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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 18 — Aug. 29, 2011
  • pp: 17336–17343
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Surface micromachined tunable 1.55 μm-VCSEL with 102 nm continuous single-mode tuning

C. Gierl, T. Gruendl, P. Debernardi, K. Zogal, C. Grasse, H. A. Davani, G. Böhm, S. Jatta, F. Küppers, P. Meißner, and M.-C. Amann  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 18, pp. 17336-17343 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.017336


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Abstract

For the first time a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with a single-mode wavelength-tuning over 102nm in the range of 1550nm is demonstrated. The fiber-coupled optical output power has a maximum of 3.5mW and is > 2mW over the entire tuning range. The sidemode suppression ratios are > 45dB. The wavelength tuning is achieved with the micro-electro mechanical actuation of a mirror membrane fabricated with surface micro-machining for on-wafer mass production. The mirror membrane consists of low cost dielectric materials (SiO x /SiN y ) deposited with low temperature (< 100°C) Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD).

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

2. Design and fabrication

2.1. Design

A schematic cross section of the VCSEL is shown in Fig. 1(a). The VCSEL consists of a plane-concave mirror system and an active semiconductor (Half-VCSEL). The movable top mirror, a DBR with integrated stress gradient for the concave bending, and a flat DBR at the bottom of the semiconductor form the optical resonator supporting the optical fundamental Gaussian mode. For a plane concave resonator with an optical cavity length L, and the radius of curvature Rt of the concave top mirror, the beam waist w 0 at the plane mirror is defined by
w0=λπL(RtL),
(1)
with the resonance wavelength λ [18

18. P. Tayebati, W. Peidong, D. Vakshoori, L. Chih-Cheng, M. Azimi, and R. N. Sacks, “Half-symmetric cavity tunable microelectromechanical VCSEL with single spatial mode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1679–1681 (1998). [CrossRef]

]. Equation (1) does not account for the multi layer structure of the VCSEL. However, it has been shown that the beam waist derived from Eq. (1) can be used as a rough estimation [19

19. P. Debernardi, B. Kogel, K. Zogal, P. Meissner, M. Maute, M. Ortsiefer, G. Boehm, and M.-C. Amann, “Modal properties of long-wavelength tunable MEMS-VCSELs with curved mirrors: comparison of experiment and modeling,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 44, 391–399 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. The SMSR is improved by introducing a circular buried tunnel junction (BTJ) defining a certain aperture within the semiconductor. The laser current is confined to the region defined by the circular shaped BTJ resulting in a radius dependent optical gain profile. For high amplification of the fundamental Gaussian-mode, the beam waist has to fit to the radius of the BTJ for an optimal overlap between the gain profile and the Gaussian-mode. Higher order modes show a significantly smaller overlap with the gain profile, due to their different lateral intensity distribution. This leads to a much lower amplification thus improving the SMSR [20

20. B. Kogel, M. Maute, H. Halbritter, F. Riemenschneider, G. Bohm, M.-C. Amann, and P. Meissner, “Long-wavelength MEMS tunable VCSEL with high sidemode suppression,” International Conference on Optical MEMS and Their Applications (IEEE/LEOS, 2005), pp. 95–96. [CrossRef]

]. Besides the SMSR, the continuous single-mode tuning range is a figure of merit for tunable VCSELs. Its optimization is carried out by increasing the free spectral range (FSR), which is defined as the spectral separation between two adjacent longitudinal modes with L = q/2, in which q is an integer and λq the wavelength of the longitudinal mode of the order q:
FSR=λqλq+1=λ22L+λ
(2)
The FSR is increased by shortening the cavity length L = L air + LS + L DBR,t + L DBR,b consisting of the air-gap L air, the semiconductor LS and the penetration depth L DBR,t and L DBR,b of the optical field into the top and bottom DBR, respectively. Due to the intrinsic low gain of VCSELs, caused by the short active region, it is important that both mirrors provide a high reflectivity over the entire tuning range. Therefore we utilize dielectric DBRs with reflectivities > 99.5% over the whole tuning range. The plane DBR at the bottom of the semiconductor cavity consists of 3.5 pairs of AlF3 and ZnS λ 0/4-thick dielectric layers with the center wavelength λ 0 = 1555nm of the reflectivity bandwidth. Due to the high index of refraction contrast of Δn ≈ 1 between the two materials, the DBR in combination with the gold substrate provides an almost wavelength independent reflectivity ≫ 99.9% over the tuning range. The movable top DBR is a membrane structure consisting of 11.5 pairs of SiOx/SiNy [21

