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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 18 — Aug. 29, 2011
  • pp: 17500–17505
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Efficiency-enhanced optical parametric down conversion for mid-infrared generation on a tandem periodically poled MgO-doped stoichiometric lithium tantalate chip

Y. H. Liu, Z. D. Xie, W. Ling, Y. Yuan, X. J. Lv, J. Lu, X. P. Hu, G. Zhao, and S. N. Zhu  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 18, pp. 17500-17505 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.017500


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Abstract

We report an efficiency-enhanced mid-infrared generation via optical parametric down conversion. A tandem periodically-poled MgO-doped stoichiometric lithium tantalate crystal is used to realize on-chip generation and amplification of mid-infrared radiation inside an optical parametric oscillator cavity. We achieved 21.2% conversion efficiency (24% slope efficiency), which is among the highest efficiencies for the pump-to-mid-infrared conversion, with 1064 nm Nd class laser pump. The maximum average output power at 3.87 μ m reached 635 mW with a 3.0 W pump.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

Mid-infrared (mid-IR) radiation around3.8μm is of interest for a number of demanding applications, such as gas spectroscopy, environmental monitoring, atmospheric sensing, biomedical, and mid-IR countermeasures [1

1. R. Guoguang and H. Yunian, “Laser-based IRCM system defenses for military and commercial aircraft,” Laser Infrared 36, 1–6 (2006).

, 2

2. Y. Peng, W. Wang, X. Wei, and D. Li, “High-efficiency mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator based on PPMgO:CLN,” Opt. Lett. 34(19), 2897–2899 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. One of the most widely-used scheme for mid-IR generation is by using the optical parametric down conversion, where a pump photon with higher frequency ωp splits into two photons with lower frequencies ωsand ωi called signal and idler, respectively. However, when pumped by the most sophisticated Nd class solid state lasers at around 1064 nm, the power of idler light in the mid-IR range is limited by the low splitting ratio from the pump photon, i.e., the conversion efficiency is theoretically limited to about 1/4 even at 100% quantum efficiency [3

3. M. E. Dearborn, K. Koch, G. T. Moore, and J. C. Diels, “Greater than 100% photon-conversion efficiency from an optical parametric oscillator with intracavity difference-frequency mixing,” Opt. Lett. 23(10), 759–761 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 4

4. J. M. Fraser and C. Ventalon, “Parametric cascade downconverter for intense ultrafast mid-infrared generation beyond the Manley-Rowe limit,” Appl. Opt. 45(17), 4109–4113 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. To increase the pump-to-mid-IR conversion efficiency, the pump lasers with lower frequencies may be used, but the performances of these lasers still need to be improved for high power applications. On the other hand, the efficiency can also be improved by extracting the residual energy from the signal light. For example, by using a cascaded optical parametric oscillator-optical parametric amplifier (OPO-OPA) process, it is possible to use the signal to amplify the idler. In the first section, the mid-IR light is generated in a similar way as the standard OPO; in the second section, the signal is used as pump to further amplify the existing mid-IR light. This method has been discussed as theoretical possibility [5

5. K. Koch, G. T. Moore, and E. C. Cheungy, “Optical parametric oscillation with intracavity difference-frequency mixing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12(11), 2268–2273 (1995). [CrossRef]

7

7. A. Berrou, J.-M. Melkonian, M. Raybaut, A. Godard, E. Rosencher, and M. Lefebvre, “Specific architectures for optical parametric oscillators,” C. R. Phys. 8(10), 1162–1173 (2007). [CrossRef]

] and experimentally demonstrated by using two independent nonlinear crystals with both synchronous [3

3. M. E. Dearborn, K. Koch, G. T. Moore, and J. C. Diels, “Greater than 100% photon-conversion efficiency from an optical parametric oscillator with intracavity difference-frequency mixing,” Opt. Lett. 23(10), 759–761 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 6

6. G. T. Moore and K. Koch, “Efficient High-Gain Two-Crystal Optical Parametric Oscillator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(5), 761–768 (1995). [CrossRef]

, 8

8. K. J. McEwan and J. A. C. Terry, “A tandem periodically-poled lithium niobate (PPLN) optical parametric oscillator (OPO),” Opt. Commun. 182(4-6), 423–432 (2000). [CrossRef]

] and Q-switched laser operating at 20 Hz repetition rate [9

9. J. M. Fukumoto, H. Komine, W. H. Long, Jr., and E. A. Stappaerts, “Periodically Poled LiNbO3 Optical Parametric Oscillator with Intracavity Difference Frequency Mixing,” in: W. R. Bosenberg, M. M. Fejer (Eds.), Advanced Solid State Lasers, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series, 19, 245–248 (1998).

