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Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 19 — Sep. 12, 2011
  • pp: 17985–17995
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Analyses of wavelength- and polarization-division multiplexed transmission characteristics of optical quadrature-amplitude-modulation signals

Kazuro Kikuchi  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 19, pp. 17985-17995 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.017985


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Abstract

We theoretically study optical transmission characteristics of wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) and polarization-multiplexed (POLMUX) signals using high-order optical quadrature-amplitude-modulation (QAM) formats up to 256. First, we conduct intensive computer simulations on bit-error rates (BERs) in WDM POLMUX QAM transmission systems and find maximum transmission distances under the influence of nonlinear impairments. Next, to elucidate the physics behind such nonlinear transmission characteristics, we calculate the distribution of constellation points for QAM signals as functions of the the launched power, the transmission distance, and the symbol rate. These results lead to a closed-form formula for BER of any QAM formats. From such formula, we derive simple laws that determine the maximum transmission distance and the optimum power as functions of the QAM order and the symbol rate. These laws can well explain the simulation results.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

High-order optical quadrature-amplitude-modulation (QAM) formats, such as 16, 64, and 256QAM, have attracted significant attention because of their spectrally-efficient transmission characteristics in dense wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) as well as polarization multiplexing (POLMUX) environments [1

1. A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, B. Zhu, and D. W. Peckham, “10×224-Gb/s WDM transmission of 28-Gbaud PDM 16-QAM on a 50-GHz grid transmission over 1,200 km of fiber,” in 2010 OSA Technical Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2010), PDPB8.

3

3. M. Nakazawa, S. Okamoto, T. Omiya, K. Kasai, and M. Yoshida, “256 QAM (64 Gbit/s) coherent optical transmission over 160 km with an optical bandwidth of 5.4 GHz,” in 2010 OSA Technical Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2010), OMJ5.

]. The recent development of digital coherent optical receivers may enable the use of such sophisticated modulation formats in the near future [4

4. D.-S. Ly-Gagnon, S. Tsukamoto, K. Katoh, and K. Kikuchi, “Coherent detection of optical quadrature phase-shift keying signals with carrier phase estimation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 12–21 (2006). [CrossRef]

,5

5. H. Sun, K.-T. Wu, and K. Roberts, “Real-time measurements of a 40 Gb/s coherent system,” Opt. Express 16, 873–879 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. We have theoretically shown that 16QAM signals at 12.5 Gsymbol/s can be placed on the 25-GHz-spaced grid, and ultra long-haul transmission of 2,000 km with the spectral efficiency as high as 4 bit/s/Hz is possible even under the influence of self-phase modulation (SPM) and cross-phase modulation (XPM) between WDM and POLMUX channels [6

6. K. Kikuchi, “Ultra long-haul optical transmission characteristics of wavelength-division multiplexed dual-polarisation 16-quadrature-amplitude-modulation signals,” Electron. Lett. 46, 433–434 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. Although the spectral efficiency can potentially be improved with higher-order QAM formats such as 64QAM and 256QAM, their transmission characteristics may suffer more seriously from nonlinear impairments due to SPM and XPM; however, neither experiments nor theoretical works have been reported so far.

The organization of the paper is as follows: In Sec. 2, we describe the simulation model of the transmission system and the digital coherent receiver. Section 3 presents simulation results on WDM POLMUX 4QAM, 16QAM, 64QAM and 256QAM transmission characteristics. Section 4 discusses how the distribution of constellation points of a 4QAM signal spreads out through GVD and nonlinearity of fibers for transmission. In Sec. 5, using the results obtained in Sec. 4, we derive closed-form formula for BER of QAM signals in WDM and POLMUX environments, which yields simple laws for high-order QAM transmission. Section 6 is the conclusion of the paper.

2. Simulation model

Fig. 1 Simulation model of QAM transmission and digital coherent detection.

We use the 50% return-to-zero (RZ) waveform for the envelope of the complex amplitude of the signal electric field.

Differentially-encoded optical QAM signals are filtered out by root Nyquist filters with the roll-off parameter of 0.3 before transmission. An erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) with the noise figure of 4 dB compensates for the loss of each span. Linewidths of transmitter lasers are assumed to be negligible in our calculations to investigate only the nonlinear effect. The WDM channel spacing is twice as large as the symbol rate, and the maximum number of WDM channels is five.