21. F. Sugihwo, M. C. Larson, and J. S. Harris Jr., “Low threshold continuously tunable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with 19.1 nm wavelength range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 547 (1997). [CrossRef]

] with a total thickness of around 5μm. The refraction index contrast of Δn ≈ 0.5 between SiOx and SiNy enables a reflectivity > 99.5% over a bandwidth > 130nm. The mirror with a diameter of 120μm is suspended on four flexible beams (see Fig. 1(b)) with a length and width of 140μm and 60μm, respectively. The heating current flows through a 20nm thick Cr/Au-metalization on the top mirror membrane and the suspension beams (other conductive materials are applicable as well). A current flowing through the metalization, which has an electrical resistance of 36Ω, thermally expands the beams of the membrane. This increases the air-gap L air and thus the optical cavity length L proportionally to the heating power which shifts the emitted wavelength to higher values. The vertical thermal expansion of the DBR layers, which would shift the center wavelength of the reflectivity stopband, is ∼1000× smaller as compared to the lateral expansion of the membrane structure (ratio between the thickness of a single DBR layer and the length of the beams). For the given device, a lateral thermal expansion of 0.02% is required to change the air-gap by 1μm, which is sufficient to tune over the FSR. Hence the thermal expansion of the membrane has a negligible effect on the reflectivity stopband. The radius of curvature Rt of the top DBR as well as the air-gap L air, is defined by the geometry of the mirror membrane and an appropriate stress gradient within the dielectric layers. These parameters have been optimized for a tunable VCSEL with a BTJ-radius of 7μm. The radius of curvature of the mirror membrane is Rt = 3.3mm. With the initial air-gap of L air = 4.1μm and the semiconductor cavity with an optical length of LS = 12λ 0/4 = 4665nm, the beam waist of the fundamental Gaussian mode is 9μm (using Eq. (1)) which is 2μm larger than the radius of the BTJ.

The semiconductor/air-interface between the semiconductor cavity and the air-gap, exhibits a reflectivity of ≈ 30% and divides the optical cavity of length L into two coupled cavities with length LS + L DBR,b and L air + L DBR,t, respectively. It has been shown that on the one hand this additional reflectivity reduces the threshold current, on the other hand it limits the tuning range significantly [19

19. P. Debernardi, B. Kogel, K. Zogal, P. Meissner, M. Maute, M. Ortsiefer, G. Boehm, and M.-C. Amann, “Modal properties of long-wavelength tunable MEMS-VCSELs with curved mirrors: comparison of experiment and modeling,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 44, 391–399 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. To maximize the tuning range, the implementation of an antireflection coating (ARC) at the semiconductor/air-interface is required. Figure 2(a) compares the simulated tuning behavior of the tunable VCSEL with and without ARC (a more detailed description of the simulation method is given in [19

19. P. Debernardi, B. Kogel, K. Zogal, P. Meissner, M. Maute, M. Ortsiefer, G. Boehm, and M.-C. Amann, “Modal properties of long-wavelength tunable MEMS-VCSELs with curved mirrors: comparison of experiment and modeling,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 44, 391–399 (2008). [CrossRef]

]). Simulations show an FSR and thus a single-mode continuous tuning range of 106nm and 70nm, respectively.

Fig. 1 a, Cross section view of the surface micromachined tunable VCSEL. b, Scanning electron microscopy of tunable VCSELs fabricated on wafer. Each VCSEL has a footprint of 480 480μm2.
Fig. 2 (a) Measured wavelength in comparison to simulations of the VCSEL for different heating powers and the corresponding air-gap lengths. The emitted wavelength is continuously tuned over 102nm. (b) Emission spectra for different tuning currents and the tuning range as the envelope of the fundamental laser peak. The laser current is 25mA and the VCSEL is stabilized at 20°C. The red curve highlights a single emission spectrum of the VCSEL, lasing at 1505nm with the suppressed higher order transversal modes and the next longitudinal mode at 1607nm. The spectrum shows a FSR of 102nm.