] pumping schemes. Later people found the OPO-OPA can be realized with better efficiency in a simpler setup by using a monolithic quasi-phase-matching material with complex domain structures, such as aperiodic and quasi-periodic structures [10

10. H. C. Guo, Y. Q. Qin, Z. X. Shen, and S. H. Tang, “Mid-infrared radiation in an aperiodically poled LiNbO3 superlattice induced by cascaded parametric processes,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 16(47), 8465–8473 (2004). [CrossRef]

, 11

11. G. Porat, O. Gayer, and A. Arie, “Simultaneous parametric oscillation and signal-to-idler conversion for efficient downconversion,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1401–1403 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. 14.58% pump-to-mid-IR conversion efficiency has been reported and 16.6% improvement has been achieved compared to a standard OPO.

In this letter, we present an intra-cavity OPO-OPA by a single tandem periodically-poled MgO-doped stoichiometric lithium tantalate (TPPMgSLT) crystal with two cascaded domain sections. These two sections are cascaded arranged and designed to compensate for the phase mismatching for the OPO and OPA processes, respectively. No complex domain structures are involved in this case, which simplifies the manufacturing processes. 21.2% pump-to-mid-IR conversion efficiency is obtained and it shows 77.6% efficiency enhancement compared to a single OPO. This value is among the highest efficiencies of mid-IR generation presented to date, using parametric down conversion approach with 1064 nm laser pump [2

2. Y. Peng, W. Wang, X. Wei, and D. Li, “High-efficiency mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator based on PPMgO:CLN,” Opt. Lett. 34(19), 2897–2899 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 11

11. G. Porat, O. Gayer, and A. Arie, “Simultaneous parametric oscillation and signal-to-idler conversion for efficient downconversion,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1401–1403 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 12

12. N. E. Yu, S. Kurimura, Y. Nomura, M. Nakamura, K. Kitamura, J. Sakuma, Y. Otani, and A. Shiratori, “Periodically poled near-stoichiometric lithium tantalate for optical parametric oscillation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(10), 1662–1664 (2004). [CrossRef]

].

2. Method

To realize the phase matching for the OPO-OPA process, momentum conservation conditions for the OPO and OPA processes should be fulfilled simultaneously with the existences of the reciprocals of the two sections of the TPPMgSLT:
ΔkOPO=kpkskiGOPO=0
(1)
ΔkOPA=ksks2kiGOPA=0
(2)
where kp, ks, ki are the wave vectors of the pump ωp, signal ωs, idler ωi, and GOPO=2πΛOPO is the reciprocal vector for the OPO; ks2 and GOPA=2πΛOPA are the idler (ωs2) wave vector and the reciprocal vector for the OPA, respectively. ΛOPO and ΛOPA are the poling periods of the OPO and OPA stages, respectively. According to the temperature-dependent Sellmeier equation of the 1.0 mol% MgO-doped stoichiometric lithium tantalate crystal (MgO:SLT) [13

13. W. L. Weng, Y. W. Liu, and X. Q. Zhang, “Temperature-Dependent Sellmeier Equation for 1.0 mol% Mg-Doped Stoichiometric Lithium Tantalate,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25(12), 4303–4306 (2008). [CrossRef]

], we chose the poling periods ΛOPO=28.83μmand ΛOPA=31.59μm for the two stages in the following OPO-OPA process:

OPO:1.064μm1.47μm+3.87μm
(3)
OPA:1.47μm3.87μm+2.37μm
(4)

In these two stages, the phase matching curves of the OPO and OPA processes can be calculated from Eqs. (1) and (2). As shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The calculated phase-matching curves for the OPO and OPA processes.
, the phase matching for the OPO-OPA process occurs at the cross-over point for the two curves of around 145°C, which is measured to be 120°C in the experiment. The difference between them is mainly due to the inaccuracies of the Sellmeier equation and the thermal expansion of the TPPMgSLT crystal. The angular separation of the temperature tuning curves for the OPO and OPA processes is small, and therefore a wide phase-matching bandwidth for the OPO-OPA can be expected, which is calculated to be about100°C.

