## Weak avalanche discrimination for gated-mode single-photon avalanche photodiodes |

Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 19, pp. 18510-18515 (2011)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.018510

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### Abstract

The after-pulsing effect is a common problem that needs to be overcome for high-speed single-photon detection based on gated-mode single-photon avalanche photodiodes (SPADs). This paper presents a simple and practical method for suppression of the after-pulsing probability using an auxiliary signal to discriminate quite weak avalanches. The detection efficiency and after-pulse probability of an InGaAs/InP SPAD are investigated with a 10 MHz gating for conventional and proposed methods, and a sharp decrease of after-pulse probability is demonstrated with the application of the proposed method. At a gating frequency of 100 MHz, a detection efficiency of 10.4% is achieved with an after-pulse probability of 5.6% without dead time.

© 2011 OSA

## 1. Introduction

1. S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lacaita, C. Samori, and F. Zappa, “Avalanche photodiodes and quenching circuits for single-photon detection,” Appl. Opt. **35**(12), 1956–1976 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4. N. Namekata, Y. Makino, and S. Inoue, “Single-photon detector for long-distance fiber-optic quantum key distribution,” Opt. Lett. **27**(11), 954–956 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5. M. Liu, C. Hu, J. C. Campbell, Z. Pan, and M. M. Tashima, “Reduce after-pulsing of single-photon avalanche diodes using passive quenching with active reset,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. **44**(5), 430–434 (2008). [CrossRef]

6. N. Namekata, S. Sasamori, and S. Inoue, “800 MHz single-photon detection at 1550 nm using an InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode operated with a sine wave gating,” Opt. Express **14**(21), 10043–10049 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8. J. Zhang, R. Thew, C. Barreiro, and H. Zbinden, “Practical fast-gate rate ingaas/inp single-photon avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. **95**(9), 091103 (2009). [CrossRef]

8. J. Zhang, R. Thew, C. Barreiro, and H. Zbinden, “Practical fast-gate rate ingaas/inp single-photon avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. **95**(9), 091103 (2009). [CrossRef]

6. N. Namekata, S. Sasamori, and S. Inoue, “800 MHz single-photon detection at 1550 nm using an InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode operated with a sine wave gating,” Opt. Express **14**(21), 10043–10049 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9. N. Namekata, S. Adachi, and S. Inoue, “1.5 GHz single-photon detection at telecommunication wavelengths using sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode,” Opt. Express **17**(8), 6275–6282 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7. Z. L. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “High-speed single-photon detection in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. **91**(4), 041114 (2007). [CrossRef]

10. A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Bennett, and A. J. Shields, “Ultrashort dead time of photon-counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. **94**(23), 231113 (2009). [CrossRef]

11. Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, and A. J. Shields, “Multi-gigahertz operation of photon counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. **96**(7), 071101 (2010). [CrossRef]

12. N. Namekata, G. Fujii, S. Inoue, T. Honjo, and H. Takesue, “Differential phase shift quantum key distribution using single-photon detectors based on a sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. **91**(1), 011112 (2007). [CrossRef]

14. A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz decoy quantum key distribution with 1 Mbit/s secure key rate,” Opt. Express **16**(23), 18790–18797 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15. B. E. Kardynał, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “An avalanche-photodiode-based photon-number-resolving detector,” Nat. Photonics **2**(7), 425–428 (2008). [CrossRef]

8. J. Zhang, R. Thew, C. Barreiro, and H. Zbinden, “Practical fast-gate rate ingaas/inp single-photon avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. **95**(9), 091103 (2009). [CrossRef]

## 2. Experimental setup

*μ*) of the laser pulses is set as 0.1/pulse using an optical variable attenuator (OVA). An additional PPG2 is used to synchronously trigger the laser diode (LD) and the PPG1 with rates of

**95**(9), 091103 (2009). [CrossRef]

## 3. Experimental results

*η*) and the after-pulse probability (

**95**(9), 091103 (2009). [CrossRef]

^{−5}per gate. The maximum count rate of this 100 MHz gating scheme can approach up to 100 MHz because no dead time is applied.

