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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 2 — Jan. 17, 2011
  • pp: 1441–1448
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Demonstration of a waveguide regime for a silica hollow - core microstructured optical fiber with a negative curvature of the core boundary in the spectral region > 3.5 μm

Andrey D. Pryamikov, Alexander S. Biriukov, Alexey F. Kosolapov, Victor G. Plotnichenko, Sergei L. Semjonov, and Evgeny M. Dianov  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 2, pp. 1441-1448 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.001441


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Abstract

We present a numerical and experimental demonstration of a waveguide regime in a broad band spectral range for the hollow core microstructured optical fibers (HC MOFs) made of silica with a negative curvature of the core boundary. It is shown that HC MOFs with the cladding consisting only of one row of silica capillaries allows to guide light from the near to mid infrared despite of high material losses of silica in this spectral region. Such result can be obtained by a special arrangement of cladding capillaries which leads to a change in the sign of the core boundary curvature. The change in the sign of the core boundary curvature leads to a loss of simplicity of boundary conditions for core modes and to “localization” and limitation of their interaction with the cladding material in space. Such HC MOFs made of different materials can be potential candidates for solving problem of ultra high power transmission including transmission of CO and CO2 laser radiation.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

HC MOFs are a new form of optical fiber waveguides with unique properties which can be used for a variety of applications such as high power and ultra short pulse delivery, light – gas interactions and terahertz applications [1

1. J. D. Shephard, J. D. C. Jones, D. P. Hand, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, and B. Mangan, “High energy nanosecond laser pulses delivered single-mode through hollow-core PBG fibers,” Opt. Express 12(4), 717–723 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-4-717. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5

5. C. S. Ponseca Jr, R. Pobre, E. Estacio, N. Sarukura, A. Argyros, M. C. Large, and M. A. van Eijkelenborg, “Transmission of terahertz radiation using a microstructured polymer optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 902–904 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Such fibers confine electromagnetic fields inside a hollow core surrounded by a microstructured cladding. Light guided in such a way propagates primarily through an air and therefore has substantially lower absorption losses. For the first time, the confinement of light within a hollow core in silica HC MOF was demonstrated in [6

6. R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single – mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. To confine light in a hollow core one can use two main types of the fibers. The first type guide light via a photonic band gap mechanism under which the cladding doesn’t support modes for a certain range of wavelengths and propagation constants. Light in the core in those ranges is not able to couple with cladding modes and guides in the core with low losses. A well known example of such a fiber is silica hollow core photonic crystal fibers (HC PCFs) [7

7. P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic – crystal fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4729–4749 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. They have a hexagonal arrangement of holes in the cladding and their cores are formed by omitting several unit cells of the cladding [8

8. P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, L. Farr, M. W. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express 13(1), 236–244 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-1-236. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The core boundary is antiresonant with the core modes to increase their confinement [9

9. P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, W. J. Wadsworth, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. Russell, “Realizing low loss air core photonic crystal fibers by exploiting an antiresonant core surround,” Opt. Express 13(20), 8277–8285 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-20-8277. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. There is an example of silica HC PCF which demonstrated a low loss transmission window in the mid – IR [10

10. J. D. Shephard, W. N. Macpherson, R. P. Maier, J. D. C. Jones, D. P. Hand, M. Mohebbi, A. K. George, P. J. Roberts, and J. C. Knight, “Single-mode mid-IR guidance in a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 13(18), 7139–7144 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-18-7139. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Another well known example of this HC MOF type is an omniguide fiber, the cladding of which is a Bragg reflector made of soft glasses and polymers [11

11. B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonic bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission,” Nature 420(6916), 650–653 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] or polymer ring structured Bragg fibers where the cladding has concentric rings of holes [12

12. A. Argyros, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, M. C. J. Large, and I. M. Bassett, “Hollow-core microstructured polymer optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 31(2), 172–174 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Guiding with a loss below the material loss was demonstrated in omniguide fibers for the first time. The second type of HC MOFs doesn’t support photonic band gaps [7

7. P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic – crystal fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4729–4749 (2006). [CrossRef]

] and its core modes have a weak coupling with cladding modes. This is the so called “low density of state guidance” [13

