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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 18 — Aug. 29, 2011
  • pp: 17260–17266
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Enhanced lateral photovoltaic effect in the p-n heterojunction composed of manganite and silicon by side irradiation for position sensitive detecting

Juan Du, Hao Ni, Kun Zhao, Y.-C. Kong, H. K. Wong, Songqing Zhao, and Shaohua Chen  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 18, pp. 17260-17266 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.017260


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Abstract

Lateral photovoltaic effect has been studied in p-La0.67Ca0.33MnO3/n-Si heterojunction. Under illumination of continuous 808 nm laser beam on the film surface, a transient photovoltaic overshoot accompanied with the steady signal was observed when the laser turned off and on. The open-circuit photovoltage had a linear dependence on illuminated position, and the sensitivity reached 0.75 mVmW−1mm−1 for steady value and 6.25 mVmW−1mm−1 for the transient peak value. Especially, an enhancement in position detecting sensitivity was observed when the interface of this heterojunction was irradiated, which were 1.25 mVmW−1mm−1 (steady value) and 26.0 mVmW−1mm−1 (peak value). This work demonstrates a novel way to increase sensitivity for manganite-based position sensitive detectors.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

Lateral photovoltaic effect (LPVE) was first discovered by Schottky in 1930 and proposed as position sensitive detectors (PSDs) sixty years ago [1

1. W. Schottky, “Uber den enstelhungsort der photoelektronen in kuper-kuperoxyydul-photozellen,” Phys. Z. 31, 913 (1930).

,2

2. J. T. Wallmark, “A new semiconductor photocell using lateral photoeffect,” Proc. IRE 45, 474–483 (1957).

]. Since PSDs have a wide range of applications in the field requiring precision measurements, such as robotic vision, remote optical alignment, machine tool alignment and medical instrumentation, etc, many studies have been carried out to improve the sensitivity and linearity of PSDs in various kinds of systems, from conventional p-n junctions to hydrogenated amorphous silicon based structures [3

3. J. Henry and J. Livingstone, “Thin film amorphous silicon position-sensitive detectors,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 13(12-13), 1022–1026 (2001). [CrossRef]

], porous silicon [4

4. D. W. Boeringer and R. Tsu, “Lateral photovoltaic effect in porous silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(18), 2332–2334 (1994). [CrossRef]

], Ti/Si amorphous superlattices [5

5. B. F. Levine, R. H. Willens, C. G. Bethea, and D. Brasen, “Lateral photoeffect in thin amorphous superlattice films of Si and Ti grown on a Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(22), 1537–1539 (1986). [CrossRef]

], semiconducting polymer [6

6. D. Kabra, Th. B. Singh, and K. S. Narayan, “Semiconducting-polymer-based position-sensitive detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(21), 5073–5075 (2004). [CrossRef]

], metal-semiconductor (MS) and metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures [7

7. C. Q. Yu and H. Wang, “Large near-infrared lateral photovoltaic effect observed in Co/Si metal-semiconductor structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(17), 171102 (2010). [CrossRef]

9

9. H. Águas, L. Pereira, D. Costa, E. Fortunato, and R. Martins, “Super linear position sensitive detectors using MIS structures,” Opt. Mater. 27(5), 1088–1092 (2005). [CrossRef]

], modulation-doped AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructure [10

10. N. Tabatabaie, M. H. Meynadier, R. E. Nahory, J. P. Harbison, and L. T. Florez, “Large lateral photovoltaic effect in modulation-doped AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(8), 792–794 (1989). [CrossRef]

], Cu2O nanoscale film [11

11. L. Du and H. Wang, “Infrared laser induced lateral photovoltaic effect observed in Cu2O nanoscale film,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9113–9118 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], etc. However, the fabrication processes for the PSDs mentioned above are complex and high cost.