At the receiver, the incoming signal of each polarization is detected with a phase-diversity homodyne receiver where the linewidth of a local laser is negligible. The received complex amplitude of each polarization tributary is filtered out by a root Nyquist filter with the roll-off parameter of 0.3 to select the center WDM channel. The accumulated GVD is compensated for by a fixed equalizer. After the data are resampled so as to keep one sample per symbol, the carrier phase is estimated by the 4-th power algorithm [9

9. M. Seimetz, “Laser linewidth limitations for optical systems with high order modulation employing feed forward digital carrier phase estimation,” in 2008 OSA Technical Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2008), OTuM2.

]. Finally, a nine-tap FIR filter equalizes the signal in an adaptive manner based on the decision-directed least-mean-square (DD-LMS) algorithm. After the equalizing process is converged, we differentially decode the symbol and count the number of bit errors. The total number of symbols is 215 per channel. We have not introduced nonlinearity compensation based on the back-propagation method [11

11. E. Ip and J. M. Kahn, “Compensation of dispersion and nonlinear impairments using digital backpropagation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 3416–3425 (2008). [CrossRef]

], because the real-time implementation of this method is very difficult due to huge computational complexity especially in WDM systems.

3. Simulation results

We calculate QAM transmission characteristics of a single channel, co-polarized three WDM channels, co-polarized five WDM channels, and POLMUX five WDM channels. We select the center WDM channel for BER estimation, which is most seriously affected by XPM between WDM channels. In the case of POLMUX transmission, we evaluate BERs of one of the two polarization tributaries. The number of spans n for each QAM format is determined such that the BER of the polarization tributary of the center WDM channels becomes lower than 10−3 at the optimum launched power, when POLMUX five WDM channels are transmitted.

Figures 2(a)–2(d) show BERs of 4QAM, 16QAM, 64QAM, and 256QAM signals, respectively, calculated as a function of the launched average power Pave. Powers of all channels are changed simultaneously. Green, red, black, and blue curves represent BERs when we transmit a single channel, co-polarized three WDM channels, co-polarized five WDM channels, and POLMUX five WDM channels, respectively. The symbol rate is 12.5 Gsymbol/s and the WDM channel spacing 25 GHz. Numbers of spans n corresponding to (a)–(d) are 160, 37, 10, and 3, respectively, resulting in total transmission distances of 12,800 km, 2,960 km, 800 km, and 240 km. Note that the optimum power is about −9 dBm ~ −8 dBm, which is almost common in all of the QAM orders. Above this value, the BER performance is degraded by nonlinear impairments stemming from SPM and XPM between WDM channels and POLMUX channels.

Fig. 2 BER characteristics of QAM transmission systems. (a): 4QAM, (b): 16QAM, (c): 64QAM, and (d): 256QAM. Green, red, black, and blue curves represent BERs when we transmit a single channel, co-polarized three WDM channels, co-polarized five WDM channels, and POLMUX five WDM channels, respectively. The symbol rate is 12.5 Gsymbol/s, and the WDM channel spacing is 25 GHz. Numbers of spans n corresponding to (a)–(d) are 160, 37, 10, and 3, respectively.

Dots in Fig. 3 show the maximum number of spans n as a function of the order of QAM m, when POLMUX five WDM channels are transmitted. We find that n is inversely proportional to m as seen from the solid line and that transmission distances of 64QAM and 256QAM systems are severely limited below 1,000 km.

Fig. 3 Maximum number of spans n as a function of the order of QAM m. The solid line shows the relation of nm −1.

Next, changing the symbol rate, we perform similar simulations. Figure 4 shows maximum numbers of spans n for 4, 16, 64, and 256QAM transmission as a function of the symbol rate B. Solid lines represent the slope of nB −2/3, which is in good agreement with simulation results in the range above 25 Gsymbol/s. On the other hand, the optimum launched power Popt to obtain the minimum BER for 4QAM is plotted as a function of the symbol rate B in Fig. 5. In higher-order QAM transmission systems, we have similar B-versus-Popt characteristics within the error range. The solid line represents the slope of PoptB 1/3. Simulation results differ from this line significantly in the range below 25 Gsymbol/s. The theoretical background for these dependencies on B will be discussed in Sec. 5 in detail.