2.2. Fabrication

The presented tunable VCSEL consists of two basic components. The epitaxially grown semiconductor cavity (by molecular beam epitaxy - MBE) and the dielectric MEMS-DBR on top. The semiconductor cavity is made out of two n-type InP heat- and current spreading layers, each with a thickness of about 800nm, sandwiching the compressively strained active region with AlGaInAs as basis material for the barriers and the wells. The BTJ consists of two highly doped lattice matched layers p+-AlGaInAs and n+-GaInAs. The heat is extracted out of the device by the Au-substrate which acts at the same time as the bottom contact of the VCSEL. The first process step is to structure the BTJ by dry etching. The overgrowth of the BTJ is done by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) with InP. This technique perfectly planarizes the structure. In the following steps the p-side mesa is structured dry chemically and passivated by sputtered SiO2. The contact layers and the bottom mirror are evaporated (with electron beam evaporation) and covered afterwards by Au-electroplating (Au-substrate with a thickness of 50μm to 60μm). The electrical separation of all VCSELs is accomplished via chemical wet etching. An additional ARC made of SiON is deposited by low temperature (< 100°C) ICP-PECVD. The surface micromachining process for the fabrication of the movable mirror membrane starts with sputtering a Ni-sacrificial layer with a thickness of 500nm on top of the half-VCSEL. The sacrificial layer is structured by wet etching (HNO3 solution). Afterwards, the SiOx/SiNy layers for the top mirror membrane are deposited with low temperature ICPPECVD. The mirror membrane is completed with a Cr/Au-layer for the electrothermal tuning. The laser light is coupled out through a small opening in the Cr/Au-layer, structured with a lift-off process, in the center of the mirror membrane. The characteristic geometry of the mirror membrane is dry etched using a Ni-etchstop layer (same material as used for the sacrificial layer). After completing the dry etching process, the Ni-etchstop as well as the Ni-sacrificial layer are wet etched in a HNO3 solution simultaneously. At the end of the process the released mirror membrane needs to be dried in a critical-point-dryer to ensure that the mirror membrane does not stick to the semiconductor surface due to capillary forces.

3. Characterization

4. Conclusion

We demonstrated a micro-electro mechanically tunable VCSEL consisting of an InP half-VCSEL and a surface micromachined mirror membrane with a single-mode tuning range of 102nm. This value has been achieved by reducing the cavity length significantly compared to given concepts and by implementing an antireflection coating. The tunable VCSEL has a peak output power of 3.5mW and a SMSR > 45dB over the entire tuning range. A smaller beam waist (current beam waist of 9μm) fitting to the radius of the BTJ (7μm) of the VCSEL could further improve the threshold current and output power (larger overlap between optical field and gain profile). The presented surface micromachining technology is not limited to VCSELs emitting at 1550nm and can be adapted to other VCSELs emitting in the wavelength regime from 0.8μm to 2.7μm.

Fig. 3 Tuning range and SMSR at a wavelength of 1550nm for different laser currents.
Fig. 4 (a) The blue curve shows the fiber coupled optical power and the red curve the voltage at the VCSEL. Both as a function of the VCSEL current measured at a wavelength of 1550nm. (b) Threshold current and output power at the thermal roll-over for different wavelengths.
Fig. 5 Electrothermal frequency response of the tunable VCSEL. A sinusoidal a.c. modulated heating current flows through the top mirror (peak to peak current 20mA and an offset current of 30mA). The measured frequency response of the corresponding tuning range is shown by the red squares. The blue solid line is the fit of the first order lowpass given by Eq. (3) to the measurement.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the EU-project Subtune ( FP7-ICT 40530) and the Deutsche Forschungsgesellschaft (DFG) within the Graduiertenkolleg TICMO ( GRK 1037).

References and links

1.

J. Rausch, P. Heinickel, R. Werthschuetzky, B. Koegel, K. Zogal, and P. Meissner, “Experimental comparison of piezoresistive MEMS and fiber Bragg grating strain sensors,” in IEEE Sensors (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1329–1333. [CrossRef]

2.

T. C. Bond, G. D. Cole, L. L. Goddard, and E. M. Behymer, “Photonic MEMS for NIR in-situ gas detection and identification,” IEEE Sensors (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1368–1371. [CrossRef]

3.

B. Kogel, H. Halbritter, S. Jatta, M. Maute, G. Bohm, M.-C. Amann, M. Lackner, M. Schwarzott, F. Winter, and P. Meissner, “Simultaneous spectroscopy of NH3 and CO using a > 50 nm continuously tunable MEMS-VCSEL,” IEEE Sens. J. 7, 1483–1489 (2007). [CrossRef]

4.

