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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 19 — Sep. 12, 2011
  • pp: 18175–18181
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Spectral tunability of a plasmonic antenna with a dielectric nanocrystal

Yury Alaverdyan, Nick Vamivakas, Joshua Barnes, Claire Lebouteiller, Jack Hare, and Mete Atatüre  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 19, pp. 18175-18181 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.018175


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Abstract

We show that the positioning of a nanometer length scale dielectric object, such as a diamond nanocrystal, in the vicinity of a gold bowtie nanoantenna can be used to tune the plasmonic mode spectrum on the order of a linewidth. We further show that the intrinsic luminescence of gold enhanced in the presence of nanometer-scale roughness couples efficiently to the plasmon mode and carries the same polarization anisotropy. Our findings have direct implications for cavity quantum electrodynamics related applications of hybrid antenna-emitter complexes.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

Collective oscillations of conduction band electrons confined at metal-dielectric interfaces give rise to surface plasmon polariton modes, which can confine electromagnetic fields to an effective volume that is considerably smaller than the optical diffraction limit. The field of plasmonics gained increasing attention following the discovery of surface-enhanced Raman scattering [1

1. M. Fleischmann, P. J. Hendra, and A. J. McQuillan, “Raman spectra of pyridine adsorbed at silver electrode,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 26(2), 163–166 (1974). [CrossRef]

, 2

2. D. L. Jeanmaire and R. P. Van Duyne, “Surface Raman spectroelectrochemistry. Part 1. Heterocyclic, aromatic and aliphatic amines adsorbed on the anodized silver electrode,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 84(1), 1–20 (1977). [CrossRef]

] and development of surface plasmon resonance sensing schemes [3

3. A. Otto, “Excitation of nonradiative surface plasma waves in silver by the method of frustrated total reflection,” Zeitschrift. Ffir. Physik. 216(4), 398–410 (1968). [CrossRef]

7

7. B. Brian, B. Sepulveda, Y. Alaverdyan, L. M. Lechuga, and M. Kall, “Sensitivity enhancement of nanoplasmonic sensors in low refractive index substrates,” Opt. Express 17(3), 2015–2023 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Recently, localized surface plasmon (LSP) modes have been considered as promising candidates for the strong light confinement needed in cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) to achieve suppression of spontaneous emission, single photon generation in a well-defined spatial mode, and local probing of the environment [8

8. T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, and N. F. van Hulst, “Single emitters coupled to plasmonic nano-antennas: angular emission and collection efficiency,” N. J. Phys. 10(10), 105005 (2008). [CrossRef]

15

15. A. W. Schell, G. Kewes, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, O. Benson, and T. Aichele, “Single defect centers in diamond nanocrystals as quantum probes for plasmonic nanostructures,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7914–7920 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. For this purpose the bowtie (BT) antenna, one of the smallest plasmonic structures, simultaneously offers both extraordinary field confinement and a broadband spectral response [12

12. A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009). [CrossRef]

, 13

13. A. Sundaramurthy, K. B. Crozier, G. S. Kino, D. P. Fromm, P. J. Schuck, and W. E. Moerner, “Field enhancement and gap-dependent resonance in a system of two opposing tip-to-tip Au nanotriangles,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 165409 (2005). [CrossRef]

, 15

15. A. W. Schell, G. Kewes, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, O. Benson, and T. Aichele, “Single defect centers in diamond nanocrystals as quantum probes for plasmonic nanostructures,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7914–7920 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17

17. L. Zhou, Q. Gan, F. J. Bartoli, and V. Dierolf, “Direct near-field optical imaging of UV bowtie nanoantennas,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20301–20306 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The structure comprises two metal triangles with tips pointing towards each other separated by a small gap. The spatial distribution of the fundamental dipolar-like LSP mode for the polarization parallel to the antenna axis is suitable for coupling to an optical transition of a single emitter.

In this Letter, we show how the fundamental plasmon mode of a BT antenna can be tuned spectrally by controlling the position of a single diamond nanocrystal (NC) in the proximity of the antenna gap. Position control is achieved with an atomic force microscope in contact mode. For each crystal position, we measure dark-field scattering (DF) and antenna photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the BT-NC hybrid structure. We further report that the gold luminescence due to single electron intra-band excitation is dramatically enhanced due to efficient coupling to the modes of the BT antenna. In the fundamental dipolar-like mode, which is of interest for single emitter-cavity QED, this luminescence shows 150-fold enhancement.

