## Simple performance evaluation of pulsed spontaneous parametric down-conversion sources for quantum communications |

Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 2, pp. 616-627 (2011)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.000616

Acrobat PDF (1103 KB)

### Abstract

Fast characterization of pulsed spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) sources is important for applications in quantum information processing and communications. We propose a simple method to perform this task, which only requires measuring the counts on the two output channels and the coincidences between them, as well as modeling the filter used to reduce the source bandwidth. The proposed method is experimentally tested and used for a complete evaluation of SPDC sources (pair emission probability, total losses, and fidelity) of various bandwidths. This method can find applications in the setting up of SPDC sources and in the continuous verification of the quality of quantum communication links.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

## 1. Introduction

1. N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. **74**, 145–195 (2002). [CrossRef]

2. Y. Kim, S. P. Kulik, and Y. Shih, “Quantum teleportation of a polarization state with a complete bell state measurement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **86**, 1370–1373 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3. H. Halder, A. Beveratos, N. Gisin, V. Scarani, C. Simon, and H. Zbinden, “Entangling independent photons by time measurement,” Nat. Phys. **3**, 692–695 (2007). [CrossRef]

4. D. Collins, N. Gisin, and H. de Riedmatten, “Quantum relays for long distance quantum cryptography,” J. Mod. Opt. **52**, 735–753 (2005). [CrossRef]

5. P. Aboussan, O. Alibart, D. B. Ostrowsky, P. Baldi, and S. Tanzilli, “High-visibility two-photon interference at a telecom wavelength using picosecond-regime separated sources,” Phys. Rev. A **81**, 021801 (R) (2010) and references therein. [CrossRef]

6. H. Briegel, W. Dür, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Quantum repeaters: the role of imperfect local operations in quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **81**, 5932–5935 (1998). [CrossRef]

9. K. Hammerer, A. S. Sorensen, and E. S. Polzic, “Quantum interface between light and atomic ensembles,” Rev. Mod. Phys. **82**, 1041–1093 (2010) and references therein. [CrossRef]

10. A. Politi, J. C. F. Matthews, and J. L. O’Brien, “Shor’s quantum factoring algorithm on a photonic chip,” Science **325**, 1221–1222 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11. J. L. O’Brien, A. Furusawa, and J. Vuckovic, “Photonic quantum technologies,” Nat. Photonics **3**, 687–695 (2009) [CrossRef]

12. H. Y. Shih, A. V. Sergienko, M. H. Rubin, T. E. Kiess, and C. O. Alley, “Two-photon entanglement in type-II parametric down-conversion,” Phys.Rev. A **50**, 23–28 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20. A. Haase, N. Piro, J. Eschner, and M. W. Mitchell, “Tunable narrowband entangled photon pair source for resonant single-photon single-atom interaction,” Opt. Lett. **34**, 55–57 (2009). [CrossRef]

21. S. Fasel, O. Alibart, S. Tanzilli, P. Baldi, A. Baveratos, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “High-quality asynchronous heralded single-photon source at telecom wavelength,” New J. Phys. **6**, 163–168 (2004). [CrossRef]

23. A. Ling, J. Chen, J. Fan, and A. Migdall, “Mode expansion and Bragg filtering for a high-fidelity fiber-based photon-pair source,” Opt. Express **17**, 21302–21312 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

## 2. Theoretical analysis

*p*

_{0}and two channels exhibiting losses due to filtering, coupling to the fiber, propagation in fibers and detection efficiencies. The splitting of photons between the two channels is necessarily statistical, using the fiber coupler considered here. The total transmission on channel

*I*(

*I*= A,B) is modeled as the product of a frequency-independent transmission

*X*and a frequency-dependent term involving the phase matching condition

_{I}*G*and the filter shape

*F*. The transmission

*X*=

_{I}*R*takes into account insertion losses of the filter and all other in-line losses

_{I}T_{I}η_{I}*T*, the output ratio of the fiber coupler

_{I}*R*and the quantum efficiency

_{I}*η*of the detector. The filter transmission

_{I}*F*(

*ν*–

*ν*), which shape is given by an even function

_{F}*F*(

*ν*), has a central frequeny

*ν*. Considering a practical SPDC source for quantum communications with a balanced fiber coupler (