Taking the plane-wave and the slowly varying envelope approximations, the parametric interaction between the amplitudes can be described by the coupling equations, under the perfect phase matching condition.
dAp(z)dz=iκOPOAs(z)Ai(z)dAs(z)dz=iκOPOAp(z)Ai*(z)+iκOPAAi(z)As2(z)dAi(z)dz=iκOPOAp(z)As*(z)+iκOPAAs(z)As2*(z)dAs2(z)dz=iκOPAAs(z)Ai*(z)
(5)
in Eq. (5), κOPO=deffcωpωsωinpnsni and κOPA=deffcωs2ωsωins2nsniare the coupling coefficient, in which c is the vacuum light velocity. Aj, nj are the amplitudes, and refractive indices of ωj(j=p,s,i,s2), respectively. deff=0.637dis the effective second order nonlinear coefficient, where d=χ(2)2.

3. Fabrication of the TPPMgSLT and experimental setup

The TPPMgSLT is fabricated using the electrical poling technique at room temperature from a 1 mm thick MgO:SLT wafer [14

14. S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Zhang, H. Shu, H. F. Wang, J. F. Hong, C. G. Ge, and N. B. Ming, “LiTaO3 crystal periodically poled by applying an external pulsed field,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(10), 5481–5483 (1995). [CrossRef]

]. It is known that MgO:SLT, with largedeff, shows high damage threshold, high resistance to the photorefractive effect, high thermal conductivity, and low IR absorption, especially compared to the commonly used lithium niobate. Furthermore the nonstoichometric defect is significantly reduced in MgO:SLT, and therefore it leads to a reduction of coercive field by ~1 order of magnitude and facilitates the electrical poling of large aperture crystals with a good uniformity of domain structures. These characteristics collectively make MgO:SLT a promising material for the high efficiency frequency conversions at high power levels. Owing to the high intracavity power density inside a high-Q OPO cavity and the advantage of MgO:SLT, high efficiency can be expected. As shown in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic of the experiment setup.
, the width of OPO section is 2 mm wider than the OPA section so that we can independently test the single OPO operation. The TPPMgSLT has the lengths of 24 mm and 19 mm for the OPO and OPA sections, respectively. And the total length of the crystal is about 44 mm. The two end faces are optically polished and coated for antireflection at 1064, 1400-1500, and 3800-4200 nm. The crystal is embedded in an oven whose temperature is controlled with accuracy of ±0.1°C for stable operation.

The OPO-OPA apparatus is schematically shown in Fig. 2. We use a 100-mm-long linear OPO cavity, with concave cavity mirrors M1 and M2 of 100 mm radius. Both of them are high-reflection coated (R>99%) for 1400-1500 nm to provide high-Q singly resonance for the signal, anti-reflection coated for 3800-4000 nm and anti-reflection coated for 1064 nm and 1650 nm to reduce unwanted resonances. The pump light is from a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser working at 1064 nm, with repetition rate of 5 kHz and pulse duration of 40 ns. The pump beam is focus onto the crystal with a beam diameter of 200μm, and it matches well with the waist of the cavity mode that is calculated to be180μm. A high-pass filter is used to split the pump and idler beams for the measurements.