B. Kogel, H. Halbritter, M. Lackner, M. Schwarzott, M. Maute, M.-C. Amann, F. Winter, and P. Meissner, “Micromechanically widely tunable VCSEL for absorption spectroscopy at around 1.55μm,” International Conference on Optical MEMS and Their Applications IEEE/LEOS (IEEE, 2006), pp. 7–8. [CrossRef]

5.

C. Gierl, K. Zogal, S. Jatta, H. A. Davani, F. Kueppers, P. Meissner, T. Gruendl, C. Grasse, M.-C. Amann, A. Daly, B. Corbett, B. Koegel, A. Haglund, J. Gustavsson, P. Westbergh, A. Larsson, P. Debernardi, and M. Ortsiefer, “Tuneable VCSEL aiming for the application in interconnects and short haul systems,” Proc. SPIE 7959, 795908 (2011). [CrossRef]

6.

D. Sun, W. Fan, P. Kner, J. Boucart, T. Kagexama, D. Zhang, R. Pathak, R. F. Nabiev, and W. Yuen, “Long wavelength-tunable VCSELs with optimized MEMS bridge tuning structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 714–716 (2004) [CrossRef]

7.

K. J. Knopp, D. Vakhshoori, P. D. Wang, M. Azimi, M. Jiang, P. Chen, Y. Matsui, K. McCallion, A. Baliga, F. Sakithab, M. Letsch, B. Johnson, R. Huang, A. Jean, B. DeLargy, C. Pinzone, F. Fan, J. Liu, C. Lu, J. Zhou, H. Zhu, R. Gurjar, P. Tayebati, D. MacDaniel, R. Baorui, P. Waterson, and G. VanderRhodes, “High power MEMs-tunable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (IEEE,2001), pp. 31–32.

8.

G. D. Cole, E. S. Bjorlin, C. S. Wang, N. C. MacDonald, and J. E. Bowers, “Widely tunable bottom-emitting vertical-cavity SOAs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2526–2528 (2005). [CrossRef]

9.

T. Yano, H. Saito, N. Kanbara, R. Noda, S. Tezuka, N. Fujimura, M. Ooyama, T. Watanabe, T. Hirata, and N. Nishiyama, “Wavelength modulation over 500kHz of micromechanically tunable InP-based VCSELs with Si-MEMS technology,” IEEE 21st ISLC (IEEE, 2008), pp. 163–164.

10.

S. Jatta, B. Koegel, M. Maute, K. Zogal, F. Riemenschneider, G. Bohm, M.-C. Amann, and P. Meissner, “Bulk-Micromachined VCSEL At 1.55μm With 76-nm Single-Mode Continuous Tuning Range,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1822–1824 (2009). [CrossRef]

11.

H. Halbritter, F. Riemenschneider, B. Kogel, A. Tarraj, M. Strassner, S. Irmer, H. Hillmer, I. Sagnes, and P. Meissner, “MEM-tunable and wavelength selective receiver front end,” 18th IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE, 2005), pp. 68–71. [CrossRef]

12.

C. Gierl, K. Zogal, H. A. Davani, and P. Meissner, “Electro thermal and electro statical actuation of a surface micromachined tunable Fabry-Pérot filter,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) and Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (QELS) (IEEE, 2011), JTuI73. [PubMed] [PubMed]

13.

K. Iga, “Surface-emitting laser—its birth and generation of new optoelectronics field,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1201–1215 (2000). [CrossRef]

14.

M. C. Y. Huang, B. C. Kan, Z. Ye, A. P. Pisano, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Monolithic integrated piezoelectric MEMS-tunable VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 374–380 (2007). [CrossRef]

15.

B. C. Kan, M. C. Y. Huang, Z. Ye, S. P. Alvaro, C. J. Hasnain, and P. A. Pisano, “Monolithic integration of piezoelectric cantilever in tunable VCSEL,” International Conference on Optical MEMS and Their Applications (IEEE/LEOS, 2006), pp. 11–12.

16.

H. Sano, A. Matsutani, and F. Koyama, “Athermal and tunable operations of 850 nm VCSEL with thermally actuated cantilever structure,” 35th European Conference on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2009), P2.26, pp. 1–2.