_{F}*R*

_{A}≈

*R*

_{B}≈ 0.5), low overall losses (

*T*

_{A}≈

*T*

_{B}≈ 0.6), and detector quantum efficiencies

*η*

_{A}≈

*η*

_{B}≈ 0.1, leads to

*X*

_{A},

*X*

_{B}≪ 1. As the considered SPDC source is pulsed, emitting Gaussian shaped pulses with a half duration Δ

*t*at 1/

*e*, the detectors are gated (gates of duration

*T*). The peak spectral probability density

*p*

_{0}is assumed to be small so that the down-conversion probability within the filter bandwidth is low (this corresponds to useful setups in quantum communications).

*D*

_{A}and

*D*

_{B}and coincidences between them, and on the other hand they can be theoretically evaluated from the characteristics of the setup. The derivation of their theoretical expression is detailed in the Appendix, so that only the results that can be useful for the comparison with the experimental data of Section 4 and 5 are presented here.

*P*of getting a count on detector

_{I}*D*within the gate duration becomes: where

_{I}*P*

_{N}

*is the probability of a dark count on detector*

_{I}*D*within the gate duration

_{I}*T*.

*P*

_{AC}on

*I*

_{1}and

*K*

_{T}(Eq. (4)) for the spectral filtering and temporal gating. On the other hand,

*P*

_{TC}(Eq. (3)) is proportional to

*I*

_{2}and

*K*

_{T}because of spectral and temporal correlations within a pair.

*p*

_{0}

*I*

_{1}of pair generation within the filter bandwidth: where

*P*

_{NAB}and

*P*

_{AC}are given by Eqs. (5) and (4), respectively. The global transmission efficiency

*X*is derived from Eqs. (1) and (3)

_{I}*K*

_{T}, which depends on the relative duration of the detection gate and the pump pulse, and could have been interpreted as a loss, does not appear in the expression of the total losses. This is a consequence of the aforementionned strong temporal correlations between twin photons. It is important to note that

*p*

_{0}

*I*

_{1}and

*X*are easily obtained from the measurements of

_{I}*P*

_{A},

*P*

_{B},

*P*

_{C}provided preliminary calculations of

*I*

_{2}/

*I*

_{1}and

*K*

_{T}, and measurements of

*P*

_{NA}and

*P*

_{NB}, have been performed. These preliminary calculations and measurements can be done once and for all before the source characterization is started.

24. D. F. V. James, P. G. Kwiat, W. J. Munro, and A. G. White, “Measurement of qubits,” Phys. Rev. A **64**, 052312 (2001) [CrossRef]

25. A. K. Ekert, “Quantum cryptography based on Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **67**, 661–663 (1991) [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12. H. Y. Shih, A. V. Sergienko, M. H. Rubin, T. E. Kiess, and C. O. Alley, “Two-photon entanglement in type-II parametric down-conversion,” Phys.Rev. A **50**, 23–28 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20. A. Haase, N. Piro, J. Eschner, and M. W. Mitchell, “Tunable narrowband entangled photon pair source for resonant single-photon single-atom interaction,” Opt. Lett. **34**, 55–57 (2009). [CrossRef]

26. I. Marcikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, V. Scarani, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Time-bin entangled qubits for quantum communication created by femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A **66**, 062308 (2002) [CrossRef]

*p*

_{0}

*I*

_{1}and

*X*requires the knowledge of the ratio

_{I}*I*

_{1}/

*I*

_{2}, and therefore the knowledge of the filter shape

*F*(

*ν*).