Recently perovskite-type manganite thin films were discovered to have photoresponse above their forbidden gap. By coating such a film on a chosen substrate to form a heterostructure, one obtains an ultrafast photodetector [12

12. H. B. Lu, K. J. Jin, Y. H. Huang, M. He, K. Zhao, B. L. Cheng, Z. H. Chen, Y. L. Zhou, S. Y. Dai, and G. Z. Yang, “Picosecond photoelectric characteristic in La0.7Sr0.3MnO3/Si p-n junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241915 (2005). [CrossRef]

,13

13. K. Zhao, K. J. Jin, Y. H. Huang, H. B. Lu, M. He, Z. H. Chen, Y. L. Zhou, and G. Z. Yang, “Laser-induced ultrafast photovoltaic effect in La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 films at room temperature,” Physica B 373(1), 72–75 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. This kind of material with good chemical stability is insensitive to harsh physical environment such as fluctuations of temperature and pressure, and can meet the needs of oil and gas optical engineering. However, a drawback of this material is its relatively low sensitivity. As a result, researchers tried methods to improve their photo-response sensitivity, such as applying an bias voltage [14

14. X. M. Li, K. Zhao, H. Ni, S. Q. Zhao, W. F. Xiang, Z. Q. Lu, Z. J. Yue, F. Wang, Y. C. Kong, and H. K. Wong, “Voltage tunable photodetecting properties of La0.4Ca0.6MnO3 films grown on miscut LaSrAlO4 substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(4), 044104 (2010). [CrossRef]

], changing oxygen contents in the film and film thickness [15

15. Z. J. Yan, X. Yuan, Y. B. Xu, L. Q. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Photovoltaic effects in obliquely deposited oxygen-deficient manganite thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(10), 104101 (2007). [CrossRef]

,16

16. C. Wang, K. J. Jin, R. Q. Zhao, H. B. Lu, H. Z. Guo, C. Ge, M. He, C. Wang, and G.- Yang, “Ultimate photovoltage in perovskite oxide heterostructures with critical film thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(18), 181101 (2011). [CrossRef]

], etc.

In the present letter, we reported an enhanced LPVE by irradiating the interface of La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 (LCMO)/Si heterojunction. Under illumination of continuous 808 nm laser beam, a transient photovoltaic overshoot accompanied with the steady signal was observed when the laser turned off and on, and an enhancement in position sensitive detection was observed when the junction interface was irradiated.

2. Experimental details

LCMO thin film with a thickness of about 100 nm was deposited on 0.5-mm-thick n-type Si (001) substrate by facing target sputtering technique from stoichiometry targets [17

17. X. T. Zeng and H. K. Wong, “Epitaxial growth of single-crystal (La,Ca)MnO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(24), 3371–3373 (1995). [CrossRef]

]. The substrate temperature was kept at 680 °C, and the oxygen partial pressure at 30 mTorr during deposition. Immediately after each deposition, the vacuum chamber was back-filled with 1 atm oxygen gas. The deposited film was then cooled to room temperature with the substrate heater power cut off.

The sample used in our experiment was 4.0 mm × 7.0 mm in area and was carefully cleaned using alcohol and acetone. Two silver electrodes of 4.0 mm × 1.0 mm in area, separated by about 5.0 mm, were fixed on the sample to form ohmic contact with LCMO film or Si substrate. We used two ways of electrodes for photoresponse measurements as shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic setup for two illumination modes and two electrode modes
. Mode 1 and mode 2 denote different contact mode (mode 1: both contacts on film surface; mode 2: one contact on film surface with the other on substrate surface).

Continuum solid state laser with 808 nm in wavelength was used to scan the sample in the experiment without any background illumination and a slit was placed to narrow the laser spot width to be 0.2 mm. The effective irradiated area was 4.0 mm × 0.2 mm for the film illumination case and about 0.5 mm × 0.2 mm for the side illumination case. The open-circuit photovoltaic signal was recorded by a sampling oscilloscope terminated into 1 MΩ at room temperature. The laser beam was chopped at 12.5 Hz before it reached the sample and the power density was kept to be 2.7 mW/mm2.