2. Fabrication, simulations, manipulation and optical measurements

The BT antennas were fabricated using electron-beam lithography with positive resist ZEP520A on a 300 micron-thick quartz substrate. After the exposure (Crestec 9500C, 50 kV, 10 pA) and development in hexylacetate, 1 nm Cr and 29 nm Au were thermally deposited, followed by a lift-off in Shipley Remover 1165 at 60°C. Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) confirm that both the width and the length of each triangle in a BT antenna was nominally 75 nm with a gap of 20 nm, both with a few nanometer variations (Fig. 1a
Fig. 1 A – SEM image of a typical bowtie nanoantenna. B – SEM image of a typical diamond nanocrystal (NC). C – An illustration of a bowtie triangle used in the simulations (the white bars are 100 nm in length). D – An illustration of the diamond nanocrystal used in the simulations (the white bars are 50 nm in length). E – An illustration for the experimental setup used in the optical measurements. Here WL denotes the halogen lamp, SM a Princeton Instruments piezo-controlled scanning mirror, DM a dichroic mirror with a cut-off wavelength at 550 nm, and BS an uncoated BK7 glass beamsplitter. LP1, 2 and 3 denote linear polarizers, F1 a 532 nm laser line filter, and F2 a 600 nm long pass filter. CCD denotes a camera used for imaging the sample surface, APD an avalanche photodiode photon counting module, and λ a Princeton Instruments liquid nitrogen-cooled spectrometer, connected to a PC.
). Scattering spectra were taken from 24 BT antennas, fabricated using the same protocol (not shown). They exhibited a resonance wavelength uncertainty of 20 nm due to fabrication irregularities. The diamond nanocrystals of 0-50 nm size range (Microdiamant) were dispersed in ethanol, ultra-sonicated for 1 hour, and then deposited on the BT-patterned substrate. The NC used for manipulations was ~35 nm in diameter and did not show any luminescence under optical excitation. Scanning electron micrograph of a typical NC is shown in Fig. 1b.

Finite difference time domain (FDTD) numerical simulations of the antenna-nanocrystal hybrid structure were performed using commercially available software (FDTD Solutions, Lumerical). BT corners were rounded to 9 nm radius to simulate the real structure (Fig. 1c) with experimentally determined spectral dependence of the refractive index for gold [18

18. D. R. Lide, ed., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2006), 87th Ed.

], chromium and quartz [19

19. E. D. Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, 1998.

]. The NC is represented by two truncated pyramids one atop the other, each 17.5 nm in height (for a total 35 nm), 20 nm across at their tips and 35 nm across at their base, modelled as a dielectric with refractive index of 2.417 (Fig. 1d). Meshing was set at 0.5 nm in a region covering the BT plus crystal combination, and was progressively relaxed to automatically-determined larger cell sizes outside of this centre region. The boundary conditions were perfectly matched layers. In addition, the four simulations which are symmetric structures along the x axis (the bowtie axis), used an anti-symmetric minimum boundary condition for the x axis. The source is a plane wave, linearly polarised along the bowtie axis. The near-field profile images are taken at the substrate level and in the middle of the NC (17.5 nm above the substrate surface).

Optical measurements were performed with a home-built fibre-based confocal optical scanning microscope, shown in Fig. 1e. A halogen lamp was used as a broadband light source for DF scattering on the BT antenna. A 532-nm laser (Verdi, Coherent) was used for the generation of the gold luminescence for PL measurements. Excitation power was ~0.6 mW and integration time for each PL spectrum was 5s. Each time-integrated DF spectrum was integrated for 30s and divided by the original halogen source spectrum for normalization. Imaging of the sample’s topography was done using an atomic force microscope (AFM) (NanoWizard II, JPK) in tapping mode, while manipulation was performed in contact mode.

3. Results and discussion

The corresponding simulated near-field images for the same crystal positions relative to the BT are shown in Fig. 2f-m. When the NC is in the vicinity of the antenna gap, the field distribution of the fundamental plasmon mode is modified significantly at the height corresponding to the largest lateral extent of the NC (17.5 nm above the substrate). However, the field distribution in the antenna gap at the substrate level, where a single emitter can be placed, is almost unaffected by the NC, therefore the coupling strength of an emitter to the plasmon mode can be maintained in the presence of a nearby NC.