*ν*

_{F}and the degeneracy frequency

*ν*/2. The third column of Table 1 gives the bandwidth of the filter. The ratio

_{p}*I*

_{1}/

*I*

_{2max}listed in the fourth column of the table gives a direct quantification of the influence of the filter shape on the fidelity of the SPDC source (see Eq. (13)). The best possible case is the rectangular filter {1} for which

*I*

_{1}/

*I*

_{2max}= 1 irrespective of the bandwidth. The theoretical triangular and Gaussian filters considered in cases {2} and {3} are less attractive. Case {4} and {5} concern practical filters used experimentally (see Sections 4 and 5). It is important to note the very good quality of the apodized commercially available DWDM filter that provides a factor

*I*

_{1}/

*I*

_{2max}= 1.14, which is close to the optimal unity value. It is also important to remark that small bandwidths can be obtained with a penalty of only about two for the ratio

*I*

_{1}/

*I*

_{2}when using Fabry-Pérot devices. Further calculations show that much smaller bandwidths can be obtained by cascading FP etalons with no supplementary penalty as far as

*I*

_{1}/

*I*

_{2}is concerned. This result is important in view of designing SPDC sources with very small linewidths, compatible with quantum memories [27

27. Ph. Goldner, O. Guillot-Noël, F. Beaudoux, Y. Le Du, J. Lejay, T. Chanelière, J.-L. Le Gouët, L. Rippe, A. Amari, A. Walther, and S. Kröll, “Long coherence lifetime and electromagnetically induced transparency in a highly-spin-concentrated solid,” Phys. Rev. A **79**, 033809 (2009). [CrossRef]

## 3. Experimental setup

*F*

_{1}the pump beam was focused into a second 2 cm long PPLN crystal to produce SPDC around degeneracy at 1564 nm. After filtering of spurious light by the filter set

*F*

_{2}photon pairs delivered by SPDC were collected and focused into an antireflection coated monomode optical fiber. The large bandwidth (≈ 100 nm) of the emitted SPDC photon pairs was reduced to approximately 70 GHz (0.57 nm) using a commercially available fiber dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) add/drop filter. The measurement of the rejected part of the spectrum (detector

*D*) can be used to estimate the total fluorescence power. The photons of each pair were separated (with a 50% efficiency) by a 50%–50% fiber coupler and detected by InGaAs avalanche photodiodes operated in gated mode using the pulse generator driving the AOM for detector synchronization.

_{F}*P*

_{A},

*P*

_{B}and

*P*

_{C}, which are the relevant parameters for pulsed SPDC sources, are obtained by dividing the single and coincidence count rates (per second) by the repetition rate of the SPDC source.

*F*

_{2}. Note that thanks to the high power achieved at 782 nm, lower bandwidth SPDC sources could also be obtained using additional FP etalons. This would allow reducing the bandwidth enough so as to be compatible with quantum memories that can require very narrow (< 100 MHz) linewidths.

## 4. Validity of the procedure

*G*≡ 1 has been validated by a measurement of the fluorescence spectrum collected in the optical fiber when no filtering is made. The shape of the spectrum can be considered Gaussian with a full width at half maximum of more than a hundred nanometers. As the considered filter bandwidths are smaller than 1 nm, the approximation

*G*≡ 1 used in Section 2 is satisfied with a relative precision better than 10

^{−6}.

*F*

_{sys}and

*F*

_{SPDC}given by Eqs. (11) and (12) respectively require no parameters for their calculation other than count rate measurements, thus the obtained values can be considered fully reliable. On the other hand, the relevance of the evaluation of

*p*

_{0}

*I*

_{1}and

*X*depends on the validity of the preliminary calculations of

_{I}*I*

_{1}and

*I*

_{2}. Therefore, before applying results of Section 2 to obtain a simple evaluation of performance of SPDC sources of various bandwidths, preliminary experiments were performed to verify the validity of using computations of

*I*

_{1}and

*I*

_{2}to infer reliable values for

*p*

_{0}

*I*

_{1}and

*X*. To this end,

_{I}*I*

_{1}and

*I*

_{2}were both calculated and derived from measurements made for different values of

*ν*/2, by changing the temperature of the DFB laser. This operation was performed in the cases of a DWDM filter of bandwidth Δ

_{p}*ν*

_{F}= 73 GHz and a filter set of bandwidth Δ

*ν*

_{F}= 1.63 GHz composed of the same DWDM filter and a solid FP etalon (free spectral range = 50.0 GHz and finesse = 31.5 calculated from the measured thickness and mirror reflectivity of the FP etalon). Calculations of

*I*

_{1}and

*I*

_{2}were performed using the trapezoidal shape for the DWDM filter (case {4} of Table 1) and its product with the Airy function centered on

*ν*

_{F}for the FP etalon (case {5} of Table 1). To compare this calculated value of

*I*

_{2}(

*ν*) to an experimentally derived one, we used Eq. (3). It predicts that the frequency dependence of

_{p}*P*

_{TC}should coincide with that of

*I*

_{2}.

