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Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 18 — Aug. 29, 2011
  • pp: 17021–17029
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Experimental study on the characteristics of molecular emission spectroscopy for the analysis of solid materials containing C and N

Meirong Dong, Jidong Lu, Shunchun Yao, Ziming Zhong, Junyan Li, Jun Li, and Weiye Lu  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 18, pp. 17021-17029 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.017021


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Abstract

Solid materials with different structure containing C and N were analyzed by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Comparing the emission molecular species in different atmosphere (air and argon), it can be determined that whether the molecular species are directly vaporized from sample or generated through dissociation or the interaction between plasma and air molecules. The results showed that the characteristic of C2 bands emission is similar with that of neutral atomic carbon emission CI in different atmosphere (air and argon). While the characteristic of CN bands emission is more complicated and it has great relationship with the existence of CN radicals, the interaction between plasma and air ambient, and the recombination of excited partials.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

In laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), plasma formed by a focused laser pulse can be used to determine the chemical species that constitute the sample [1

1. D. A. Cremers and L. J. Radziemski, Handbook of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (Wiley, Chichester, 2006).

,2

2. J. P. Singh and S. N. Thakur, Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, 2007).

]. Due to its versatility, this technique has been applied in many applications within variant disciplines. The development of LIBS portable systems for field applications is constantly increasing in recent years [3

3. J. Cuñat, F. J. Fortes, and J. J. Laserna, “Real time and in situ determination of lead in road sediments using a man-portable laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analyzer,” Anal. Chim. Acta 633(1), 38–42 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5

5. J. J. Laserna, R. F. Reyes, R. González, L. Tobaria, and P. Lucena, “Study on the effect of beam propagation through atmospheric turbulence on standoff nanosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10265–10276 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. On-line and real-time analyses are also possible [6

6. C. López-Moreno, S. Palanco, and J. J. Laserna, “Stand-off analysis of moving targets using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 22(1), 84–87 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. However, extending this technique for analyzing non-metal elements still remains a challenging task. Only a few spectral lines of these elements are suitable with their detection and quantification. Most strong emission lines occur either in vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) or in near infra-red (NIR) spectral region. On the other hand, atmospheric gas is mainly composed of nitrogen and oxygen elements. Indeed, the process of laser ablation is complex and produced plasmas are characterized by different atomic, molecular, and cluster-like chemical species which are ablated directly from the irradiated target or produced by probable chemical reactions in gas-phase [7

7. S. Acquaviva, “Simulation of emission molecular spectra by a semi-automatic programme package: the case of C2 and CN diatomic molecules emitting during laser ablation of a graphite target in nitrogen environment,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 60(8-9), 2079–2086 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Emission bands from molecules containing C2 in the Swan system and CN in the violet system can be identified at the same time from the laser-induced plasma spectroscopy with the atomic emission [8

8. C. Vivien, J. Hermann, A. Perrone, C. Boulmer-Leborgne, and A. Luches, “A study of molecule formation during laser ablation of graphite in low-pressure nitrogen,” J. Phys. D 31(10), 1263–1272 (1998). [CrossRef]

,9

9. M. Tran, Q. Sun, B. W. Smith, and J. D. Winefordner, “Determination of C: H: O: N ratios in solid organic compounds by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 16(6), 628–632 (2001). [CrossRef]

].

Most of the above work focused on organic or biological material identification using molecular emission from CN and C2. Compared to the analysis of metallic samples, the LIBS plasma formation process of non-metal elements is complex and the analysis of these elements under atmospheric pressure is much more sensitive to the interaction between plasma and ambient air, since such interaction leads to interfering emission for non-metal elements detection such as O, N, or CN, resulting from the dissociation of air molecular or the recombination between plasma and air [18

18. M. Boueri, M. Baudelet, J. Yu, X. L. Mao, S. S. Mao, and R. Russo, “Early stage expansion and time-resolved spectral emission of laser-induced plasma from polymer,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(24), 9566–9571 (2009). [CrossRef]

].