Fig. 4 Maximum number of spans n for 4, 16, 64, and 256QAM as functions of the symbol rate. POLMUX five WDM channels are transmitted, and the WDM channel spacing is twice as large as the symbol rate. Solid lines represent the slope of nB −2/3.
Fig. 5 Optimum power levels Popt for 4QAM transmission as a function of the symbol rate. POLMUX five WDM channels are transmitted through 160 spans, and the WDM channel spacing is twice as large as the symbol rate. The solid line represents the slope of PoptB 1/3.

4. Distribution of constellation points spread by nonlinear effects

In this section, to understand the physics behind the simulation results in Sec. 3, we discuss how constellation points of a 4QAM signal spread out by nonlinear effects. We consider transmission of five-channel WDM and POLMUX signals. The WDM channel spacing is twice as large as the symbol rate. The received complex amplitude is normalized such that the mean square of its absolute value is unity. In such a case, when the carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) is high enough, the distance between constellation points is 2 as shown in Fig. 6, where σnor2 stands for the variance of the distribution.

Fig. 6 Distributions of constellation points of a 4QAM signal. The complex amplitude is normalized such that the mean square of its absolute value is unity. σnor2 stands for the variance of the distribution.

Let the symbol rate be 12.5 Gsymbol/s, the WDM channel spacing 25 GHz, and the number of spans 160. We consider the real part of the complex amplitude ranging from −2 to +2 in Fig. 6. This range is divided into 1,000 sections, and the number of data falling in each section is shown as a histogram for 215 sampled data. Black curves in Figs. 7(a), 7(b), and 7(c) show distributions of the real part of the received complex amplitude for launched average powers Pave of −14 dBm, −9 dBm, and −4 dBm, respectively. On the other hand, red curves are Gaussian distributions fitted to black ones.

Fig. 7 Distributions of the real part of the received complex amplitude. (a): Pave =−14 dBm, (b): Pave = −9 dBm, and (c): Pave =−4 dBm. Black curves show simulation results, and red ones are Gaussian fits. Five-channel WDM and POLMUX signals are transmitted. The symbol rate is 12.5 Gsymbol/s, the WDM channel spacing 25 GHz, and the number of spans 160.

When Pave =−14 dBm, the BER performance is determined by amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) from EDFAs as shown in Fig. 2(a). On the other hand, when Pave =−4 dBm, the BER performance is degraded by nonlinear effects. At an intermediate power such as Pave =−9 dBm, both of ASE and nonlinear effects spread out the distribution of constellation points. Note that distributions are Gaussian in all of the three cases.

Next, we calculate the variance σnor2 of the Gaussian distribution as a function of the launched average power Pave. In Fig. 8, the blue curve is obtained when γ = 0 and ASE is included, i.e., the linear case, whereas the red curve are obtained when ASE is neglected and fiber nonlinearity is included i.e., the nonlinear case. The black curve is calculated when both of ASE and fiber nonlinearity are taken into account. Since the black curve is simply equal to the sum of the red and blue curves, we find that the nonlinear impairment stems from waveform distortion due to GVD and fiber nonlinearity rather than ASE noise enhanced by fiber nonlinearity, i.e., Gordon-Mollenauer phase noise [10

10. J. P. Gordon and L. F. Mollenauer, “Phase noise in photonic communications systems using linear amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 15, 1351–1353 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In the linear case, ASE determines the distribution of constellation points, and it follows that σnor2 is inversely proportional to Pave. On the other hand, in the nonlinear case, we find that σnor2 is proportional to Pave2. This fact is understood as follows: First, inter-symbol interference (ISI) due to GVD generates the power fluctuation δ P proportional to Pave in all of the channels. Then, SPM and XPM induces the phase fluctuation γδ P per unit length in the channel under consideration, which in turn spreads out the distribution of constellation points through GVD; thus, σnor2 is proportional to (γ Pave)2.

Fig. 8 Variance σnor2 of the Gaussian distribution of the constellation points as a function of the launched power. The blue curve is obtained when γ = 0 and ASE is included, whereas the red curve is obtained when ASE is neglected and fiber nonlinearity is included. The black curve is calculated when both of ASE and fiber nonlinearity are taken into account.

Fig. 9 Variance σnor2 of the Gaussian distribution of the constellation points as a function of the number of spans. The launched power Pave is −7 dBm. The red curve and the black curve are obtained when symbol rates are 100 Gsymbol/s and 12.5 Gsymbol/s, respectively. Blue lines are linear fits to these curves.