The shape and size of the NC is chosen so that the centre of the antenna gap is always available for a single quantum emitter such as a single molecule or a nitrogen-vacancy centre in a small (~5 nm) diamond nanocrystal to be positioned for plasmonic coupling. Such systems, however, are commonly excited optically at energies higher than the fundamental emission energy. The exposure of the BT antenna to the typical nitrogen-vacancy center excitation wavelength of 532 nm results in the generation of gold luminescence signal [20

20. E. Dulkeith, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, G. von Plessen, D. I. Gittins, K. S. Mayya, and F. Caruso, “Plasmon emission in photoexcited gold nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 70(20), 205424 (2004). [CrossRef]

22

22. M. R. Beversluis, A. Bouhelier, and L. Novotny, “Continuum generation from single gold nanostructures through near-field mediated intraband transitions,” Phys. Rev. B 68(11), 115433 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. This signal originates from the intra-band light absorption in gold and the subsequent radiative decay probability is greatly enhanced in the presence of nanometer-scale roughness (as seen in thermally deposited polycrystalline gold) due to the relaxed dispersion relation at this length scale. This results in a broad gold-generated luminescence spectrum which overlaps with the tailored plasmon resonances in the visible to near-infrared spectrum.

Figure 3b presents normalised DF and PL spectra along with the simulated scattering spectra for the five positions of the NC, discussed in Fig. 2. Each spectrum is fit with a Voigt function to determine the peak wavelength. While the peak wavelength depends significantly on the NC distance to the centre of the antenna gap, the plasmon resonance lineshape is essentially unchanged by the presence of the NC. The FDTD simulations of the plasmon lineshape (top set of curves) confirm that the lineshape is unaffected by the presence of the NC. Figure 3c shows the dependence of the resonance wavelength on the NC distance to the gap centre. As the overlap between the NC and the near-field profile of the plasmon mode increases, the plasmon mode samples more of the higher index dielectric and the observed resonance exhibits a nonlinear shift to longer wavelengths. Figure 3c also shows a few-nm offset between DF and PL spectra at each NC position. DF and PL are two fundamentally different mechanisms and are susceptible to wavelength-dependent coupling efficiency of the two light sources. Identifying the exact cause of the offset will require further study.

4. Conclusion

Here we show that a dielectric nanocrystal can be used for tuning the resonance wavelength of a plasmonic BT antenna on the order of a linewidth. This ability is essential for controlling the spectral overlap of a quantum emitter, such as a single molecule, a quantum dot, or a diamond color center, with a plasmonic cavity mode. The spectral tuning is achieved by modifying the mode sufficiently above the substrate level in our experiments, and therefore, the anticipated spatial overlap of a quantum emitter with the mode distribution would be unaffected at the substrate level. We further show that gold luminescence is enhanced by the fundamental plasmon mode of a BT antenna by more than two orders of magnitude. The degree of coupling of the gold luminescence to the BT antenna is a roadblock for applications requiring coherent (strong) emitter-cavity coupling, but it can be used as a tool for characterizing the spectral properties of gold-based plasmonic nanostructures.

Acknowledgements

We thank T. Müller for technical assistance. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Research Council (FP7/2007-2013)/ERC Grant agreement No. 209636, the internal funds of the University of Cambridge and EPSRC.

References and links

1.

M. Fleischmann, P. J. Hendra, and A. J. McQuillan, “Raman spectra of pyridine adsorbed at silver electrode,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 26(2), 163–166 (1974). [CrossRef]

2.

D. L. Jeanmaire and R. P. Van Duyne, “Surface Raman spectroelectrochemistry. Part 1. Heterocyclic, aromatic and aliphatic amines adsorbed on the anodized silver electrode,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 84(1), 1–20 (1977). [CrossRef]

3.

A. Otto, “Excitation of nonradiative surface plasma waves in silver by the method of frustrated total reflection,” Zeitschrift. Ffir. Physik. 216(4), 398–410 (1968). [CrossRef]

4.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 (2003). [CrossRef]

5.

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lunström, “Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing,” Sens. Actuators 4, 299–304 (1983). [CrossRef]

6.

A. D. McFarland and R. P. Van Duyne, “Single silver nanoparticles as real-time optical sensors with zeptomole sensitivity,” Nano Lett. 3(8), 1057–1062 (2003). [CrossRef]

7.