Actually, non-metallic elements are presented in actual detection samples with different structure, such as the carbon in coal and fly ash, the nitrogen in coal and fertilizer [19

19. K. C. Xie, Coal Structure and Its Reactivity (Science Press, Beijing, 2002) (in Chinese).

21

21. Fertilizer and Soil Conditioner National Standardization Technical Committee, “Determination of potassium content for compound fertilizers potassium tetraphenylborate gravimetric method,”·GB/T8574[S] (2002) (in Chinese).

]. It indicated that, even for the same element, the structures are different in the different materials. Our works are focused on characteristics of the sample structure and surrounding environment which are two important factors affecting LIBS spectrum. The experiments performed both in air and in argon atmospheres have been compared to evaluate the contribution of air in the spectrum. Several solid materials with different structure containing carbon and nitrogen were subjected to LIBS analysis in order to explore the influence of molecular structure and atmosphere on the characteristic of CN and C2 molecular band emission. Of special interest to us is the origin analysis of the molecular emission from CN and C2 and its correlation with atomic carbon line.

2. Experimental

A set of solid materials with different structure containing carbon and nitrogen were subjected to LIBS experiment. The molecular formula and chemical structure for the compounds investigated are shown in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Molecular formula and chemical structure for the investigated solid materials: (a) graphite, C-C bonds (b) P-Aminobenzene sulfonic acid anhydrous C-C, C = C, C-N bonds (c) Urea, C-N bonds (d) Coal chemical structure model proposed by Wiser [19], C-C,C = C,C-N bonds
. Measurements were performed both in air atmosphere and in argon flow. The gas flow with a flux of 15 l/min was directed to the sample surface adjusted to exclude the ambient air completely from the plasma plume.

3. Results and discussion

The plasma emission spectrum is well dominated by neutral atomic carbon, C2, and CN molecular bands emission. The common neutral atomic carbon emission lines presented in the plume have been identified based on NIST (National Institute for Standards and Technology) databases [22

22. “NIST: Atomic Spectra Database Lines Form,” http://physics.nist.gov/PhysRefData/ASD/lines_form.html.

], as shown in Table 1

Table 1. Peak wavelength of neutral atomic carbon emission lines

table-icon
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, and the molecular bands studied in the experiment are summarized in Table 2

Table 2. Peak wavelength of molecular bands of the emission lines

table-icon
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[23

23. S. Abdelli-Messaci, T. Kerdja, A. Bendib, and S. Malek, “CN emission spectroscopy study of carbon plasma in nitrogen environment,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 60(7-8), 955–959 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. Comparing the excitation energy of neutral atomic carbon and molecular emission, it can be seen that the atomic carbon emission line is a factor of 2-3 larger than those for the diatomic species C2 and CN. Hence, molecular bands emission CN and C2 may be directly formed by fragmentation of the sample which contains diatomic structure like single bond C-C, double bond C = C, or C-N bond. We can easily observe them from LIBS spectrum together with atomic emission for laser ablation of the solid materials containing C and N.

Figure 3
Fig. 3 C2 Molecular emission spectroscopy of (a) graphite, (b) P-Aminobenzene sulfonic acid anhydrous, (c) urea, (d) coal in the range of 462–518nm.
presents the LIBS spectra for the solid materials containing C and N in different ambient (air and argon flow) in the range of 462–518 nm, which include the C2 emission of Swan system (d3g → a3u) of the sequence (Δν = 0, +1). The C2 molecular emission can be easily detected for all samples both in air and in argon flow except for urea, as shown in Fig. 3 c, which does not contain single bond C-C or double bond C = C. Some workers state that the recombination of carbon atoms C + C + M ↔ C2 + M is an important process forming C2 [24

24. Z. Zelinger, M. Novotny, J. Bulir, J. Lancok, P. Kubat, and M. Jelinek, “Laser plasma plume kinetic spectroscopy of the nitrogen and carbon species,” Contrib. Plasma Phys. 43(7), 426–432 (2003). [CrossRef]

], while other workers argue that at longer delays the most important C2 formation process become the reaction of C with CN and CH: CN + C ↔ C2 + H, and C + CH ↔ C2 + H. the formation of C2 [25