17.

B. Kogel, H. Halbritter, M. Maute, G. Bohm, M.-C. Amann, and P. Meissner, “Singlemode and polarization stable MEMS-VCSEL with broadband tuning characteristics around 1.55μm,” European Conference on Optical Communications (IEEE, 2006), 10.1109/ECOC.2006.4801075, pp. 1–2. [CrossRef]

18.

P. Tayebati, W. Peidong, D. Vakshoori, L. Chih-Cheng, M. Azimi, and R. N. Sacks, “Half-symmetric cavity tunable microelectromechanical VCSEL with single spatial mode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1679–1681 (1998). [CrossRef]

19.

P. Debernardi, B. Kogel, K. Zogal, P. Meissner, M. Maute, M. Ortsiefer, G. Boehm, and M.-C. Amann, “Modal properties of long-wavelength tunable MEMS-VCSELs with curved mirrors: comparison of experiment and modeling,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 44, 391–399 (2008). [CrossRef]

20.

B. Kogel, M. Maute, H. Halbritter, F. Riemenschneider, G. Bohm, M.-C. Amann, and P. Meissner, “Long-wavelength MEMS tunable VCSEL with high sidemode suppression,” International Conference on Optical MEMS and Their Applications (IEEE/LEOS, 2005), pp. 95–96. [CrossRef]

21.

F. Sugihwo, M. C. Larson, and J. S. Harris Jr., “Low threshold continuously tunable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with 19.1 nm wavelength range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 547 (1997). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(140.3600) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, tunable
(230.4685) Optical devices : Optical microelectromechanical devices
(140.7260) Lasers and laser optics : Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: June 16, 2011
Revised Manuscript: August 5, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: August 7, 2011
Published: August 18, 2011

Citation
C. Gierl, T. Gruendl, P. Debernardi, K. Zogal, C. Grasse, H. A. Davani, G. Böhm, S. Jatta, F. Küppers, P. Meißner, and M.-C. Amann, "Surface micromachined tunable 1.55 μm-VCSEL with 102 nm continuous single-mode tuning," Opt. Express 19, 17336-17343 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-18-17336


