond Nonlinear Optical Response

A vectorial self-diffraction experiment [21

21. C. Torres-Torres, A. V. Khomenko, J. C. Cheang-Wong, L. Rodríguez-Fernández, A. Crespo-Sosa, and A. Oliver, “Absorptive and refractive nonlinearities by four-wave mixing for Au nanoparticles in ion-implanted silica,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9248–9253 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] was performed in order to identify the sign and the physical mechanism responsible for the nonlinear response of the sample. Figure 2
Fig. 2 Setup for the picosecond self-diffraction experiment.
shows the scheme of our experimental set up. We used a λ/2 phase retarder to rotate the polarization of one of the beams. Two polarization analyzers, in front of the photodetectors PD1-4, allow the measurement of the orthogonal polarization components of the diffracted beams associated with the sample. Self-diffracted and transmitted optical signals were measured at 532nm with the second harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser system with 50 ps pulse duration. The pulse energy at the output of the laser system was 0.7 mJ with linear polarization. A beam splitter, BM, allows the illumination of the nonlinear media by two beams with an irradiance ratio 1:1. L represents the focusing system lenses, M1-3 are mirrors and the radius of the beam waist at the focus in the sample was measured to be 0.4 mm.

3.3. Femtosecond Nonlinear Optical Response

A standard configuration for the time resolved Kerr gate technique (OKG) [22

22. L. Tamayo-Rivera, R. Rangel-Rojo, Y. Mao, and W. H. Watson, “Ultra fast third-order non-linear response of amino-triazole donor-acceptor derivatives by optical Kerr effect,” Opt. Commun. 281(20), 5239–5243 (2008). [CrossRef]

] allows us to measure the optical Kerr effect of the samples. We used a Ti:sapphire laser with λ = 830 nm, 80 fs pulses, 3 nJ maximum pulse energy and a repetition rate of 94 MHz. Figure 3
Fig. 3 Setup for the femtosecond Optical Kerr Gate experiment.
shows the experimental setup for our Kerr gate experiments, where BS is a beam splitter, M1-6 are mirrors. A half wave plate, λ/2, with a polarizer, P, are used for controlling the plane of polarization of the probe beam. L represents the focusing system. Pump and probe beams, with an irradiance relation of 15:1 and their linear polarizations making a 45° angle, are focused on the sample with a spot size of 80 μm. A polarization analyzer with its transmission axis crossed respect to the initial polarization of the probe beam, is placed before the photodetector PD1. The probe beam energy is captured using a lock-in amplifier. By delaying the probe beam with respect to the pump beam, we can observe a change in the transmittance of the system and measure the decay of the induced birefringence in the sample.

3.4. Photoconductivity measurements

Only for the picosecond pulses we were able to stimulate the photoconduction on the sample. Using a digital Fluke multimeter we measured separately the modification of the value of the electrical conductivity exhibited by the sample during the propagation of 532 nm light in two different regimes. For the first a continuous wave laser with 100mW power was used; on the other case, the Nd:YAG laser described in the last section was employed. The incident polarization of the beam was chosen to coincide with the path in measurement. The metallic electrodes used for these experiments were in direct contact with the sample; they were located in the neighbor of the diameter of the incident beam. Before measuring photoconductivity of the samples, we observed a slow dynamic phenomena associated with free carriers when propagating the picosecond optical beam. Our experimental data were acquired until the current in the sample was at equilibrium and its resistance did not change with time.

4. Results

Figure 4
Fig. 4 Linear absorption spectra.
shows the linear absorption spectrum obtained for the thin film sample. One can clearly observe an absorbing edge towards the UV that starts at 370 nm, associated with the substrate absorption. The thin film is then transparent above about 400 nm.

Figure 5
Fig. 5 Typical SEM micrograph for ZnO:F thin film.
shows a representative Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) image performed in the resulting sample of ZnO:F. The image shows evidence of the nanostructured morphology of the ZnO thin solid film.