25. Q. Ma and P. J. Dagdigian, “Kinetic model of atomic and molecular emissions in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of organic compounds,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 400(10), 3193–3205 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The researchers have concluded the different conclusions about C2 formation process, which are mainly depending on the experiment condition. But the common in all the above reaction is that the ablated species should contain enough carbon ions. It can be expected that ablation of urea under our conditions (air and argon flow) does not produce enough excited carbon ions so that we cannot observe the C2 emission from the plasma. From that we also can conclude that the diatomic structure (single bond C-C or double bond C = C) presented in the sample would contribute to the observation of C2 molecular emission bands. It can be found that the molecular bonds emission intensity is larger in argon ambient than that in air ambient, which is similar to the neutral atomic carbon emission line intensity. Figure 4
Fig. 4 Carbon atomic emission spectroscopy of coal sample in the range of 192–249nm.
presents the LIBS spectra for coal in different atmosphere (air and argon flow) in the range of 192–249nm, which include the neutral atomic carbon emission CI 193 nm and CI 247.8 nm. The above LIBS spectral range for the other samples show very similar characteristic and are not presented here. The ambient gas plays a major role in the chemistry in the plasma. Generally, in the buffer gas, such as argon, the larger rates of the production of emitting species will occur which would attribute the high electron concentration leading the enhancement of plasma emission intensity in an argon atmosphere [26

26. J. A. Aguilera and C. Aragon, “A comparison of the temperatures and electron densities of laser-produced plasma obtained in air, argon, and helium at atmospheric pressure,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(7), S475–S478 (1999). [CrossRef]

28

28. V. Babushok, F. Deluciajr, P. Dagdigian, and A. Miziolek, “Experimental and kinetic modeling study of the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy plume from metallic lead in argon,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 60(7-8), 926–934 (2005). [CrossRef]

].

Figure 5
Fig. 5 CN Molecular emission spectroscopy of (a) graphite, (b) P-Aminobenzene sulfonic acid anhydrous, (c) urea, (d) coal in the range of 355–390nm.
shows the LIBS spectra for the solid materials containing C and N in different ambient (air and argon flow) in the range of 355–390 nm which include the CN molecular emission of violet system (B2+ → X2+) of the sequence (Δν = 0, + 1). As shown, the emission characteristic of molecular bands for CN in its violet system is very different from C2 in its Swan system and the generation mechanism of CN radicals in the plasma is more complicated. It has been pointed out that the formation of CN occurs through the four-center reaction C2 + N2 ↔ 2CN, where nitrogen comes from ambient air [14

14. M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, “Spectral signature of native CN bonds for bacterium detection and identification using femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 063901 (2006). [CrossRef]

,16

16. L. St-Onge, R. Sing, S. Bechard, and M. Sabsabi, “Carbon emissions following 1.064 μm laser ablation of graphite and organic samples in ambient air,” Appl. Phys. A 69, S913–S916 (1999).

,29

29. M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, “Femtosecond time-resolved laserinduced breakdown spectroscopy for detection and identification of bacteria: A comparison to the nanosecond regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(8), 084701 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. But recently, Ma et al. argue that the reaction of C and N2 appears to be responsible for the CN formation at the longer gate delays [25

25. Q. Ma and P. J. Dagdigian, “Kinetic model of atomic and molecular emissions in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of organic compounds,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 400(10), 3193–3205 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The reaction C2 + N2 → 2CN is highly endothermic with activation energy 1.8 eV, and thus requires extreme heating that can be obtained either on the front of a forceful ablation shockwave or on the front of a plasma-shielding layer absorbing the laser beam energy. The graphite sample contains C but no N. The CN molecular band emission in air ambient can be easily identified, while is not detected in argon flow ambient, as shown in Fig. 5 a. While we use a long delay of 1417ns with very long integration for 2 ms, the plasma must be almost thermalized in our experiments. Hence, the formation of CN molecular bands emission for graphite in air ambient is completely corresponding to the reaction C + N2 ↔ CN + N induced by the interaction between plasma and ambient gas.

While for P-Aminobenzene sulfonic acid anhydrous, urea and coal samples, the CN emission can also be easily detected both in air and argon ambient, as shown in Figs. 5 b-d. However, the effect of atmosphere on the samples with different molecular structure is not the same, as the origin of the CN molecular bands emission is different in air ambient. The strongest emission line CN 388.3nm of the violet system was chosen to obtain the comparison of the line intensity ratios under air and argon flow condition for the samples which can be both detected by the CN molecular emission spectra in two atmospheres. The result is shown in Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Comparison of intensity rations of the strongest emission line CN 388.3nm between air and argon flow condition.
which demonstrates that the intensity ratios are very different, with the maximum of coal, followed by P-Aminobenzene sulfonic acid anhydrous and urea.