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References

  1. J. Rausch, P. Heinickel, R. Werthschuetzky, B. Koegel, K. Zogal, and P. Meissner, “Experimental comparison of piezoresistive MEMS and fiber Bragg grating strain sensors,” in IEEE Sensors (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1329–1333. [CrossRef]
  2. T. C. Bond, G. D. Cole, L. L. Goddard, and E. M. Behymer, “Photonic MEMS for NIR in-situ gas detection and identification,” IEEE Sensors (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1368–1371. [CrossRef]
  3. B. Kogel, H. Halbritter, S. Jatta, M. Maute, G. Bohm, M.-C. Amann, M. Lackner, M. Schwarzott, F. Winter, and P. Meissner, “Simultaneous spectroscopy of NH3 and CO using a > 50 nm continuously tunable MEMS-VCSEL,” IEEE Sens. J. 7, 1483–1489 (2007). [CrossRef]
  4. B. Kogel, H. Halbritter, M. Lackner, M. Schwarzott, M. Maute, M.-C. Amann, F. Winter, and P. Meissner, “Micromechanically widely tunable VCSEL for absorption spectroscopy at around 1.55μm,” International Conference on Optical MEMS and Their Applications IEEE/LEOS (IEEE, 2006), pp. 7–8. [CrossRef]
  5. C. Gierl, K. Zogal, S. Jatta, H. A. Davani, F. Kueppers, P. Meissner, T. Gruendl, C. Grasse, M.-C. Amann, A. Daly, B. Corbett, B. Koegel, A. Haglund, J. Gustavsson, P. Westbergh, A. Larsson, P. Debernardi, and M. Ortsiefer, “Tuneable VCSEL aiming for the application in interconnects and short haul systems,” Proc. SPIE 7959, 795908 (2011). [CrossRef]
  6. D. Sun, W. Fan, P. Kner, J. Boucart, T. Kagexama, D. Zhang, R. Pathak, R. F. Nabiev, and W. Yuen, “Long wavelength-tunable VCSELs with optimized MEMS bridge tuning structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 714–716 (2004) [CrossRef]
  7. K. J. Knopp, D. Vakhshoori, P. D. Wang, M. Azimi, M. Jiang, P. Chen, Y. Matsui, K. McCallion, A. Baliga, F. Sakithab, M. Letsch, B. Johnson, R. Huang, A. Jean, B. DeLargy, C. Pinzone, F. Fan, J. Liu, C. Lu, J. Zhou, H. Zhu, R. Gurjar, P. Tayebati, D. MacDaniel, R. Baorui, P. Waterson, and G. VanderRhodes, “High power MEMs-tunable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (IEEE,2001), pp. 31–32.
  8. G. D. Cole, E. S. Bjorlin, C. S. Wang, N. C. MacDonald, and J. E. Bowers, “Widely tunable bottom-emitting vertical-cavity SOAs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2526–2528 (2005). [CrossRef]
  9. T. Yano, H. Saito, N. Kanbara, R. Noda, S. Tezuka, N. Fujimura, M. Ooyama, T. Watanabe, T. Hirata, and N. Nishiyama, “Wavelength modulation over 500kHz of micromechanically tunable InP-based VCSELs with Si-MEMS technology,” IEEE 21st ISLC (IEEE, 2008), pp. 163–164.
  10. S. Jatta, B. Koegel, M. Maute, K. Zogal, F. Riemenschneider, G. Bohm, M.-C. Amann, and P. Meissner, “Bulk-Micromachined VCSEL At 1.55μm With 76-nm Single-Mode Continuous Tuning Range,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1822–1824 (2009). [CrossRef]
  11. H. Halbritter, F. Riemenschneider, B. Kogel, A. Tarraj, M. Strassner, S. Irmer, H. Hillmer, I. Sagnes, and P. Meissner, “MEM-tunable and wavelength selective receiver front end,” 18th IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE, 2005), pp. 68–71. [CrossRef]
  12. C. Gierl, K. Zogal, H. A. Davani, and P. Meissner, “Electro thermal and electro statical actuation of a surface micromachined tunable Fabry-Pérot filter,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) and Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (QELS) (IEEE, 2011), JTuI73. [PubMed]
  13. K. Iga, “Surface-emitting laser—its birth and generation of new optoelectronics field,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1201–1215 (2000). [CrossRef]
  14. M. C. Y. Huang, B. C. Kan, Z. Ye, A. P. Pisano, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Monolithic integrated piezoelectric MEMS-tunable VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 374–380 (2007). [CrossRef]
  15. B. C. Kan, M. C. Y. Huang, Z. Ye, S. P. Alvaro, C. J. Hasnain, and P. A. Pisano, “Monolithic integration of piezoelectric cantilever in tunable VCSEL,” International Conference on Optical MEMS and Their Applications (IEEE/LEOS, 2006), pp. 11–12.
  16. H. Sano, A. Matsutani, and F. Koyama, “Athermal and tunable operations of 850 nm VCSEL with thermally actuated cantilever structure,” 35th European Conference on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2009), P2.26, pp. 1–2.
  17. B. Kogel, H. Halbritter, M. Maute, G. Bohm, M.-C. Amann, and P. Meissner, “Singlemode and polarization stable MEMS-VCSEL with broadband tuning characteristics around 1.55μm,” European Conference on Optical Communications (IEEE, 2006), 10.1109/ECOC.2006.4801075, pp. 1–2. [CrossRef]
  18. P. Tayebati, W. Peidong, D. Vakshoori, L. Chih-Cheng, M. Azimi, and R. N. Sacks, “Half-symmetric cavity tunable microelectromechanical VCSEL with single spatial mode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1679–1681 (1998). [CrossRef]
  19. P. Debernardi, B. Kogel, K. Zogal, P. Meissner, M. Maute, M. Ortsiefer, G. Boehm, and M.-C. Amann, “Modal properties of long-wavelength tunable MEMS-VCSELs with curved mirrors: comparison of experiment and modeling,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 44, 391–399 (2008). [CrossRef]
  20. B. Kogel, M. Maute, H. Halbritter, F. Riemenschneider, G. Bohm, M.-C. Amann, and P. Meissner, “Long-wavelength MEMS tunable VCSEL with high sidemode suppression,” International Conference on Optical MEMS and Their Applications (IEEE/LEOS, 2005), pp. 95–96. [CrossRef]
  21. F. Sugihwo, M. C. Larson, and J. S. Harris, “Low threshold continuously tunable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with 19.1 nm wavelength range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 547 (1997). [CrossRef]

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