## 4. Conclusion

## Acknowledgments

## References and links

1. | S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lacaita, C. Samori, and F. Zappa, “Avalanche photodiodes and quenching circuits for single-photon detection,” Appl. Opt. |

2. | A. Lacaita, F. Zappa, S. Cova, and P. Lovati, “Single-photon detection beyond 1 µm: performance of commercially available InGaAs/lnP detectors,” Appl. Opt. |

3. | D. Stucki, G. Ribordy, A. Stefanov, H. Zbinden, J. G. Rarity, and T. Wall, “Photon counting for quantum key distribution with Peltier cooled InGaAs/InP APDs,” J. Mod. Opt. |

4. | N. Namekata, Y. Makino, and S. Inoue, “Single-photon detector for long-distance fiber-optic quantum key distribution,” Opt. Lett. |

5. | M. Liu, C. Hu, J. C. Campbell, Z. Pan, and M. M. Tashima, “Reduce after-pulsing of single-photon avalanche diodes using passive quenching with active reset,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. |

6. | N. Namekata, S. Sasamori, and S. Inoue, “800 MHz single-photon detection at 1550 nm using an InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode operated with a sine wave gating,” Opt. Express |

7. | Z. L. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “High-speed single-photon detection in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. |

8. | J. Zhang, R. Thew, C. Barreiro, and H. Zbinden, “Practical fast-gate rate ingaas/inp single-photon avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. |

9. | N. Namekata, S. Adachi, and S. Inoue, “1.5 GHz single-photon detection at telecommunication wavelengths using sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode,” Opt. Express |

10. | A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Bennett, and A. J. Shields, “Ultrashort dead time of photon-counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. |

11. | Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, and A. J. Shields, “Multi-gigahertz operation of photon counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. |

12. | N. Namekata, G. Fujii, S. Inoue, T. Honjo, and H. Takesue, “Differential phase shift quantum key distribution using single-photon detectors based on a sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. |

13. | Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. |

14. | A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz decoy quantum key distribution with 1 Mbit/s secure key rate,” Opt. Express |

15. | B. E. Kardynał, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “An avalanche-photodiode-based photon-number-resolving detector,” Nat. Photonics |

**OCIS Codes**

(270.0270) Quantum optics : Quantum optics

(040.1345) Detectors : Avalanche photodiodes (APDs)

**ToC Category:**

Detectors

**History**

Original Manuscript: June 29, 2011

Revised Manuscript: August 23, 2011

Manuscript Accepted: August 31, 2011

Published: September 7, 2011

**Citation**

Seok-Beom Cho and Sae-Kyoung Kang, "Weak avalanche discrimination for gated-mode single-photon avalanche photodiodes," Opt. Express **19**, 18510-18515 (2011)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-19-18510

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### References

- S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lacaita, C. Samori, and F. Zappa, “Avalanche photodiodes and quenching circuits for single-photon detection,” Appl. Opt. 35(12), 1956–1976 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- A. Lacaita, F. Zappa, S. Cova, and P. Lovati, “Single-photon detection beyond 1 µm: performance of commercially available InGaAs/lnP detectors,” Appl. Opt. 35(16), 2986–2996 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- D. Stucki, G. Ribordy, A. Stefanov, H. Zbinden, J. G. Rarity, and T. Wall, “Photon counting for quantum key distribution with Peltier cooled InGaAs/InP APDs,” J. Mod. Opt. 48(13), 1967–1981 (2001). [CrossRef]
- N. Namekata, Y. Makino, and S. Inoue, “Single-photon detector for long-distance fiber-optic quantum key distribution,” Opt. Lett. 27(11), 954–956 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- M. Liu, C. Hu, J. C. Campbell, Z. Pan, and M. M. Tashima, “Reduce after-pulsing of single-photon avalanche diodes using passive quenching with active reset,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(5), 430–434 (2008). [CrossRef]
- N. Namekata, S. Sasamori, and S. Inoue, “800 MHz single-photon detection at 1550 nm using an InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode operated with a sine wave gating,” Opt. Express 14(21), 10043–10049 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Z. L. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “High-speed single-photon detection in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(4), 041114 (2007). [CrossRef]
- J. Zhang, R. Thew, C. Barreiro, and H. Zbinden, “Practical fast-gate rate ingaas/inp single-photon avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(9), 091103 (2009). [CrossRef]
- N. Namekata, S. Adachi, and S. Inoue, “1.5 GHz single-photon detection at telecommunication wavelengths using sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6275–6282 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Bennett, and A. J. Shields, “Ultrashort dead time of photon-counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231113 (2009). [CrossRef]
- Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, and A. J. Shields, “Multi-gigahertz operation of photon counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071101 (2010). [CrossRef]
- N. Namekata, G. Fujii, S. Inoue, T. Honjo, and H. Takesue, “Differential phase shift quantum key distribution using single-photon detectors based on a sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(1), 011112 (2007). [CrossRef]
- Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 201104 (2008). [CrossRef]
- A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz decoy quantum key distribution with 1 Mbit/s secure key rate,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18790–18797 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- B. E. Kardynał, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “An avalanche-photodiode-based photon-number-resolving detector,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 425–428 (2008). [CrossRef]

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