4. Experimental results and discussion

We first characterized the OPO process while only the OPO section was illuminated by the pump beam. As shown in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Measured mid-IR output power of the single OPO and the OPO-OPA versus pump power at 120°C.
, a conversion efficiency of 12% and a slope efficiency of 14.5% could be calculated, that was 43.6% of quantum-limited performance. The oscillation started with a threshold below 500 mW and we obtained the maximum output power of 360 mW with 3 W pump. The thresholds for the pump power density of OPO and OPO-OPA processes could be calculated by solving the coupling Eq. (5), Ipt=ε0npnsnic34d2ωsωiL2(1Rs), where Rs and L were the equivalent reflectivity of the signal light and the length of the OPO section, respectively. The measured threshold power densities of the two processes were about 4 MW/cm2, which were on the same order of calculated values of 1.5 MW/cm2.

Later, we moved the transverse position of TPPMgSLT so that the OPA section could take part in the nonlinear interaction. The temperature dependence of OPA was shown in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Normalized output power for ωs2 as a function of temperature.
, bymeasuring the output power of ωs2. The measured FWHM bandwidth of OPO-OPA process was about 50°C, which was resulted from the broad phase-matching bandwidth as discussed in section 2.

At the phase matching temperature of 120°C, we measured the spectrum of the outputs using a spectrum analyzer (ANDO AQ-6315A). As shown in Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Output spectrum at 120°C for the OPO-OPA device. The spectrum range is limited from 350 nm to 1750 nm by the spectrum analyzer.
, the peaks at 1468 nm and 1187 nm were for ωs and the second harmonic of ωs2, respectively. From that, we could easily calculate the wavelengths of ωs2 and ωi to be 2374 nm and 3847 nm respectively, which agreed well with the designed values in Eqs. (3) and (4). The output at other wavelength could not be recorded because of the limited response range of the spectrum analyzer. We also measured the dependence of mid-IR output power on pump power (Fig. 3). The OPO-OPA showed a similar threshold as the single OPO, but with much higher slope efficiency due to the existence of intracavity OPA process. When the pump power reached 3 W, the measured power of idler was 635 mW. The conversion and slope efficiencies for mid-IR light were 21.2% and 23.52%, respectively. Compared to the single OPO, the OPO-OPA presented 76.4% improvement on the conversion efficiency and 65.6% improvement on the slope efficiency. The improvement was attributed to the extra gain in the OPA process. The high intensity signal light could be generated inside the high-Q OPO cavity, which served as pump of OPA process in the same cavity. According to the last formula of Eq. (5), the gain of OPA could be given by:
g=κOPA|Es|
(6)
whereEs was the electric field of the signal light in the condition of steady state. The gain of OPA process could be calculated about g=0 .6cm-1 from Eq. (6), which was measured to be g=0 .5cm-1 in a well agreement.

5. Conclusion

In conclusion, we have demonstrated an efficiency enhanced mid-IR generation based on OPO-OPA using TPPMgSLT. A maximum conversion efficiency of 21.2% has been achieved, which corresponds to 77% of the quantum-limited (27.5%) performance for this pulsed OPO-OPA setup. The monolithic TPPMgSLT crystal has presented high efficiency and high intracavity power density capability and low loss for high-Q resonance in the OPO cavity. These features are also important for the future CW OPO-OPA devices and near quantum-limited performance could be expected. In this work, the pump laser has a maximum output power of about 3 W, corresponding to a power density of 45 MW/cm2 in the experiment, which is much lower than the damage threshold of the MgO:SLT [12

12. N. E. Yu, S. Kurimura, Y. Nomura, M. Nakamura, K. Kitamura, J. Sakuma, Y. Otani, and A. Shiratori, “Periodically poled near-stoichiometric lithium tantalate for optical parametric oscillation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(10), 1662–1664 (2004). [CrossRef]

, 15

15. X. P. Hu, X. Wang, J. L. He, Y. X. Fan, S. N. Zhu, H. T. Wang, Y. Y. Zhu, and N. B. Ming, “Efficient generation of red light by frequency doubling in a periodically-poled nearly-stoichiometric LiTaO3 crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(2), 188–190 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. Therefore, by replacing the pump source with higher power and TPPMgSLT with larger optical aperture, the OPO-OPA scheme can be readily scaled for higher power mid-IR output with high efficiency.