Finally, we discuss the symbol-rate-dependence of σnor2 in the nonlinear case. Figure 10 shows σnor2 as a function of the symbol rate, when the launched power Pave is −7 dBm, and the number of spans 100. The variance is almost constant when the symbol rate is larger than 25 Gsymbol/s; however, it increases significantly when the symbol rate is lower than 25 Gsymbol/s. This tendency is explained in terms of modulation instability [12

12. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, 1989), Chap. 5.

]. The bandwidth of modulation-instability gain is about 1 GHz in our case. Therefore, when B < 25 Gsymbol/s, the modulation-instability effect inside the signal bandwidth cannot be ignored, and the variance of the Gaussian distribution is enhanced.

Fig. 10 Variance σnor2 of the Gaussian distribution of the constellation points as a function of the symbol rate. The launched power Pave is −7 dBm, and the number of spans 100.

In conclusion of Sec. 4, we have the following equation for σnor2:
σnor2=Cp(γPave)2(Ln),
(3)
where L is the span length and Cp is a constant. In the five-channel WDM and POLMUX environments, Cp = 13.4 [km] above 50 Gsymbol/s; however, we need some corrections for Cp at lower symbol rates as shown in Fig. 10.

In [13

13. P. Poggiolini, A. Carena, V. Curri, G. Bosco, and F. Forghieri, “Analytical modeling of nonlinear propagation in uncompensated optical transmission links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 742–744 (2011). [CrossRef]

] and [14

14. X. Chen and W. Shieh, “Closed-form expressions for nonlinear transmission performance of densely spaced coherent OFDM systems,” Opt. Express 18, 19039–19054 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], closed-form expressions of nonlinear ISI are derived. The dependence on n and Pave expressed by Eq. (3) is the same as that given in [13

13. P. Poggiolini, A. Carena, V. Curri, G. Bosco, and F. Forghieri, “Analytical modeling of nonlinear propagation in uncompensated optical transmission links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 742–744 (2011). [CrossRef]

] and [14

14. X. Chen and W. Shieh, “Closed-form expressions for nonlinear transmission performance of densely spaced coherent OFDM systems,” Opt. Express 18, 19039–19054 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]; however, the dependence on B given by Eq. (3) is different from those derived in [13

13. P. Poggiolini, A. Carena, V. Curri, G. Bosco, and F. Forghieri, “Analytical modeling of nonlinear propagation in uncompensated optical transmission links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 742–744 (2011). [CrossRef]

] and [14

14. X. Chen and W. Shieh, “Closed-form expressions for nonlinear transmission performance of densely spaced coherent OFDM systems,” Opt. Express 18, 19039–19054 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. This may be because modulation instability is not taken into consideration in these references.

5. BER formula for high-order QAM transmission systems

Based on Eq. (3), we derive a closed-form expression of BER. Let the minimum distance between QAM constellation points be 2δ and the variance of the distribution σ 2. In such a case, the bit-error rate for QAM signals is approximately given as
BERDeerfc(δ22σ2),
(4)
where erfc(*) is the complementary error function, and De=1, 3/4, 7/12, and 15/32 for differentially encoded 4QAM, 16QAM, 64QAM, and 256QAM, respectively. The average power of the m-th order QAM signal Pave(m) is given as
Pave(m)=13(m1)δ2.
(5)
In the linear region, the variance σ2 stems from ASE accumulation and is given as
σ2=hfn(G1)nspB,
(6)
where f denote the frequency of the carrier, G the amplifier gain, and nsp the spontaneous emission factor of amplifiers. On the other hand, the variance in the nonlinear region is given from Eq. (3) as
σn2=2Paveσnor2=2γ2LnCpPave3,
(7)
where we assume that each constellation point of the high-order QAM has the same Gaussian distribution determined from the average power. Since the total variance of the Gaussian distribution is given as the sum of σ2 and σn2, Eqs. (4), (5), (6), and (7) yield
BERDeerfc(1(m1)nBCPave+(m1)nPave2Cn),
(8)
where
C=32hf(G1)nsp,
(9)
Cn=34Lγ2Cp.
(10)

From Eq. (8), we find that when
Pave=(Cn2C)1/3B1/3,
(11)
the BER is minimized as
BERmin=Deerfc(Cn1/3(2C)2/33(m1)nB2/3).
(12)
To keep BERmin at a certain value, for example 10−3, the following relation must be satisfied for any values of m, n, and B:
(m1)nB2/3=C,
(13)
where C is a constant.