_{1}) and (a

_{2}) show calculated and measured transmission spectra for Δ

*ν*

_{F}= 73 GHz and Δ

*ν*

_{F}= 1.63 GHz respectively. The very good agreement observed validates our choice of the theoretical filter shape

*F*(

*ν*). In Figs. 4(b

_{1}) and (b

_{2}), normalized spectra of

*I*

_{2}/

*I*

_{2max}and

*P*

_{TC}/

*P*

_{TCmax}can be compared. The excellent agreement between experimental and theoretical results confirms the validity of the analysis of Section 2 and hence the importance of using a filter very well centered on the degenerate frequency

*ν*/2 of the SPDC process in order to obtain the best possible performance of the photon pair source.

_{p}## 5. Evaluation of source performance

*ν*

_{F}= 73 GHz, case {4} of Table 1) and a set composed of the fiber DWDM filter and a free-space FP etalon (Δ

*ν*

_{F}= 1.63 GHz, case {5} of Table 1).

*η*

_{A}= 0.080 and

*η*

_{B}= 0.076 for the quantum efficiencies, and

*P*

_{NA}= 1.9×10

^{−4}and

*P*

_{NB}= 1.5×10

^{−4}for the dark count probabilities of detectors

*D*

_{A}and

*D*

_{B}, respectively. For each filter we measured the total fluorescence mean power

*P*dropped by the DWDM filter, the single count probabilities

_{Fluo}*P*

_{A}and

*P*

_{B}for detectors

*D*

_{A}and

*D*

_{B}, and the coincidence probability

*P*

_{C}between the detector counts. The probability of pair generation within the filter bandwidth

*p*

_{0}

*I*

_{1}was calculated using Eq. (9) for

*ν*/2 =

_{p}*ν*

_{F}as well as the value of

*I*

_{1}/

*I*

_{2max}given in Table 1 for the filter. We also used the value

*K*

_{T}= 0.75 obtained for a detection window

*T*= 20 ns and a full width at half maximum

*p*

_{0}

*I*

_{1}is plotted in Fig. 5(a) as a function of the total fluorescence mean power dropped by the DWDM filter. The proportionality between these two quantities is an additional proof of the validity of our analysis. The overall transmission, experimentally determined using Eq. (10), is plotted in Fig. 5(b) for the DWDM filtering device. As expected, the coupling efficiency does not depend on

*p*

_{0}

*I*

_{1}. Using the values of Fig. 5(b), we find

*X*

_{A}= 0.0178 ± 0.001 and

*X*

_{B}= 0.0170 ± 0.002 for the DWDM filter alone. Similar measurements made with the DWDM plus Fabry-Pérot filters set give

*X*

_{A}= 0.0150 ± 0.001 and

*X*

_{B}= 0.0141 ± 0.001. Note the low standard deviation: this indicates that a precise control could be operated on the quality of a specific quantum link.

*X*=

_{I}*R*allows the derivation of

_{I}T_{I}η_{I}*T*provided

_{I}*R*and

_{I}*η*have been previously determined by auxiliary measurements.

_{I}*T*is in fact the product of propagation and filter transmission

_{I}*τ*and fiber coupling efficiency

_{I}*C*

_{F}. The preliminary measurement of

*τ*by reverse propagation through the system (in particular, by entering a fiber laser source at frequency

_{I}*ν*/2 into the output fiber from detectors

_{p}*D*

_{A}and

*D*

_{B}) allows then a precise derivation of the coupling efficiency of photon pairs into the optical fiber, which is very difficult to determine otherwise.

*C*

_{F}to the optical fiber was derived in the case of the DWDM filter using the measured values

*R*

_{A}

*τ*

_{A}= 0.301 and

*R*

_{B}

*τ*

_{B}= 0.308. Its high value (

*C*

_{F}= 0.74) evidently demonstrates the high quality of the coupling of photon pairs generated by SPDC in our setup.