B. Brian, B. Sepulveda, Y. Alaverdyan, L. M. Lechuga, and M. Kall, “Sensitivity enhancement of nanoplasmonic sensors in low refractive index substrates,” Opt. Express 17(3), 2015–2023 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, and N. F. van Hulst, “Single emitters coupled to plasmonic nano-antennas: angular emission and collection efficiency,” N. J. Phys. 10(10), 105005 (2008). [CrossRef]

9.

R. Kolesov, B. Grotz, G. Balasubramanian, R. Stöhr, A. Nicolet, P. Hemmer, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Wave–particle duality of single surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Phys. 5(7), 470–474 (2009). [CrossRef]

10.

A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature 450(7168), 402–406 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329(5994), 930–933 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009). [CrossRef]

13.

A. Sundaramurthy, K. B. Crozier, G. S. Kino, D. P. Fromm, P. J. Schuck, and W. E. Moerner, “Field enhancement and gap-dependent resonance in a system of two opposing tip-to-tip Au nanotriangles,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 165409 (2005). [CrossRef]

14.

S. Schietinger, M. Barth, T. Aichele, and O. Benson, “Plasmon-enhanced single photon emission from a nanoassembled metal-diamond hybrid structure at room temperature,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1694–1698 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

A. W. Schell, G. Kewes, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, O. Benson, and T. Aichele, “Single defect centers in diamond nanocrystals as quantum probes for plasmonic nanostructures,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7914–7920 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

H. Fischer and O. J. F. Martin, “Engineering the optical response of plasmonic nanoantennas,” Opt. Express 16(12), 9144–9154 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

L. Zhou, Q. Gan, F. J. Bartoli, and V. Dierolf, “Direct near-field optical imaging of UV bowtie nanoantennas,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20301–20306 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

D. R. Lide, ed., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2006), 87th Ed.

19.

E. D. Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, 1998.

20.

E. Dulkeith, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, G. von Plessen, D. I. Gittins, K. S. Mayya, and F. Caruso, “Plasmon emission in photoexcited gold nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 70(20), 205424 (2004). [CrossRef]

21.

G. T. Boyd, Z. H. Yu, and Y. R. Shen, “Photoinduced luminescence from the noble metals and its enhancement on roughened surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 33(12), 7923–7936 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

M. R. Beversluis, A. Bouhelier, and L. Novotny, “Continuum generation from single gold nanostructures through near-field mediated intraband transitions,” Phys. Rev. B 68(11), 115433 (2003). [CrossRef]

23.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 220(1-3), 137–141 (2003). [CrossRef]

24.

L. Gunnarsson, T. Rindzevicius, J. Prikulis, B. Kasemo, M. Kall, S. Zou, and G. C. Schatz, “Confined plasmons in nanofabricated single silver particle pairs: experimental observations of strong interparticle interactions,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(3), 1079–1087 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, Y. Duanmu, L. Xu, S. Xie, and N. Gu, “Facile synthesis of micrometer-sized gold nanoplates through an aniline-assisted route in ethylene glycol solution,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 278(1-3), 33–38 (2006). [CrossRef]

26.

J.-S. Huang, V. Callegari, P. Geisler, C. Brüning, J. Kern, J. C. Prangsma, X. Wu, T. Feichtner, J. Ziegler, P. Weinmann, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, P. Biagioni, U. Sennhauser, and B. Hecht, “Atomically flat single-crystalline gold nanostructures for plasmonic nanocircuitry,” Nat Commun. 1(9), 150 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
(250.5403) Optoelectronics : Plasmonics

ToC Category:
Optics at Surfaces

History
Original Manuscript: May 18, 2011
Revised Manuscript: July 20, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: July 21, 2011
Published: September 1, 2011

Citation
Yury Alaverdyan, Nick Vamivakas, Joshua Barnes, Claire Lebouteiller, Jack Hare, and Mete Atatüre, "Spectral tunability of a plasmonic antenna with a dielectric nanocrystal," Opt. Express 19, 18175-18181 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-19-18175