The analyses mentioned above lead to the following simple laws for QAM transmission in fixed WDM and POLMUX environments:
  1. The maximum number of spans n to achieve a certain BER has the following dependence on m and B:
    nB2/3(m1)1B2/3m1.
    (14)
  2. The optimum power Popt to obtain the best BER is dependent on neither n nor m; however, its symbol-rate-dependence is given as
    PoptB1/3.
    (15)

These laws can well explain simulation results given in Figs. 3, 4, and 5. Figure 3 shows that nm −1 when B is fixed. On the other hand, for a fixed m, Fig. 4 and Fig. 5 lead to relations of nB −2/3 and PoptB 1/3, respectively, when B is larger than 50 Gsymbol/s. Deviations of simulation results from these relations at lower symbol rates are due to the fact that Cp in Eq. (3) is enhanced by modulation instability. It should be noted here that the larger GVD of fibers generally provides us with the better transmission performance because of the smaller bandwidth of modulation-instability gain.

Fig. 11 BER curves calculated from the simple BER formula Eq. (8). The symbol rate is 12.5 Gsymbol/s. The black, red, blue, and green curves are BER curves for 4QAM, 16QAM, 64QAM, and 256QAM, respectively. The symbol rate is 12.5 Gsymbol/s and the WDM channel spacing is 25 GHz. Five-channel WDM and POLMUX signals are transmitted, and numbers of spans are the same as those used in Sec. 3.

6. Conclusions

We have analyzed the performance of WDM POLMUX high-order QAM transmission in a systematic manner. First, we conduct intensive computer simulations on BERs and find maximum transmission distances under the influence of nonlinear impairments. The maximum number of spans is inversely proportional to the order of QAM and transmission distances of 64QAM and 256QAM systems are severely limited below 1,000 km at 12.5 Gsymbol/s.

Next, to elucidate the physics behind such nonlinear transmission characteristics, we calculate the distribution of constellation points for QAM signals and find that waveform distortion stemming from the interplay between GVD and nonlinearity of fibers generates the Gaussian distribution for the constellation points. Using the dependence of the variance of such Gaussian distribution on the transmission distance, the launched power, and the symbol rate, we derive a closed-form expression of BER. This BER formula leads to simple laws that determine the maximum transmission distance and the optimum power for each QAM format as a function of the symbol rate.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported in part by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A) ( 22246046), the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture, Japan.

References and links

1.

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, B. Zhu, and D. W. Peckham, “10×224-Gb/s WDM transmission of 28-Gbaud PDM 16-QAM on a 50-GHz grid transmission over 1,200 km of fiber,” in 2010 OSA Technical Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2010), PDPB8.

2.

A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, K. Ishihara, H. Masuda, S. Yamamoto, K. Mori, E. Yamazaki, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, T. Yamada, and H. Yamazaki, “240-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed 64-QAM modulation and blind detection using PLC-LN hybrid integrated modulator and digital coherent receiver,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (Sept.2009), PD2.2.

3.

M. Nakazawa, S. Okamoto, T. Omiya, K. Kasai, and M. Yoshida, “256 QAM (64 Gbit/s) coherent optical transmission over 160 km with an optical bandwidth of 5.4 GHz,” in 2010 OSA Technical Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2010), OMJ5.

4.

D.-S. Ly-Gagnon, S. Tsukamoto, K. Katoh, and K. Kikuchi, “Coherent detection of optical quadrature phase-shift keying signals with carrier phase estimation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 12–21 (2006). [CrossRef]

5.

H. Sun, K.-T. Wu, and K. Roberts, “Real-time measurements of a 40 Gb/s coherent system,” Opt. Express 16, 873–879 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

K. Kikuchi, “Ultra long-haul optical transmission characteristics of wavelength-division multiplexed dual-polarisation 16-quadrature-amplitude-modulation signals,” Electron. Lett. 46, 433–434 (2010). [CrossRef]

7.

S. G. Evangelides Jr., L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and N. S. Bergano, “Polarization multiplexing with solitons,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 28–35 (1992). [CrossRef]

8.

T. Kato, M. Hirano, M. Onishi, and M. Nishimura, “Ultra-low nonlinearity low-loss pure silica core fibre for long-haul WDM transmission,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1615–1617 (1999). [CrossRef]

9.