13. F. Benabid, “Hollow – core photonic band gap fibre: new light guidance for new science and technology,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 364(1849), 3439–3462 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. For example, this type of HC MOFs has kagome lattice claddings [14

14. A. Argyros and J. Pla, “Hollow-core polymer fibres with a kagome lattice: potential for transmission in the infrared,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7713–7719 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-12-7713. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. It has a relatively higher transmission loss in comparison with bandgap HC PCFs but with a much larger bandwidth. Recently, there has been much interest in other broad band HC MOFs of the second type in a terahertz spectral region with a cladding formed by a periodic arrangement of tubes in a triangular lattice [4

4. J. Lu, C. Yu, H. Chang, H. Chen, Y. Li, C. Pan, and C. Sun, “Terahertz air – core microstructured fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 064105 (2008). [CrossRef]

,15

15. L. Vincetti, “Numerical analysis of plastic hollow core microstructured fiber for Terahertz applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 15(4), 398–401 (2009). [CrossRef]

,16

16. L. Vincetti and V. Setti, “Waveguiding mechanism in tube lattice fibers,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23133–23146 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-22-23133. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Such HC MOFs were called tube lattice fibers (TLFs). TLFs demonstrate very interesting properties in a terahertz spectral region such as a transmission band width of several hundred of GHz, low loss and low dispersion. In theoretical work [16

16. L. Vincetti and V. Setti, “Waveguiding mechanism in tube lattice fibers,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23133–23146 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-22-23133. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] the TLFs waveguide mechanism was analyzed and it was demonstrated that waveguide properties of a single cladding tube have strong impact on the fiber waveguide mechanism. Some our results that confirm the conclusions made in [16

16. L. Vincetti and V. Setti, “Waveguiding mechanism in tube lattice fibers,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23133–23146 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-22-23133. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] will be reported in Section 2 of this paper.

In our paper we demonstrated numerically and experimentally that simplified HC MOFs similar to TLFs can be used for guidance with a low loss in all spectral regions beginning with visible light up to the mid infrared. Moreover, it is not necessary to use HC MOFs composed of many tubes to achieve a low loss in a multimode waveguide regime. For the first time, HC MOFs with simplified cladding consisting of six thin bridges suspending the core surround were demonstrated in [17

17. S. Février, B. Beaudou, and P. Viale, “Understanding origin of loss in large pitch hollow-core photonic crystal fibers and their design simplification,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5142–5150 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-5-5142. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,18

18. F. Gérôme, R. Jamier, J.-L. Auguste, G. Humbert, and J.-M. Blondy, “Simplified hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1157–1159 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. However, a curvature of the core boundary was equal to zero (flat surfaces) for these fibers. HC MOFs proposed in our paper have a cladding consisting of only eight silica capillaries and they can give a waveguide transmission in the spectral region > 3.5 μm despite a high material loss of silica in this spectral region [19

19. R. Kitamura, L. Pilon, and M. Jonasz, “Optical constants of silica glass from extreme ultraviolet to far infrared at near room temperature,” Appl. Opt. 46(33), 8118–8133 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In our opinion, such a waveguide regime is achieved due to a negative curvature of the core boundary and individual scattering characteristics of each element of the cladding. Moreover, the size of the core diameter with respect to the used light wavelength also plays an important role in establishing a spectral range for such a broad band transmission. Here, it is necessary to clarify what exactly is meant by a negative curvature of the core boundary. Further it will be assumed that if the surface normal to the core boundary is co directional with a radial unit vector in a cylindrical coordinate system then we have a positive curvature of the core boundary and vice versa. To achieve the lowest total loss it is necessary to minimize an axial flow inside the walls of the capillaries. In other words, it is necessary to maximally restrict the intensity of the core mode interaction with the walls of capillaries in space. In our case, a negative curvature of the core boundary is yielded by a cladding consisting of one row of capillaries and by changing in their number. This factor gives a possibility of decreasing in total loss dramatically in all low loss spectral regions including long wavelength bands. The first realization of HC MOF [6

6. R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single – mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] had a negative curvature of the core boundary. However, the symmetry of the capillary arrangement in the first row of the cladding forming the core boundary was different from the one used in our work. For the first time, an effect of decreasing in the loss level due to a negative curvature of the core boundary was observed for kagome lattice HC MOF [20

20. Y. Wang, F. Couny, P. J. Roberts, and F. Benabid, “Low loss broadband transmission in optimized core – shaped Kagome Hollow Core PCF,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science, Postdeadline Papers (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CPDB4.