3. Results and discussion

The typical current-voltage (I-V) curve of the LCMO/Si heterojunction was measured by tuning the applied voltage with a pulse-modulated voltage source at room temperature in dark and under the 808 nm laser irradiation (see Fig. 2
Fig. 2 I-V characteristics of the LCMO/Si heterojunction in dark and under irradiation of the 808 nm laser and inset shows the schematic measurement setup.
). The forward bias is defined as the current flowing from the LCMO film to the Si substrate. The p-n rectification characteristic was ascribed to the presence of LCMO/Si interfacial potential due to carrier diffusion.

Two typical waveforms recorded by oscilloscope were listed in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Two typical waveforms recorded by oscilloscope with 1 MΩ input impedance without any bias for Mode 1a when laser spot fixed at (a) x = 2.4 mm and (b) x = −2.4 mm, respectively.
when 808 nm laser spot irradiated two positions which were the nearest to each electrode in Mode 1 as shown in the insets of Fig. 3. There existed both transient and continuous processes in photovoltaic pulse. After the laser was switched on, the photovoltaic signal increased suddenly to a transient maximum Vp1 followed by a steady value Vs. On turning off the laser, there was an immediate transient signal Vp2 in the opposite direction, which then decayed slowly to zero. These changes occurred quite reproducibly, and no degradation was observed after switching for many times. Otherwise, the Vp1 always has the same sign with Vs.

Figure 4
Fig. 4 Waveform and detailed profile of a PSD for Mode 1 and Mode 2. (a) Mode 1a, (b) Mode 1b, (c) Mode 2a, (d) Mode 2b. The vertical arrow x leads to the laser spot moving direction.
shows selected waveforms for each electrode and illumination mode when the laser beam scanned the sample in x axis direction. The 10%-90% rise time of transient overshoot in each case to be around 2 ms. Both the transient overshoot and steady photovoltaic signal change with the laser spot position. The signals reach a minimum when the laser spot is fixed at x = 0 for Mode 1a and 1b, while the photovoltages rise up in an opposite direction when the laser spot travels through the zero point (Fig. 4(a) and (b)). For Mode 2a and 2b the photovoltaic responses Rp1 monotonically decreased when laser spot moved from the anode on LCMO surface to cathode on Si substrate (Fig. 4(c) and (d)).

The steady responsivity Rs and peak responsivity Rp1 and Rp2 as functions of laser spot position are presented in Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Rs, Rp1 and Rp2 as a function of irradiated position x for Mode 1 and Mode 2
. In mode 1, Rs was amplified by five times for the convenience of observation, and we can see that Rp1, Rs and Rp2 all vary quite linearly with x. Rp1 is much larger than Rs in each illuminated position and Rp2 is approximately as large as Rp1 with an opposite sign. According to the slope of each line we can calculate the position detecting sensitivities to be 0.75 and 1.25 mVmW−1mm−1 for Vs and 6.25 and 26.0 mVmW−1mm−1 for Vp1. Thus, there is nearly 1.7 times in Vs and 4.2 times in Vp1 higher sensitivities for side illumination.

As the photon energy for 808 nm is above the band gap of LCMO (~1eV) and Si (~1.1eV), when the illumination occurred on the sample, electrons in the illuminated region absorbed photon energy and were excited from valance band to conduction band, becoming non-equilibrium carriers. We propose the reason for higher lateral photovoltage in side illumination case to be more efficient charge-separating mechanism by built-in electric field in the interface. After non-equilibrium hole-electron pairs are generated, electrons near the space charge region in LCMO film are swept to Si substrate and holes in Si are forced into LCMO film. When there are more holes in LCMO and more electrons in Si under side illumination, carriers reaching each electrode were of higher quantity. According to the carrier concentration distribution for nonuniform illumination in semiconductor-based heterojunctions, the potential difference between two lateral electrodes can be presented as [18