As discussed before, for urea sample, there are not enough excited carbon ions and the C2 molecular emission cannot be detected both in air and argon ambient, so that the CN emission completely comes from inherent CN radicals as intermolecular bonds for laser ablation of urea.

In order to further investigate the formation mechanism of CN molecular emission, graphite which only contains C and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (NH4H2PO4) which contains N were blended together. The mixture contains the element of C and N simultaneously, but it does not contain CN radicals as intermolecular bonds. The spectrum of CN emission of violet system in the range of 355–390nm for graphite, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate and the mixture of both in argon ambient is shown in Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Comparison of CN Molecular emission spectroscopy of graphite, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate and the mixture of both under the argon condition
. The CN molecular spectrum emission can be identified only for laser ablation of the mixture material as the argon gas was used to exclude the ambient air completely from the plasma plume. It also can get the CN molecular emission for the sample which does not contain the C-N bonds. Graphite is an easily ionized matter and the enough carbon ions can be evaporated directly from the sample. This easily ionized element in the matrix would attribute to the first stages of plasma formation [30

30. R. Krasniker, V. Bulatov, and I. Schechter, “Study of matrix effects in laser plasma spectroscopy by shock wave propagation,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 56(6), 609–618 (2001). [CrossRef]

]. Hence, the molecular emission CN are from the recombination between atomic C and N evaporated from the sample which does not contain C-N bonds.

4. Conclusions

Molecular spectrum emission of molecules (C2 in its Swan system and CN in its violet system) is presented in plasma produced during laser ablation of materials containing carbon and nitrogen with different structure. Through the comparative experiments performed under air and argon flow conditions, the formation mechanism of atomic carbon and molecular species is analyzed and compared. It indicated that the influence by surrounding environment on the atomic and molecular emission especially for the CN molecular bond is different. The inert gas (Ar) can enhance the emission intensities which are directly vaporized from the sample like atomic carbon and C2 molecular emission. The generation mechanism of CN molecular is relatively more complicated and the origin of CN molecular production for samples with different molecular structures is different. There are three main routes: (i) Reaction in plume of C with air surrounding leading to production of CN. (ii) Direct vaporization from the sample due to the existence of CN radicals as intermolecular bonds with low excitation energy. (iii) Recombination of C and N atoms from the compound in the plasma to produce CN. An understanding of underlying mechanism for atomic and molecular emission will provide the basis for the detection of nonmetallic elements in solid material by LIBS.

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful for the financial support from National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 50576029 and No. 51071069).

References and links

1.

D. A. Cremers and L. J. Radziemski, Handbook of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (Wiley, Chichester, 2006).

2.

J. P. Singh and S. N. Thakur, Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, 2007).

3.

J. Cuñat, F. J. Fortes, and J. J. Laserna, “Real time and in situ determination of lead in road sediments using a man-portable laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analyzer,” Anal. Chim. Acta 633(1), 38–42 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

J. Goujon, A. Giakoumaki, V. Piñon, O. Musset, D. Anglos, E. Georgiou, and J. P. Boquillon, “A compact and portable laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument for single and double pulse applications,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 63(10), 1091–1096 (2008). [CrossRef]

5.

J. J. Laserna, R. F. Reyes, R. González, L. Tobaria, and P. Lucena, “Study on the effect of beam propagation through atmospheric turbulence on standoff nanosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10265–10276 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

C. López-Moreno, S. Palanco, and J. J. Laserna, “Stand-off analysis of moving targets using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 22(1), 84–87 (2007). [CrossRef]

7.

S. Acquaviva, “Simulation of emission molecular spectra by a semi-automatic programme package: the case of C2 and CN diatomic molecules emitting during laser ablation of a graphite target in nitrogen environment,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 60(8-9), 2079–2086 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

C. Vivien, J. Hermann, A. Perrone, C. Boulmer-Leborgne, and A. Luches, “A study of molecule formation during laser ablation of graphite in low-pressure nitrogen,” J. Phys. D 31(10), 1263–1272 (1998). [CrossRef]

9.