]. Our results show that this phenomenon can be used for managing a location of transmission bands in all spectral regions beginning with the UV up to the mid infrared depending on HC MOFs geometry sizes and composition of capillary glass.

The paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, we consider an example of HC MOFs with a negative curvature of the core boundary and carry out some numerical analyses of its waveguide properties. In Section 3, the waveguide transmission in all bands from the near to mid infrared is experimentally demonstrated for HC MOFs with a cladding consisting of eight capillaries. Section 4 contains the conclusions.

2. Numerical demonstration of broad band transmission of HC MOF with negative curvature of the core boundary

In this section we consider an example of HC MOFs with a negative curvature of the core boundary and compare its transmission characteristics to those of a simple tube. Let us consider two types of HC MOFs consisting only of one row of eight capillaries and rods in the cladding (Fig. 0.1). It is assumed that both HC MOFs are made of silica. The dependence of real and imaginary parts of the refractive index in the near and mid infrared is taken according to [19

19. R. Kitamura, L. Pilon, and M. Jonasz, “Optical constants of silica glass from extreme ultraviolet to far infrared at near room temperature,” Appl. Opt. 46(33), 8118–8133 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. To analyze numerically the waveguide properties of these multimode HC MOFs we calculated a total loss for a fundamental mode (FM) (Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Fundamental mode of HC MOF with the cladding consisting of capillaries.
) depending on the wavelength from a near to mid infrared spectral region for two sets of geometry sizes. We used the Femlab 3.1 commercial packet based on the finite element method for the calculation of the FM total loss.

The first considered HC MOFs have an effective air core diameter Dcore = 36 μm, where the effective air core diameter is regarded as a minimum distance between two opposite capillaries – rods of the cladding (Fig. 1
Fig. 1 HC MOF with a negative curvature of the core with cladding consisting of one row of capillaries (left) and with the cladding consisting of one row of rods (right).
(left)). The outer diameter of capillary and rod is dout = 22.5 μm and the inner diameter of capillary is dins = 0.76*dout. Moreover, we calculated waveguide loss for the FM in the case of a simple dielectric tube made of silica with the same value of Dcore using analytical expression derived in [21

21. E. A. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow core and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 1783–1809 (1964).

]. The results are shown in Fig. 3(a)
Fig. 3 (a) Total loss for HC MOFs with Dcore = 36 μm in the case of cladding consisting of capillaries (square), rods (circle) and simple dielectric tube (triangular) (b) the total loss for HC MOFs with Dcore = 68 μm and all notations is the same as in (a).
. As expected, the waveguide losses of the tube are several orders higher than those of the HC MOFs and the tube has no waveguide regime at such values of λ/Dcore [21

21. E. A. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow core and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 1783–1809 (1964).

], where λ is a wavelength. The total loss of the HC MOFs with the cladding consisting of rods (Fig. 1 (right)) is much lower than that of the tube, though the waveguide regime is not effective in the considered wavelength range.

Its ineffectiveness in this spectral range can be explained by poor scattering properties of the rods at such values of ratio λ/dout. The single rod of the cladding has a great number of its own resonance wavelengths and, as a consequence, a high density of states of leaky modes with a low quality factor. The resonances of these own states overlap with each other in all spectral ranges and there is no possibility of an emergence of transmission bands with a low loss. In turn, a decrease in the total loss of the HC MOFs with respect to one of the tubes is connected partly to a change in a sign of the core boundary curvature which leads to a decrease in intensity of the core modes interaction with the rods material.

In order to obtain an effective waveguide regime in the considered wavelength range it is necessary to combine both factors. It is necessary to lower the density of states of a single element of the cladding and to keep the negative curvature of the core boundary. It can be achieved for HC MOFs with a cladding consisting of capillaries with the same value of dout. The spectrum for capillary has a lower density of states and it is shifted with respect to one of the rods. This fact is analogous to a well known difference between spectrums of open and closed resonators. From Fig. 3(a) it can be seen that HC MOFs with such a cladding has several bands with low losses from λ = 1 to λ = 3 μm in which the waveguide regime is possible and rather effective.