*X*

_{A}and

*X*

_{B}obtained with the two filtering set-ups: the value

*τ*

_{FP}= 0.84 ± 0.01 was obtained. This value is somewhat lower than the value of 0.99 obtained from direct transmission measurements performed using counter propagation with an auxiliary laser. This could be due to the fact that the Fabry-Pérot transmission not only depends on frequency but also on direction. The non-perfect-collinear nature of the phase matching conditions induces a fluorescence beam that has a different profile than the laser beam used to measure the FP transmission. This is not taken into account in the evaluation of

*I*

_{2}, thus the value of

*I*

_{1}/

*I*

_{2max}given in Table 1 could be slightly underestimated.

*F*

_{sys}and

*F*

_{SPDC}calculated using Eqs. (11) and (12) are plotted in Fig 5(c) in the case of the DWDM filter (similar results were obtained with the DWDM plus Fabry-Pérot etalon filtering set) as a function of

*p*

_{0}

*I*

_{1}. As expected,

*F*

_{SPDC}is always greater than

*F*

_{sys}, and the difference increases for smaller pair generation rate due to the increasing importance of electronic noise. Note that the system fidelity cannot be higher than 92% due to the noise of the avalanche photodiode detectors. However, the use of superconducting detectors would greatly improve the maximum fidelity [28

28. R. H. Hadfield, J. L. Habif, J. Schlafer, R. E. Schwall, and S. W. Nam, “Quantum key distribution at 1550 nm with twin superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. **89**, 241129 (2006). [CrossRef]

## 6. Conclusion

*T*that is much larger than the inverse of the filter bandwidth, the relevant time duration corresponding to the inverse repetition rate of the pulsed source is the minimum time between two successive counts, i.e. the dead time of the detectors Δ

*T*. Our results can then be applied, using probabilities approximated by the product of the measured rates and the dead time Δ

*T*. From a quantitative viewpoint, the complete theory remains nevertheless to be done. It should be noted that if free running SPDC sources can be safely used in point to point quantum communications, synchronisable pulsed SPDC sources are the most suitable devices for future applications in quantum information processing and communication networks. The procedure described in this paper can then find applications in these devices, in particular for the setting up of the SPDC sources or the fast verification of the quality of the quantum links using SPDC sources.

## A. Appendix : theoretical evaluation of count rates

*N*photon pairs be generated by degenerate collinear SPDC in the crystal during a pump pulse, and

*x*

_{A}and

*x*

_{B}be the total transmissions on channel A and B respectively. The probability of getting

*n*

_{A}and

*n*

_{B}photons on channel A and B respectively, using statistical splitting, is given by: where

*N – n*

_{A}–

*n*

_{B}photons are lost, each with a probability 1 –

*x*

_{A}–

*x*

_{B}and the detectable photons are distributed between channels A and B with probabilities

*N*–

*n*

_{A}–

*n*

_{B}lost photons and

*n*

_{A}detectable photons on channel A respectively. The probability of one count on channel A for instance is proportional to the probability of getting at least one photon on channel A when one pair is produced 𝒫

_{1}(

*n*

_{A}≥ 1,

*n*

_{B}): As explained in the main text, in practical SPDC sources for quantum communications,

*x*

_{A},

*x*

_{B}≪ 1. In this case: The probability of getting one count on channel

*I*is therefore given by: where

*X*,

_{I}*F*and

*G*have been defined in the main text and

*I*is the pump intensity, is included in Eq. (17) to account for photon loss due to the detection time window and

_{p}*P*

_{N}

*is the probability of registering a dark count on detector*

_{I}*D*.

_{I}*P*

_{TC}is the probability of registering simultaneous counts on detectors

*D*

_{A}and

*D*

_{B}due to the two photons of a single pair and is calculated using the probability of properly getting one photon of the pair on each channel 𝒫

_{1}(1,1) = 2

*x*

_{A}

*x*

_{B}: where

*I*

_{2}measures the impact of filtering and phase matching on the coincidence probability of the source and is given by:

*P*

_{TC}is proportional to

*K*

_{T}and not to

*D*

_{A}and

*D*

_{B}due to two signal (or idler) photons of two different pairs: it is proportional to the probability of getting at least one photon on each channel when two pairs have been produced simultaneously 𝒫

_{2}(

*n*

_{A}≥ 1,

*n*

_{B}≥ 1).