M. Tran, Q. Sun, B. W. Smith, and J. D. Winefordner, “Determination of C: H: O: N ratios in solid organic compounds by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 16(6), 628–632 (2001). [CrossRef]

10.

R. Sattmann, I. Monch, H. Krause, R. Noll, S. Couris, A. Hatziapostolou, A. Mavromanolakis, C. Fotakis, E. Larrauri, and R. Miguel, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for polymer identification,” Appl. Spectrosc. 52(3), 456–461 (1998). [CrossRef]

11.

J. Anzano, R. J. Lasheras, B. Bonilla, and J. Casas, ““Classification of polymers by determining of C1:C2: CN: H: N: O ratios by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy (LIPS), ” J. Casas,” Polym. Test. 27(6), 705–710 (2008). [CrossRef]

12.

S. Grégoire, M. Boudinet, F. Pelascini, F. Surma, V. Detalle, and Y. Holl, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for polymer identification,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 400(10), 3331–3340 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

P. Lucena, A. Dona, L. M. Tobaria, and J. J. Laserna, “New challenges and insights in the detection and spectral identification of organic explosives by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 66(1), 12–20 (2011). [CrossRef]

14.

M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, “Spectral signature of native CN bonds for bacterium detection and identification using femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 063901 (2006). [CrossRef]

15.

M. Baudelet, M. Boueri, J. Yu, S. S. Mao, V. Piscitelli, X. L. Mao, and R. E. Russo, “Time-resolved ultraviolet laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for organic material analysis,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 62(12), 1329–1334 (2007). [CrossRef]

16.

L. St-Onge, R. Sing, S. Bechard, and M. Sabsabi, “Carbon emissions following 1.064 μm laser ablation of graphite and organic samples in ambient air,” Appl. Phys. A 69, S913–S916 (1999).

17.

G. Dinescu, E. Aldea, M. L. De Giorgi, A. Luches, A. Perrone, and A. Zocco, “Optical emission spectroscopy of molecular species in plasma induced by laser ablation of carbon in nitrogen,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127–129(1-2), 697–702 (1998). [CrossRef]

18.

M. Boueri, M. Baudelet, J. Yu, X. L. Mao, S. S. Mao, and R. Russo, “Early stage expansion and time-resolved spectral emission of laser-induced plasma from polymer,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(24), 9566–9571 (2009). [CrossRef]

19.

K. C. Xie, Coal Structure and Its Reactivity (Science Press, Beijing, 2002) (in Chinese).

20.

F. Y. Wang and Z. Y. Wu, The Manual of the Using of Coal Fly Ash (China Electric Power Press, Beijing, 1997) (in Chinese).

21.

Fertilizer and Soil Conditioner National Standardization Technical Committee, “Determination of potassium content for compound fertilizers potassium tetraphenylborate gravimetric method,”·GB/T8574[S] (2002) (in Chinese).

22.

“NIST: Atomic Spectra Database Lines Form,” http://physics.nist.gov/PhysRefData/ASD/lines_form.html.

23.

S. Abdelli-Messaci, T. Kerdja, A. Bendib, and S. Malek, “CN emission spectroscopy study of carbon plasma in nitrogen environment,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 60(7-8), 955–959 (2005). [CrossRef]

24.

Z. Zelinger, M. Novotny, J. Bulir, J. Lancok, P. Kubat, and M. Jelinek, “Laser plasma plume kinetic spectroscopy of the nitrogen and carbon species,” Contrib. Plasma Phys. 43(7), 426–432 (2003). [CrossRef]

25.

Q. Ma and P. J. Dagdigian, “Kinetic model of atomic and molecular emissions in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of organic compounds,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 400(10), 3193–3205 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

J. A. Aguilera and C. Aragon, “A comparison of the temperatures and electron densities of laser-produced plasma obtained in air, argon, and helium at atmospheric pressure,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(7), S475–S478 (1999). [CrossRef]

27.