Experimental results for the self-diffraction experiments are shown in Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Self-diffraction efficiency exhibited by the samples.
. The self-diffraction efficiency η, represents the ratio between the self-diffracted and transmitted irradiances; φ represents the angle between polarization planes of the incident beams. We consider the Fresnel losses for the beams in each layer and we obtain the nonlinear optical coefficients for the samples from a fit to the data using Eqs. (8)-(11). The ratio between the transmitted and self-diffracted beams allows us to calculate the absorptive and refractive contributions to the nonlinearity. In Fig. 6 the marks represent the experimental data, and the continuous line represents the fit to the data.

In order to achieve high peak irradiance values while minimizing the thermal load to the sample, we used fs pulses at 830 nm to modulate the phase of an optical signal. In addition we determine the electronic nonlinearity in this regime, without the concurrent effect of a thermal process. Figure 7
Fig. 7 Kerr transmittance versus probe delay in the femtosecond gate experiment
shows the data obtained from the transmittance Kerr gate experiments as a function of probe delay.

The results show a nonlinear response that raises and decays within the duration of the pulse, indicating and ultrafast response time. The results for the reference material carbone disulfide, CS2, are also shown in Fig. 7. The CS2 is a well-known nonlinear material with third-order nonlinear susceptibility |χ1111(3)|=1.9×1012 (esu) [19

19. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, San Diego, 1992).

]. Because the Kerr gate signal arises from |χ(3)|, in order to resolve a possible contribution to the measured Kerr signal from nonlinear absorption, we conducted standard pump-probe experiments for quantifying the femtosecond nonlinear absorption on the sample. From the results, we did not observe TPA even with the highest energies (3nJ) available from our laser system. Table 1

Table 1. - Optical nonlinearities exhibited by the samples.

table-icon
View This Table
summarizes the resulting parameters, which have an error bar of approximately ±10%

For the experiment associated to the photoconduction, the maximum measured modification on the conductivity of the sample was about 4.7 mho/cm ± 5%. This result was performed with the 55% of transmission of a single picosecond beam with 1.8 mJ of pulse energy absorbed in the sample by a focused beam with 0.4 mm diameter. The photocurrent associated with this value was also calculated using the β coefficient reported in Table 1 and Eq. (5); we estimate that this parameter is about 2 × 108 A/m2. This result is in agreement with the photocurrent that can also be estimated with the average of the electric field associated with the incident beams in the self-diffraction experiment, which gives 3.9 × 107 A/m2 as a result. A stable measurement of 0.195 mho/cm ±5% for the electrical conductivity of the sample was obtained during the propagation of the 100 mW CW laser at a 532 nm wavelength when the illuminated area was 0.33 cm2. This last result is equal with the conductivity of the sample in darkness. We did not detect any important optical absorption for the fs pulses up to a 3nJ pulse energy, and as it was expected, we could not measure any induced photoconductivity for this regime.

5. Discussion

6. Conclusion

Acknowledgments

We kindly acknowledge the financial support from IPN through grant SIP20110803; from COFAA-IPN, from UNAM, from CICESE, from ICyT-DF through grant PIUTE10-129; from CONACyT through grant 82708, from the Instituto de Física-BUAP, and from the SEP México through grant PROMEP/103.5/09/4194.

References and links

1.

P. C. Chen, S. C. Mwakwari, and A. K. Oyelere, “Gold nanoparticles: From nanomedicine to nanosensing,” Nanotechnol. Sci. Appl. 1, 45–65 (2008).

2.

H. Rigneault, J.-M. Lourtiouz, C. Delalande, and A. Leven, Nanophotonics (ISTE Ltd, Newport Beach, CA, USA, 2006).

3.

J. Z. Zhang and C. Noguez, “Plasmonic optical properties and applications of metal nanostructures,” Plasmonics 3(4), 127–150 (2008). [CrossRef]

4.