3. Experimental results

We drew several samples with outer diameters equal to 80, 103, 125 and 206 µm and with values of ratio dins/dout = 0.76. The results of measurements of transmission bands in the near infrared for the first three samples are shown in Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The measured transmission bands in a near infrared spectral region for HC MOFs with outer diameters of 80 μm (solid), 103 μm (dashed) and 125 μm (dotted).
.

As it can be seen, the HC MOF with the outer diameter of 125 μm has the highest loss in this spectral region. It occurs due to the fact that the capillaries constituting the cladding of this HC MOF has the thickest walls and, as a consequence, the highest density of the capillary states in this spectral range. Moreover, as it can be seen from Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) The core mode of HC MOF with the outer diameter of 80 µm and dins/dout = 0.76 in one of the transmission band in near infrared taken by a CCD camera (b) the core mode of HC MOF with the outer diameter of 125 µm in the same spectral region.
, the structure of the core modes is different in the case of HC MOFs with the outer diameter of 80 μm and 125 μm, for example.

In the case of HC MOF with outer diameter of 80 μm the FM is observed in the considered transmission band just as in the case of HC MOF with the outer diameter of 125 μm the higher core mode is observed.

Then, HC MOF with the outer diameter of 206 μm was chosen to observe the waveguide regime at longer wavelengths. The total length of the measured HC MOF was equal to 63 cm. The effective core diameter of the HC MOF equals approximately to 68 μm. A Fourier spectrometer JFS – 113v was used as a light source to investigate the transmission of the HC MOF in a broad spectral region from 1 to 5 μm. The observed transmission bands for this HC MOF are shown in Fig. 7(a)
Fig. 7 (a) The measured transmission bands for HC MOF with the outer diameter of 206 µm and dins/dout = 0.76 from a near to mid infrared spectral region (b) the calculated bands for the same HC MOF.
. As it was expected, several transmission bands are observed from 1 up to 4 μm in which the waveguide regime is possible. The calculated bands for this HC MOF are shown in Fig. 7(b). As it can be seen, there is a very close correspondence between the edges of measured transmission bands and the calculated ones. The level of the total loss in all the calculated bands is relatively low and weakly dependent on the refractive index of the capillary walls material. Moreover, it can be seen from comparing Fig. 3(b) to Fig. 7(b) that it is possible to shift all the bands further to longer wavelengths in a mid infrared spectral region by changing the thickness of the capillary walls.

This fact points to a strong correlation between the density of single capillary states and the total loss of the HC MOFs in long wavelength bands. In such a way, our assumptions about the waveguide mechanism of such HC MOFs with a simple construction of the cladding and the origin of their low loss were confirmed.

4. Conclusions

We have demonstrated numerically and experimentally an existence of several transmission bands with a total loss much lower than the material loss of silica in a mid infrared spectral region for simple hollow core HC MOFs with a cladding consisting of several capillaries. In our opinion, such HC MOFs can guide a radiation from a near to mid infrared spectral region due to the two following factors: the negative curvature of the core boundary and the low density of states of scattering elements of the cladding. Moreover, it is not necessary to create a complicated structure of a cladding with many rows of scattering elements because, according to our results, all main waveguide properties are determined by the first row of the cladding elements. It seems possible to create HC MOFs based on the same guiding principles of transmission in all spectral regions beginning with the UV. It is possible that these HC MOFs will be potential candidates for transmission of high power CO2 laser radiation. Full analyses of HC MOFs with a negative curvature of the core boundary will be given in our further publications.

References and links

1.

J. D. Shephard, J. D. C. Jones, D. P. Hand, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, and B. Mangan, “High energy nanosecond laser pulses delivered single-mode through hollow-core PBG fibers,” Opt. Express 12(4), 717–723 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-4-717. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, “Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Science 301(5640), 1702–1704 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

F. Benabid, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, and F. Couny, “Ultrahigh efficiency laser wavelength conversion in a gas-filled hollow core photonic crystal fiber by pure stimulated rotational Raman scattering in molecular hydrogen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(12), 123903 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

J. Lu, C. Yu, H. Chang, H. Chen, Y. Li, C. Pan, and C. Sun, “Terahertz air – core microstructured fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 064105 (2008). [CrossRef]

5.