M. Seimetz, “Laser linewidth limitations for optical systems with high order modulation employing feed forward digital carrier phase estimation,” in 2008 OSA Technical Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2008), OTuM2.

10.

J. P. Gordon and L. F. Mollenauer, “Phase noise in photonic communications systems using linear amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 15, 1351–1353 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

E. Ip and J. M. Kahn, “Compensation of dispersion and nonlinear impairments using digital backpropagation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 3416–3425 (2008). [CrossRef]

12.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, 1989), Chap. 5.

13.

P. Poggiolini, A. Carena, V. Curri, G. Bosco, and F. Forghieri, “Analytical modeling of nonlinear propagation in uncompensated optical transmission links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 742–744 (2011). [CrossRef]

14.

X. Chen and W. Shieh, “Closed-form expressions for nonlinear transmission performance of densely spaced coherent OFDM systems,” Opt. Express 18, 19039–19054 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(060.1660) Fiber optics and optical communications : Coherent communications
(060.2330) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics communications
(060.2920) Fiber optics and optical communications : Homodyning

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: July 19, 2011
Revised Manuscript: August 8, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: August 19, 2011
Published: August 29, 2011

Citation
Kazuro Kikuchi, "Analyses of wavelength- and polarization-division multiplexed transmission characteristics of optical quadrature-amplitude-modulation signals," Opt. Express 19, 17985-17995 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-19-17985


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References

  1. A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, B. Zhu, and D. W. Peckham, “10×224-Gb/s WDM transmission of 28-Gbaud PDM 16-QAM on a 50-GHz grid transmission over 1,200 km of fiber,” in 2010 OSA Technical Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2010), PDPB8.
  2. A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, K. Ishihara, H. Masuda, S. Yamamoto, K. Mori, E. Yamazaki, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, T. Yamada, and H. Yamazaki, “240-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed 64-QAM modulation and blind detection using PLC-LN hybrid integrated modulator and digital coherent receiver,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (Sept.2009), PD2.2.
  3. M. Nakazawa, S. Okamoto, T. Omiya, K. Kasai, and M. Yoshida, “256 QAM (64 Gbit/s) coherent optical transmission over 160 km with an optical bandwidth of 5.4 GHz,” in 2010 OSA Technical Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2010), OMJ5.
  4. D.-S. Ly-Gagnon, S. Tsukamoto, K. Katoh, and K. Kikuchi, “Coherent detection of optical quadrature phase-shift keying signals with carrier phase estimation,” J. Lightwave Technol.24, 12–21 (2006). [CrossRef]
  5. H. Sun, K.-T. Wu, and K. Roberts, “Real-time measurements of a 40 Gb/s coherent system,” Opt. Express16, 873–879 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. Kikuchi, “Ultra long-haul optical transmission characteristics of wavelength-division multiplexed dual-polarisation 16-quadrature-amplitude-modulation signals,” Electron. Lett.46, 433–434 (2010). [CrossRef]
  7. S. G. Evangelides, L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and N. S. Bergano, “Polarization multiplexing with solitons,” J. Lightwave Technol.10, 28–35 (1992). [CrossRef]
  8. T. Kato, M. Hirano, M. Onishi, and M. Nishimura, “Ultra-low nonlinearity low-loss pure silica core fibre for long-haul WDM transmission,” Electron. Lett.35, 1615–1617 (1999). [CrossRef]
  9. M. Seimetz, “Laser linewidth limitations for optical systems with high order modulation employing feed forward digital carrier phase estimation,” in 2008 OSA Technical Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2008), OTuM2.
  10. J. P. Gordon and L. F. Mollenauer, “Phase noise in photonic communications systems using linear amplifiers,” Opt. Lett.15, 1351–1353 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. E. Ip and J. M. Kahn, “Compensation of dispersion and nonlinear impairments using digital backpropagation,” J. Lightwave Technol.26, 3416–3425 (2008). [CrossRef]
  12. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, 1989), Chap. 5.
  13. P. Poggiolini, A. Carena, V. Curri, G. Bosco, and F. Forghieri, “Analytical modeling of nonlinear propagation in uncompensated optical transmission links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 742–744 (2011). [CrossRef]
  14. X. Chen and W. Shieh, “Closed-form expressions for nonlinear transmission performance of densely spaced coherent OFDM systems,” Opt. Express18, 19039–19054 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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