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311(5758), 189–193 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

D. Torres-Torres, M. Trejo-Valdez, L. Castañeda, C. Torres-Torres, L. Tamayo-Rivera, R. C. Fernández-Hernández, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, J. Muñoz-Saldaña, R. Rangel-Rojo, and A. Oliver, “Inhibition of the two-photon absorption response exhibited by a bilayer TiO2 film with embedded Au nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16406–16417 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

C. Torres-Torres, A. López-Suárez, L. Tamayo-Rivera, R. Rangel-Rojo, A. Crespo-Sosa, J. C. Alonso, and A. Oliver, “Thermo-optic effect and optical third order nonlinearity in nc-Si embedded in a silicon-nitride film,” Opt. Express 16(22), 18390–18396 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

C. Torres-Torres, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, L. Rodríguez-Fernández, and A. Oliver, “Optical third order nonlinearity by nanosecond and picosecond pulses in Cu nanoparticles in ion-implanted silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(1), 014306 (2008). [CrossRef]

8.

C. Torres-Torres, M. Trejo-Valdez, H. Sobral, P. Santiago-Jacinto, and J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, “Stimulated emission and optical third order nonlinearity in Li-doped ZnO nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(31), 13515–13521 (2009). [CrossRef]

9.

A. López-Suárez, C. Torres-Torres, R. Rangel-Rojo, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, G. Santana, J. C. Alonso, A. Ortiz, and A. Oliver, “Modification of the nonlinear optical absorption and optical Kerr response exhibited by nc-Si embedded in a silicon-nitride film,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10056–10068 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, V. Rodríguez-Iglesias, H.-G. Silva-Pereyra, C. Torres-Torres, A.-L. Santiago-Ramírez, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, L. Rodríguez-Fernández, A. López-Suárez, and A. Oliver, “Anisotropic linear and nonlinear optical properties from anisotropy-controlled metallic nanocomposites,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12849–12868 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

R. Rangel-Rojo, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, C. Torres-Torres, A. Oliver, L. Rodríguez-Fernández, A. Crespo-Sosa, J. C. Cheang-Wong, J. McCarthy, H. T. Bookey, and A. K. Kar, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of aligned elongated silver nanoparticles in silica,” in Silver Nanoparticles (InTech, 2010).

12.

A. Gaur, D. K. Sharma, D. S. Ahlawat, and N. Singh, “Multiphoton photoconductivity and optical nonlinearities in ZnSe and CdSe direct band gap crystals,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(3), 260–264 (2007). [CrossRef]

13.

D. Tsiulyanu, G. Golban, E. Kolomeyko, and O. Melnic, “Photoconductivity and optical absorption of dimorphite thin films,” Phys. Status Solidi 197(1), 61–64 (1996) (b). [CrossRef]

14.

A. I. Ryasnyanskiy, B. Palpant, S. Debrus, U. Pal, and A. L. Stepanov, “Optical nonlinearities of Au nanoparticles embedded in a zinc oxide matrix,” Opt. Commun. 273(2), 538–543 (2007). [CrossRef]

15.

M. Trejo-Valdez, R. Torres-Martínez, N. Peréa-López, P. Santiago-Jacinto, and C. Torres-Torres, “Contribution of the two-photon absorption to the third order nonlinearity of Au nanoparticles embedded in TiO2 films and in ethanol suspension,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(22), 10108–10113 (2010). [CrossRef]

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A. Guillén-Santiago, M. de la L. Olvera, and A. Maldonado, “Películas delgadas de ZnO:F depositadas por rocío químico: efecto de la temperatura de substrato sobre las propiedades físicas,” Superficies Vacío 13, 77–79 (2001).

18.

H. Liang and R. G. Gordon, “Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of transparent conducting films of fluorine doped zinc oxide and their application to amorphous silicon solar cells,” J. Mater. Sci. 42(15), 6388–6399 (2007). [CrossRef]

19.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, San Diego, 1992).