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References

  1. M. Fleischmann, P. J. Hendra, and A. J. McQuillan, “Raman spectra of pyridine adsorbed at silver electrode,” Chem. Phys. Lett.26(2), 163–166 (1974). [CrossRef]
  2. D. L. Jeanmaire and R. P. Van Duyne, “Surface Raman spectroelectrochemistry. Part 1. Heterocyclic, aromatic and aliphatic amines adsorbed on the anodized silver electrode,” J. Electroanal. Chem.84(1), 1–20 (1977). [CrossRef]
  3. A. Otto, “Excitation of nonradiative surface plasma waves in silver by the method of frustrated total reflection,” Zeitschrift. Ffir. Physik.216(4), 398–410 (1968). [CrossRef]
  4. K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B107(3), 668–677 (2003). [CrossRef]
  5. B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lunström, “Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing,” Sens. Actuators4, 299–304 (1983). [CrossRef]
  6. A. D. McFarland and R. P. Van Duyne, “Single silver nanoparticles as real-time optical sensors with zeptomole sensitivity,” Nano Lett.3(8), 1057–1062 (2003). [CrossRef]
  7. B. Brian, B. Sepulveda, Y. Alaverdyan, L. M. Lechuga, and M. Kall, “Sensitivity enhancement of nanoplasmonic sensors in low refractive index substrates,” Opt. Express17(3), 2015–2023 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, and N. F. van Hulst, “Single emitters coupled to plasmonic nano-antennas: angular emission and collection efficiency,” N. J. Phys.10(10), 105005 (2008). [CrossRef]
  9. R. Kolesov, B. Grotz, G. Balasubramanian, R. Stöhr, A. Nicolet, P. Hemmer, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Wave–particle duality of single surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Phys.5(7), 470–474 (2009). [CrossRef]
  10. A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature450(7168), 402–406 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science329(5994), 930–933 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics3(11), 654–657 (2009). [CrossRef]
  13. A. Sundaramurthy, K. B. Crozier, G. S. Kino, D. P. Fromm, P. J. Schuck, and W. E. Moerner, “Field enhancement and gap-dependent resonance in a system of two opposing tip-to-tip Au nanotriangles,” Phys. Rev. B72(16), 165409 (2005). [CrossRef]
  14. S. Schietinger, M. Barth, T. Aichele, and O. Benson, “Plasmon-enhanced single photon emission from a nanoassembled metal-diamond hybrid structure at room temperature,” Nano Lett.9(4), 1694–1698 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. W. Schell, G. Kewes, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, O. Benson, and T. Aichele, “Single defect centers in diamond nanocrystals as quantum probes for plasmonic nanostructures,” Opt. Express19(8), 7914–7920 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. H. Fischer and O. J. F. Martin, “Engineering the optical response of plasmonic nanoantennas,” Opt. Express16(12), 9144–9154 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. L. Zhou, Q. Gan, F. J. Bartoli, and V. Dierolf, “Direct near-field optical imaging of UV bowtie nanoantennas,” Opt. Express17(22), 20301–20306 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. D. R. Lide, ed., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2006), 87th Ed.
  19. E. D. Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, 1998.
  20. E. Dulkeith, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, G. von Plessen, D. I. Gittins, K. S. Mayya, and F. Caruso, “Plasmon emission in photoexcited gold nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B70(20), 205424 (2004). [CrossRef]
  21. G. T. Boyd, Z. H. Yu, and Y. R. Shen, “Photoinduced luminescence from the noble metals and its enhancement on roughened surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter33(12), 7923–7936 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. M. R. Beversluis, A. Bouhelier, and L. Novotny, “Continuum generation from single gold nanostructures through near-field mediated intraband transitions,” Phys. Rev. B68(11), 115433 (2003). [CrossRef]
  23. W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun.220(1-3), 137–141 (2003). [CrossRef]
  24. L. Gunnarsson, T. Rindzevicius, J. Prikulis, B. Kasemo, M. Kall, S. Zou, and G. C. Schatz, “Confined plasmons in nanofabricated single silver particle pairs: experimental observations of strong interparticle interactions,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(3), 1079–1087 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, Y. Duanmu, L. Xu, S. Xie, and N. Gu, “Facile synthesis of micrometer-sized gold nanoplates through an aniline-assisted route in ethylene glycol solution,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp.278(1-3), 33–38 (2006). [CrossRef]
  26. J.-S. Huang, V. Callegari, P. Geisler, C. Brüning, J. Kern, J. C. Prangsma, X. Wu, T. Feichtner, J. Ziegler, P. Weinmann, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, P. Biagioni, U. Sennhauser, and B. Hecht, “Atomically flat single-crystalline gold nanostructures for plasmonic nanocircuitry,” Nat Commun.1(9), 150 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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