18. C. Yu and H. Wang, “Large lateral photovoltaic effect in metal-(oxide-) semiconductor structures,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 10(11), 10155–10180 (2010). [CrossRef]

,19

19. G. Lucovsky, “Photoeffects in nonuniformly irradiated p-n junctions,” J. Appl. Phys. 31(6), 1088–1095 (1960). [CrossRef]

]
V=E(L)E(L)e=KfN0[exp(|Lx|λf)exp(|L+x|λf)].
(1)
Here L and –L are the positions of the two electrodes, Kf is proportional coefficient, λf is the holes’ diffusion length as the carriers in p-type LCMO film are holes, N 0 is the transition electrons from LCMO to Si substrate at position x. Ideally, Eq. (1) can be simplified as
Vs=2KfN0λfexp(Lλf)x
(2)
whereN0=n0[1P(τp/n0)], p is laser power, τ is the life time of diffusion carriers, and n 0 is the density of light-excited carrier. P represents the possibility for electrons to recombine with holes in the film, so excited electrons have a possibility of 1-P to transit from LCMO film to Si substrate. Understandably, when P is smaller, more electrons go through the interface to Si and in the meantime more holes are left in the film. When illumination occurs in the interface, photoexciting process occurs in the region of both LCMO thin film and the substrate. Different from film surface illumination, in the case of side illumination, photoexcited hole-electron pairs disperse in the region of both thin film and substrate, and this increases the possibility for holes and electrons to be separated by electric field in the space charge region before recombination happens. A larger quantity of electron-hole pairs are separated, so the final N 0 is larger. From Eq. (2), we know that Vs is in proportion to N 0, so the photovoltaic difference between two electrodes is larger for side illumination.

For Mode 2a and 2b, in which charges selected by electrodes are relative to both lateral and transverse direction, the responsivity has non-linear dependence on spot position. We can see from the Fig. 5 that the photovoltage signal does not change signs when laser spot travels from one electrode to the other. From the photoelectric process in the sample demonstrated above, we know that non-equilibrium charges in LCMO are holes and in Si are electrons, so it is natural that carriers near the electrode on the film surface are holes and ones near the Si electrode are electrons and thus potential of the electrode on the film plane is always higher than the one of the other electrode.

4. Conclusions

In conclusion, enhanced lateral photovoltaic effect has been observed in La0.67Ca0.33MnO3/Si p-n heterojunction by side illumination. The transient and steady open-circuit photovoltages were observed by chopping mechanically 808 nm continuous laser beam. Both of them showed a linear relationship with irradiated position, and the position detecting sensitivities reached 1.25 and 26.0 mVmW−1mm−1 for steady and transient signals, respectively. This method for sensitivity enhancement exhibits the potential application for this material as high sensitive PSDs.

Acknowledgments

This work has been supported by NCET, RFDP, NSFC, Direct Grant from the Research Grants Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Grant No. C001-2060295), and Foresight Fund Program from China University of Petroleum.

References and links

1.

W. Schottky, “Uber den enstelhungsort der photoelektronen in kuper-kuperoxyydul-photozellen,” Phys. Z. 31, 913 (1930).

2.

J. T. Wallmark, “A new semiconductor photocell using lateral photoeffect,” Proc. IRE 45, 474–483 (1957).

3.

J. Henry and J. Livingstone, “Thin film amorphous silicon position-sensitive detectors,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 13(12-13), 1022–1026 (2001). [CrossRef]

4.

D. W. Boeringer and R. Tsu, “Lateral photovoltaic effect in porous silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(18), 2332–2334 (1994). [CrossRef]

5.

B. F. Levine, R. H. Willens, C. G. Bethea, and D. Brasen, “Lateral photoeffect in thin amorphous superlattice films of Si and Ti grown on a Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(22), 1537–1539 (1986). [CrossRef]

6.

D. Kabra, Th. B. Singh, and K. S. Narayan, “Semiconducting-polymer-based position-sensitive detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(21), 5073–5075 (2004). [CrossRef]

7.