C. S. Ponseca Jr, R. Pobre, E. Estacio, N. Sarukura, A. Argyros, M. C. Large, and M. A. van Eijkelenborg, “Transmission of terahertz radiation using a microstructured polymer optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 902–904 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single – mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic – crystal fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4729–4749 (2006). [CrossRef]

8.

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, L. Farr, M. W. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express 13(1), 236–244 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-1-236. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, W. J. Wadsworth, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. Russell, “Realizing low loss air core photonic crystal fibers by exploiting an antiresonant core surround,” Opt. Express 13(20), 8277–8285 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-20-8277. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

J. D. Shephard, W. N. Macpherson, R. P. Maier, J. D. C. Jones, D. P. Hand, M. Mohebbi, A. K. George, P. J. Roberts, and J. C. Knight, “Single-mode mid-IR guidance in a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 13(18), 7139–7144 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-18-7139. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonic bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission,” Nature 420(6916), 650–653 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

A. Argyros, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, M. C. J. Large, and I. M. Bassett, “Hollow-core microstructured polymer optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 31(2), 172–174 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

F. Benabid, “Hollow – core photonic band gap fibre: new light guidance for new science and technology,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 364(1849), 3439–3462 (2006). [CrossRef]

14.

A. Argyros and J. Pla, “Hollow-core polymer fibres with a kagome lattice: potential for transmission in the infrared,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7713–7719 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-12-7713. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

L. Vincetti, “Numerical analysis of plastic hollow core microstructured fiber for Terahertz applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 15(4), 398–401 (2009). [CrossRef]

16.

L. Vincetti and V. Setti, “Waveguiding mechanism in tube lattice fibers,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23133–23146 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-22-23133. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

S. Février, B. Beaudou, and P. Viale, “Understanding origin of loss in large pitch hollow-core photonic crystal fibers and their design simplification,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5142–5150 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-5-5142. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

F. Gérôme, R. Jamier, J.-L. Auguste, G. Humbert, and J.-M. Blondy, “Simplified hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1157–1159 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

R. Kitamura, L. Pilon, and M. Jonasz, “Optical constants of silica glass from extreme ultraviolet to far infrared at near room temperature,” Appl. Opt. 46(33), 8118–8133 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

Y. Wang, F. Couny, P. J. Roberts, and F. Benabid, “Low loss broadband transmission in optimized core – shaped Kagome Hollow Core PCF,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science, Postdeadline Papers (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CPDB4.

21.

E. A. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow core and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 1783–1809 (1964).

22.

N. M. Litchinitser, A. K. Abeeluck, C. Headley, and B. J. Eggleton, “Antiresonant reflecting photonic crystal optical waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 27(18), 1592–1594 (2002). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.2280) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber design and fabrication
(060.2390) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics, infrared
(060.2400) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber properties

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: December 1, 2010
Revised Manuscript: December 28, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: January 10, 2011
Published: January 12, 2011

Virtual Issues
Vol. 6, Iss. 2 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Andrey D. Pryamikov, Alexander S. Biriukov, Alexey F. Kosolapov, Victor G. Plotnichenko, Sergei L. Semjonov, and Evgeny M. Dianov, "Demonstration of a waveguide regime for a silica hollow - core microstructured optical fiber with a negative curvature of the core boundary in the spectral region > 3.5 μm," Opt. Express 19, 1441-1448 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-2-1441


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References

  1. J. D. Shephard, J. D. C. Jones, D. P. Hand, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, and B. Mangan, “High energy nanosecond laser pulses delivered single-mode through hollow-core PBG fibers,” Opt. Express 12(4), 717–723 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-4-717 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, “Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Science 301(5640), 1702–1704 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. F. Benabid, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, and F. Couny, “Ultrahigh efficiency laser wavelength conversion in a gas-filled hollow core photonic crystal fiber by pure stimulated rotational Raman scattering in molecular hydrogen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(12), 123903 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Lu, C. Yu, H. Chang, H. Chen, Y. Li, C. Pan, and C. Sun, “Terahertz air – core microstructured fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 064105 (2008). [CrossRef]
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