*D*

_{A}and

*D*

_{B}due to one down-conversion photon on one detector and one dark count on the other one, or dark counts on both detectors.

## Acknowledgments

## References and links

1. | N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. |

2. | Y. Kim, S. P. Kulik, and Y. Shih, “Quantum teleportation of a polarization state with a complete bell state measurement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

3. | H. Halder, A. Beveratos, N. Gisin, V. Scarani, C. Simon, and H. Zbinden, “Entangling independent photons by time measurement,” Nat. Phys. |

4. | D. Collins, N. Gisin, and H. de Riedmatten, “Quantum relays for long distance quantum cryptography,” J. Mod. Opt. |

5. | P. Aboussan, O. Alibart, D. B. Ostrowsky, P. Baldi, and S. Tanzilli, “High-visibility two-photon interference at a telecom wavelength using picosecond-regime separated sources,” Phys. Rev. A |

6. | H. Briegel, W. Dür, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Quantum repeaters: the role of imperfect local operations in quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

7. | L. M. Duan, M. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics,” Nature |

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9. | K. Hammerer, A. S. Sorensen, and E. S. Polzic, “Quantum interface between light and atomic ensembles,” Rev. Mod. Phys. |

10. | A. Politi, J. C. F. Matthews, and J. L. O’Brien, “Shor’s quantum factoring algorithm on a photonic chip,” Science |

11. | J. L. O’Brien, A. Furusawa, and J. Vuckovic, “Photonic quantum technologies,” Nat. Photonics |

12. | H. Y. Shih, A. V. Sergienko, M. H. Rubin, T. E. Kiess, and C. O. Alley, “Two-photon entanglement in type-II parametric down-conversion,” Phys.Rev. A |

13. | P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weifurter, A. Zeilinger, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. Shih, “New high-intensity source of polarization-entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

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20. | A. Haase, N. Piro, J. Eschner, and M. W. Mitchell, “Tunable narrowband entangled photon pair source for resonant single-photon single-atom interaction,” Opt. Lett. |

21. | S. Fasel, O. Alibart, S. Tanzilli, P. Baldi, A. Baveratos, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “High-quality asynchronous heralded single-photon source at telecom wavelength,” New J. Phys. |

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23. | A. Ling, J. Chen, J. Fan, and A. Migdall, “Mode expansion and Bragg filtering for a high-fidelity fiber-based photon-pair source,” Opt. Express |

24. | D. F. V. James, P. G. Kwiat, W. J. Munro, and A. G. White, “Measurement of qubits,” Phys. Rev. A |

25. | A. K. Ekert, “Quantum cryptography based on Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

26. | I. Marcikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, V. Scarani, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Time-bin entangled qubits for quantum communication created by femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A |

27. | Ph. Goldner, O. Guillot-Noël, F. Beaudoux, Y. Le Du, J. Lejay, T. Chanelière, J.-L. Le Gouët, L. Rippe, A. Amari, A. Walther, and S. Kröll, “Long coherence lifetime and electromagnetically induced transparency in a highly-spin-concentrated solid,” Phys. Rev. A |

28. | R. H. Hadfield, J. L. Habif, J. Schlafer, R. E. Schwall, and S. W. Nam, “Quantum key distribution at 1550 nm with twin superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. |

**OCIS Codes**

(190.4410) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, parametric processes

(270.5565) Quantum optics : Quantum communications

(270.5585) Quantum optics : Quantum information and processing

**ToC Category:**

Quantum Optics

**History**

Original Manuscript: August 9, 2010

Revised Manuscript: October 11, 2010

Manuscript Accepted: December 24, 2010

Published: January 5, 2011

**Citation**

Jean-Loup Smirr, Sylvain Guilbaud, Joe Ghalbouni, Robert Frey, Eleni Diamanti, Romain Alléaume, and Isabelle Zaquine, "Simple performance evaluation of pulsed spontaneous parametric down-conversion sources for quantum communications," Opt. Express **19**, 616-627 (2011)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-2-616

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