C. Q. Yu and H. Wang, “Large near-infrared lateral photovoltaic effect observed in Co/Si metal-semiconductor structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(17), 171102 (2010). [CrossRef]

8.

C. Q. Yu, H. Wang, S. Q. Xiao, and Y. X. Xia, “Direct observation of lateral photovoltaic effect in nano-metal-films,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21712–21722 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

H. Águas, L. Pereira, D. Costa, E. Fortunato, and R. Martins, “Super linear position sensitive detectors using MIS structures,” Opt. Mater. 27(5), 1088–1092 (2005). [CrossRef]

10.

N. Tabatabaie, M. H. Meynadier, R. E. Nahory, J. P. Harbison, and L. T. Florez, “Large lateral photovoltaic effect in modulation-doped AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(8), 792–794 (1989). [CrossRef]

11.

L. Du and H. Wang, “Infrared laser induced lateral photovoltaic effect observed in Cu2O nanoscale film,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9113–9118 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

H. B. Lu, K. J. Jin, Y. H. Huang, M. He, K. Zhao, B. L. Cheng, Z. H. Chen, Y. L. Zhou, S. Y. Dai, and G. Z. Yang, “Picosecond photoelectric characteristic in La0.7Sr0.3MnO3/Si p-n junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241915 (2005). [CrossRef]

13.

K. Zhao, K. J. Jin, Y. H. Huang, H. B. Lu, M. He, Z. H. Chen, Y. L. Zhou, and G. Z. Yang, “Laser-induced ultrafast photovoltaic effect in La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 films at room temperature,” Physica B 373(1), 72–75 (2006). [CrossRef]

14.

X. M. Li, K. Zhao, H. Ni, S. Q. Zhao, W. F. Xiang, Z. Q. Lu, Z. J. Yue, F. Wang, Y. C. Kong, and H. K. Wong, “Voltage tunable photodetecting properties of La0.4Ca0.6MnO3 films grown on miscut LaSrAlO4 substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(4), 044104 (2010). [CrossRef]

15.

Z. J. Yan, X. Yuan, Y. B. Xu, L. Q. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Photovoltaic effects in obliquely deposited oxygen-deficient manganite thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(10), 104101 (2007). [CrossRef]

16.

C. Wang, K. J. Jin, R. Q. Zhao, H. B. Lu, H. Z. Guo, C. Ge, M. He, C. Wang, and G.- Yang, “Ultimate photovoltage in perovskite oxide heterostructures with critical film thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(18), 181101 (2011). [CrossRef]

17.

X. T. Zeng and H. K. Wong, “Epitaxial growth of single-crystal (La,Ca)MnO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(24), 3371–3373 (1995). [CrossRef]

18.

C. Yu and H. Wang, “Large lateral photovoltaic effect in metal-(oxide-) semiconductor structures,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 10(11), 10155–10180 (2010). [CrossRef]

19.

G. Lucovsky, “Photoeffects in nonuniformly irradiated p-n junctions,” J. Appl. Phys. 31(6), 1088–1095 (1960). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(040.5160) Detectors : Photodetectors
(040.5350) Detectors : Photovoltaic
(310.6845) Thin films : Thin film devices and applications

ToC Category:
Solar Energy

History
Original Manuscript: May 16, 2011
Revised Manuscript: July 9, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: July 20, 2011
Published: August 18, 2011

Citation
Juan Du, Hao Ni, Kun Zhao, Y.-C. Kong, H. K. Wong, Songqing Zhao, and Shaohua Chen, "Enhanced lateral photovoltaic effect in the p-n heterojunction composed of manganite and silicon by side irradiation for position sensitive detecting," Opt. Express 19, 17260-17266 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-18-17260