Acknowledgment

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundations of China (Nos. 11021403, 10904066 and NSAF10776011), and the State Key Program for Basic Research of China (Nos. 2011CBA00205 and 2010CB630703).

References and links

1.

R. Guoguang and H. Yunian, “Laser-based IRCM system defenses for military and commercial aircraft,” Laser Infrared 36, 1–6 (2006).

2.

Y. Peng, W. Wang, X. Wei, and D. Li, “High-efficiency mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator based on PPMgO:CLN,” Opt. Lett. 34(19), 2897–2899 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

M. E. Dearborn, K. Koch, G. T. Moore, and J. C. Diels, “Greater than 100% photon-conversion efficiency from an optical parametric oscillator with intracavity difference-frequency mixing,” Opt. Lett. 23(10), 759–761 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

J. M. Fraser and C. Ventalon, “Parametric cascade downconverter for intense ultrafast mid-infrared generation beyond the Manley-Rowe limit,” Appl. Opt. 45(17), 4109–4113 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

K. Koch, G. T. Moore, and E. C. Cheungy, “Optical parametric oscillation with intracavity difference-frequency mixing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12(11), 2268–2273 (1995). [CrossRef]

6.

G. T. Moore and K. Koch, “Efficient High-Gain Two-Crystal Optical Parametric Oscillator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(5), 761–768 (1995). [CrossRef]

7.

A. Berrou, J.-M. Melkonian, M. Raybaut, A. Godard, E. Rosencher, and M. Lefebvre, “Specific architectures for optical parametric oscillators,” C. R. Phys. 8(10), 1162–1173 (2007). [CrossRef]

8.

K. J. McEwan and J. A. C. Terry, “A tandem periodically-poled lithium niobate (PPLN) optical parametric oscillator (OPO),” Opt. Commun. 182(4-6), 423–432 (2000). [CrossRef]

9.

J. M. Fukumoto, H. Komine, W. H. Long, Jr., and E. A. Stappaerts, “Periodically Poled LiNbO3 Optical Parametric Oscillator with Intracavity Difference Frequency Mixing,” in: W. R. Bosenberg, M. M. Fejer (Eds.), Advanced Solid State Lasers, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series, 19, 245–248 (1998).

10.

H. C. Guo, Y. Q. Qin, Z. X. Shen, and S. H. Tang, “Mid-infrared radiation in an aperiodically poled LiNbO3 superlattice induced by cascaded parametric processes,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 16(47), 8465–8473 (2004). [CrossRef]

11.

G. Porat, O. Gayer, and A. Arie, “Simultaneous parametric oscillation and signal-to-idler conversion for efficient downconversion,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1401–1403 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

N. E. Yu, S. Kurimura, Y. Nomura, M. Nakamura, K. Kitamura, J. Sakuma, Y. Otani, and A. Shiratori, “Periodically poled near-stoichiometric lithium tantalate for optical parametric oscillation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(10), 1662–1664 (2004). [CrossRef]

13.

W. L. Weng, Y. W. Liu, and X. Q. Zhang, “Temperature-Dependent Sellmeier Equation for 1.0 mol% Mg-Doped Stoichiometric Lithium Tantalate,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25(12), 4303–4306 (2008). [CrossRef]

14.

S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Zhang, H. Shu, H. F. Wang, J. F. Hong, C. G. Ge, and N. B. Ming, “LiTaO3 crystal periodically poled by applying an external pulsed field,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(10), 5481–5483 (1995). [CrossRef]

15.

X. P. Hu, X. Wang, J. L. He, Y. X. Fan, S. N. Zhu, H. T. Wang, Y. Y. Zhu, and N. B. Ming, “Efficient generation of red light by frequency doubling in a periodically-poled nearly-stoichiometric LiTaO3 crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(2), 188–190 (2004). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(140.3070) Lasers and laser optics : Infrared and far-infrared lasers
(190.4970) Nonlinear optics : Parametric oscillators and amplifiers
(190.4223) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear wave mixing

ToC Category:
Nonlinear Optics

History
Original Manuscript: June 23, 2011
Revised Manuscript: August 6, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: August 7, 2011
Published: August 22, 2011