J. A. Aguilera and C. Aragon, “Temperature and electron density distributions of laser-induced plasmas generated with an iron sample at different ambient gas pressures,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197–198, 273–280 (2002). [CrossRef]

28.

V. Babushok, F. Deluciajr, P. Dagdigian, and A. Miziolek, “Experimental and kinetic modeling study of the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy plume from metallic lead in argon,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 60(7-8), 926–934 (2005). [CrossRef]

29.

M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, “Femtosecond time-resolved laserinduced breakdown spectroscopy for detection and identification of bacteria: A comparison to the nanosecond regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(8), 084701 (2006). [CrossRef]

30.

R. Krasniker, V. Bulatov, and I. Schechter, “Study of matrix effects in laser plasma spectroscopy by shock wave propagation,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 56(6), 609–618 (2001). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(140.3440) Lasers and laser optics : Laser-induced breakdown
(300.6210) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, atomic
(300.6360) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, laser
(300.6390) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, molecular

ToC Category:
Spectroscopy

History
Original Manuscript: June 20, 2011
Revised Manuscript: August 4, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: August 4, 2011
Published: August 16, 2011

Citation
Meirong Dong, Jidong Lu, Shunchun Yao, Ziming Zhong, Junyan Li, Jun Li, and Weiye Lu, "Experimental study on the characteristics of molecular emission spectroscopy for the analysis of solid materials containing C and N," Opt. Express 19, 17021-17029 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-18-17021


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References

  1. D. A. Cremers and L. J. Radziemski, Handbook of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (Wiley, Chichester, 2006).
  2. J. P. Singh and S. N. Thakur, Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, 2007).
  3. J. Cuñat, F. J. Fortes, and J. J. Laserna, “Real time and in situ determination of lead in road sediments using a man-portable laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analyzer,” Anal. Chim. Acta 633(1), 38–42 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Goujon, A. Giakoumaki, V. Piñon, O. Musset, D. Anglos, E. Georgiou, and J. P. Boquillon, “A compact and portable laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument for single and double pulse applications,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 63(10), 1091–1096 (2008). [CrossRef]
  5. J. J. Laserna, R. F. Reyes, R. González, L. Tobaria, and P. Lucena, “Study on the effect of beam propagation through atmospheric turbulence on standoff nanosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10265–10276 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. López-Moreno, S. Palanco, and J. J. Laserna, “Stand-off analysis of moving targets using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 22(1), 84–87 (2007). [CrossRef]
  7. S. Acquaviva, “Simulation of emission molecular spectra by a semi-automatic programme package: the case of C2 and CN diatomic molecules emitting during laser ablation of a graphite target in nitrogen environment,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 60(8-9), 2079–2086 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. Vivien, J. Hermann, A. Perrone, C. Boulmer-Leborgne, and A. Luches, “A study of molecule formation during laser ablation of graphite in low-pressure nitrogen,” J. Phys. D 31(10), 1263–1272 (1998). [CrossRef]
  9. M. Tran, Q. Sun, B. W. Smith, and J. D. Winefordner, “Determination of C: H: O: N ratios in solid organic compounds by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 16(6), 628–632 (2001). [CrossRef]
  10. R. Sattmann, I. Monch, H. Krause, R. Noll, S. Couris, A. Hatziapostolou, A. Mavromanolakis, C. Fotakis, E. Larrauri, and R. Miguel, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for polymer identification,” Appl. Spectrosc. 52(3), 456–461 (1998). [CrossRef]
  11. J. Anzano, R. J. Lasheras, B. Bonilla, and J. Casas, ““Classification of polymers by determining of C1:C2: CN: H: N: O ratios by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy (LIPS), ” J. Casas,” Polym. Test. 27(6), 705–710 (2008). [CrossRef]
  12. S. Grégoire, M. Boudinet, F. Pelascini, F. Surma, V. Detalle, and Y. Holl, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for polymer identification,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 400(10), 3331–3340 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. P. Lucena, A. Dona, L. M. Tobaria, and J. J. Laserna, “New challenges and insights in the detection and spectral identification of organic explosives by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 66(1), 12–20 (2011). [CrossRef]
  14. M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, “Spectral signature of native CN bonds for bacterium detection and identification using femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 063901 (2006). [CrossRef]
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