20.

H. Folliot, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, T. Krug, L. A. Dunbar, J. Hegarty, J. F. Donegan, and L. P. Barry, “Two-photon-induced photoconductivity enhancement in semiconductor microcavities: a theoretical investigation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19(10), 2396–2402 (2002). [CrossRef]

21.

C. Torres-Torres, A. V. Khomenko, J. C. Cheang-Wong, L. Rodríguez-Fernández, A. Crespo-Sosa, and A. Oliver, “Absorptive and refractive nonlinearities by four-wave mixing for Au nanoparticles in ion-implanted silica,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9248–9253 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

L. Tamayo-Rivera, R. Rangel-Rojo, Y. Mao, and W. H. Watson, “Ultra fast third-order non-linear response of amino-triazole donor-acceptor derivatives by optical Kerr effect,” Opt. Commun. 281(20), 5239–5243 (2008). [CrossRef]

23.

Z. Fan, D. Wang, P. C. Chang, W. Y. Tseng, and J. G. Lu, “ZnO nanowire field-effect transistor and oxygen sensing property,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 5923 (2004). [CrossRef]

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Y. Takahashi, M. Kanamori, A. Kondoh, H. Minoura, and Y. Ohya, “Photoconductivity of ultrathin zinc oxide films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33(Part 1, No. 12A), 6611–6615 (1994). [CrossRef]

25.

B. Claflin, D. C. Look, and D. R. Norton, “Changes in electrical characteristics of ZnO Thin films due to environmental factors,” J. Electron. Mater. 36(4), 442–445 (2007). [CrossRef]

26.

J. Carrey, H. Carrère, M. L. Kahn, B. Chaudret, X. Marie, and M. Respaud, “Photoconductivity of self-assembled ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by organometallic chemistry,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(2), 025003 (2008). [CrossRef]

27.

A. F. Diaz, M. Feldhacker, K. Kanazawa, and A. R. Gutierrez, “Photoconductivity of zinc oxide/poly(methyl methacrylate) particles,” J. Phys. Chem. 93(11), 4615–4619 (1989). [CrossRef]

28.

C. Soci, A. Zhang, B. Xiang, S. A. Dayeh, D. P. Aplin, J. Park, X. Y. Bao, Y. H. Lo, and D. Wang, “ZnO nanowire UV photodetectors with high internal gain,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 1003–1009 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

29.

B. Sturman, O. Beyer, D. Maxein, and K. Buse, “Femtosecond recording and time-resolved readout of spatial gratings in lithium niobate crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(3), 419–9999 (2007). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(160.4330) Materials : Nonlinear optical materials
(190.0190) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics
(320.7110) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast nonlinear optics

ToC Category:
Nonlinear Optics

History
Original Manuscript: April 18, 2011
Revised Manuscript: June 22, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: June 22, 2011
Published: August 10, 2011

Citation
C. Torres-Torres, J. H. Castro-Chacón, L. Castañeda, R. Rangel Rojo, R. Torres-Martínez, L. Tamayo-Rivera, and A. V. Khomenko, "Ultrafast nonlinear optical response of photoconductive ZnO films with fluorine nanoparticles," Opt. Express 19, 16346-16355 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-17-16346


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References

  1. P. C. Chen, S. C. Mwakwari, and A. K. Oyelere, “Gold nanoparticles: From nanomedicine to nanosensing,” Nanotechnol. Sci. Appl. 1, 45–65 (2008).
  2. H. Rigneault, J.-M. Lourtiouz, C. Delalande, and A. Leven, Nanophotonics (ISTE Ltd, Newport Beach, CA, USA, 2006).
  3. J. Z. Zhang and C. Noguez, “Plasmonic optical properties and applications of metal nanostructures,” Plasmonics 3(4), 127–150 (2008). [CrossRef]
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