Citation
Y. H. Liu, Z. D. Xie, W. Ling, Y. Yuan, X. J. Lv, J. Lu, X. P. Hu, G. Zhao, and S. N. Zhu, "Efficiency-enhanced optical parametric down conversion for mid-infrared generation on a tandem periodically poled MgO-doped stoichiometric lithium tantalate chip," Opt. Express 19, 17500-17505 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-18-17500


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References

  1. R. Guoguang and H. Yunian, “Laser-based IRCM system defenses for military and commercial aircraft,” Laser Infrared36, 1–6 (2006).
  2. Y. Peng, W. Wang, X. Wei, and D. Li, “High-efficiency mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator based on PPMgO:CLN,” Opt. Lett.34(19), 2897–2899 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. E. Dearborn, K. Koch, G. T. Moore, and J. C. Diels, “Greater than 100% photon-conversion efficiency from an optical parametric oscillator with intracavity difference-frequency mixing,” Opt. Lett.23(10), 759–761 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. M. Fraser and C. Ventalon, “Parametric cascade downconverter for intense ultrafast mid-infrared generation beyond the Manley-Rowe limit,” Appl. Opt.45(17), 4109–4113 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. Koch, G. T. Moore, and E. C. Cheungy, “Optical parametric oscillation with intracavity difference-frequency mixing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B12(11), 2268–2273 (1995). [CrossRef]
  6. G. T. Moore and K. Koch, “Efficient High-Gain Two-Crystal Optical Parametric Oscillator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.31(5), 761–768 (1995). [CrossRef]
  7. A. Berrou, J.-M. Melkonian, M. Raybaut, A. Godard, E. Rosencher, and M. Lefebvre, “Specific architectures for optical parametric oscillators,” C. R. Phys.8(10), 1162–1173 (2007). [CrossRef]
  8. K. J. McEwan and J. A. C. Terry, “A tandem periodically-poled lithium niobate (PPLN) optical parametric oscillator (OPO),” Opt. Commun.182(4-6), 423–432 (2000). [CrossRef]
  9. J. M. Fukumoto, H. Komine, W. H. Long, Jr., and E. A. Stappaerts, “Periodically Poled LiNbO3 Optical Parametric Oscillator with Intracavity Difference Frequency Mixing,” in: W. R. Bosenberg, M. M. Fejer (Eds.), Advanced Solid State Lasers, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series, 19, 245–248 (1998).
  10. H. C. Guo, Y. Q. Qin, Z. X. Shen, and S. H. Tang, “Mid-infrared radiation in an aperiodically poled LiNbO3 superlattice induced by cascaded parametric processes,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter16(47), 8465–8473 (2004). [CrossRef]
  11. G. Porat, O. Gayer, and A. Arie, “Simultaneous parametric oscillation and signal-to-idler conversion for efficient downconversion,” Opt. Lett.35(9), 1401–1403 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. N. E. Yu, S. Kurimura, Y. Nomura, M. Nakamura, K. Kitamura, J. Sakuma, Y. Otani, and A. Shiratori, “Periodically poled near-stoichiometric lithium tantalate for optical parametric oscillation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(10), 1662–1664 (2004). [CrossRef]
  13. W. L. Weng, Y. W. Liu, and X. Q. Zhang, “Temperature-Dependent Sellmeier Equation for 1.0 mol% Mg-Doped Stoichiometric Lithium Tantalate,” Chin. Phys. Lett.25(12), 4303–4306 (2008). [CrossRef]
  14. S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Zhang, H. Shu, H. F. Wang, J. F. Hong, C. G. Ge, and N. B. Ming, “LiTaO3 crystal periodically poled by applying an external pulsed field,” J. Appl. Phys.77(10), 5481–5483 (1995). [CrossRef]
  15. X. P. Hu, X. Wang, J. L. He, Y. X. Fan, S. N. Zhu, H. T. Wang, Y. Y. Zhu, and N. B. Ming, “Efficient generation of red light by frequency doubling in a periodically-poled nearly-stoichiometric LiTaO3 crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(2), 188–190 (2004). [CrossRef]

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