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References

  1. W. Schottky, “Uber den enstelhungsort der photoelektronen in kuper-kuperoxyydul-photozellen,” Phys. Z.31, 913 (1930).
  2. J. T. Wallmark, “A new semiconductor photocell using lateral photoeffect,” Proc. IRE 45, 474–483 (1957).
  3. J. Henry and J. Livingstone, “Thin film amorphous silicon position-sensitive detectors,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)13(12-13), 1022–1026 (2001). [CrossRef]
  4. D. W. Boeringer and R. Tsu, “Lateral photovoltaic effect in porous silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.65(18), 2332–2334 (1994). [CrossRef]
  5. B. F. Levine, R. H. Willens, C. G. Bethea, and D. Brasen, “Lateral photoeffect in thin amorphous superlattice films of Si and Ti grown on a Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.49(22), 1537–1539 (1986). [CrossRef]
  6. D. Kabra, Th. B. Singh, and K. S. Narayan, “Semiconducting-polymer-based position-sensitive detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(21), 5073–5075 (2004). [CrossRef]
  7. C. Q. Yu and H. Wang, “Large near-infrared lateral photovoltaic effect observed in Co/Si metal-semiconductor structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(17), 171102 (2010). [CrossRef]
  8. C. Q. Yu, H. Wang, S. Q. Xiao, and Y. X. Xia, “Direct observation of lateral photovoltaic effect in nano-metal-films,” Opt. Express17(24), 21712–21722 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. Águas, L. Pereira, D. Costa, E. Fortunato, and R. Martins, “Super linear position sensitive detectors using MIS structures,” Opt. Mater.27(5), 1088–1092 (2005). [CrossRef]
  10. N. Tabatabaie, M. H. Meynadier, R. E. Nahory, J. P. Harbison, and L. T. Florez, “Large lateral photovoltaic effect in modulation-doped AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.55(8), 792–794 (1989). [CrossRef]
  11. L. Du and H. Wang, “Infrared laser induced lateral photovoltaic effect observed in Cu2O nanoscale film,” Opt. Express18(9), 9113–9118 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. H. B. Lu, K. J. Jin, Y. H. Huang, M. He, K. Zhao, B. L. Cheng, Z. H. Chen, Y. L. Zhou, S. Y. Dai, and G. Z. Yang, “Picosecond photoelectric characteristic in La0.7Sr0.3MnO3/Si p-n junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(24), 241915 (2005). [CrossRef]
  13. K. Zhao, K. J. Jin, Y. H. Huang, H. B. Lu, M. He, Z. H. Chen, Y. L. Zhou, and G. Z. Yang, “Laser-induced ultrafast photovoltaic effect in La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 films at room temperature,” Physica B373(1), 72–75 (2006). [CrossRef]
  14. X. M. Li, K. Zhao, H. Ni, S. Q. Zhao, W. F. Xiang, Z. Q. Lu, Z. J. Yue, F. Wang, Y. C. Kong, and H. K. Wong, “Voltage tunable photodetecting properties of La0.4Ca0.6MnO3 films grown on miscut LaSrAlO4 substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(4), 044104 (2010). [CrossRef]
  15. Z. J. Yan, X. Yuan, Y. B. Xu, L. Q. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Photovoltaic effects in obliquely deposited oxygen-deficient manganite thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(10), 104101 (2007). [CrossRef]
  16. C. Wang, K. J. Jin, R. Q. Zhao, H. B. Lu, H. Z. Guo, C. Ge, M. He, C. Wang, and G.- Yang, “Ultimate photovoltage in perovskite oxide heterostructures with critical film thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(18), 181101 (2011). [CrossRef]
  17. X. T. Zeng and H. K. Wong, “Epitaxial growth of single-crystal (La,Ca)MnO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.66(24), 3371–3373 (1995). [CrossRef]
  18. C. Yu and H. Wang, “Large lateral photovoltaic effect in metal-(oxide-) semiconductor structures,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland)10(11), 10155–10180 (2010). [CrossRef]
  19. G. Lucovsky, “Photoeffects in nonuniformly irradiated p-n junctions,” J. Appl. Phys.31(6), 1088–1095 (1960). [CrossRef]

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