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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 20 — Sep. 26, 2011
  • pp: 19150–19155
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Polarization dependent ripples induced by femtosecond laser on dense flint (ZF6) glass

Yanhua Han, Xiuli Zhao, and Shiliang Qu  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 20, pp. 19150-19155 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.019150


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Abstract

We report on the formation of polarization dependent ripples on ZF6 glass by femtosecond laser irradiation. Two kinds of polarization dependent ripples are formed on the laser modified region. The ripples with direction parallel to laser polarization distribute in a pit in the center of laser modified region, the period of the ripples increases with the increasing pulse number. The ripples with direction perpendicular to laser polarization spread around the pit, the period of the ripples (~750nm) almost keeps constant with the increasing pulse number.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

Since the laser-induced ripples were observed by Birnbaum in1965 [1

1. V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057404 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], many researchers have been involved in studying the mechanisms of laser-induced ripples. Obviously, the experiments and theories of laser-induced ripples developed quickly with the flourishing development of laser technology. There are many kinds of ripples were observed on metals, semiconductors and dielectric [2

2. Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(36), 4039–4043 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16

16. E. V. Golosov, A. A. Ionin, Y. R. Kolobov, S. I. Kudryashov, A. E. Ligachev, S. V. Makarov, Y. N. Novoselov, L. V. Seleznev, D. V. Sinitsyn, and A. R. Sharipov, “Near-threshold femtosecond laser fabrication of one-dimensional subwavelength nanogratings on a graphite surface,” Phys. Rev. B 83(11), 115426 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. Recently, the ripples become more attractive due to it’s potentially application in solar cells [17

17. H. L. Chen, K. T. Huang, C. H. Lin, W. Y. Wang, and W. Fan, “Fabrication of sub-wavelength antireflective structures in solar cells by utilizing modified illumination and defocus techniques in optical lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(5-8), 750–754 (2007). [CrossRef]

], optical memory [2

2. Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(36), 4039–4043 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,3

3. R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Femtosecond laser erasing and rewriting of self-organized planar nanocracks in fused silica glass,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2888–2890 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and polarization micro-optics [4

4. L. P. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Tuning the structural properties of femtosecond-laser-induced nanogratings,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 100(1), 1–6 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. Generally, the direction of the as-formed ripples strongly depends on the laser polarization [2

2. Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(36), 4039–4043 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16

16. E. V. Golosov, A. A. Ionin, Y. R. Kolobov, S. I. Kudryashov, A. E. Ligachev, S. V. Makarov, Y. N. Novoselov, L. V. Seleznev, D. V. Sinitsyn, and A. R. Sharipov, “Near-threshold femtosecond laser fabrication of one-dimensional subwavelength nanogratings on a graphite surface,” Phys. Rev. B 83(11), 115426 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. Therefore, the direction of the ripples could be controlled by the laser polarization. The period of the laser-induced ripples is always approach to the laser wavelength (coarse ripple, ~λ) or smaller than the laser wavelength (fine ripples, λ\2~λ\10) [5

5. Q. Z. Zhao, S. Malzer, and L. J. Wang, “Formation of subwavelength periodic structures on tungsten induced by ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 32(13), 1932–1934 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11

11. Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The laser-induced ripples is usually formed by the interference of incident laser with surface-scattered waves [12

12. J. Young, J. Preston, H. van Driel, and J. Sipe, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al, and brass,” Phys. Rev. B 27(2), 1155–1172 (1983). [CrossRef]

], surface plasma wave [8

8. M. Z. Tang, H. T. Zhang, and T.-H. Her, “Self-assembly of tunable and highly uniform tungsten nanogratings induced by a femtosecond laser with nanojoule energy,” Nanotechnology 18(48), 485304 (2007). [CrossRef]

,13

13. M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident laser,” ACS Nano 3(12), 4062–4070 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], or by sphere-to-plane transformation of nanoplasma bubbles [9

9. R. Buividas, L. Rosa, R. Sliupas, T. Kudrius, G. Slekys, V. Datsyuk, and S. Juodkazis, “Mechanism of fine ripple formation on surfaces of (semi)transparent materials via a half-wavelength cavity feedback,” Nanotechnology 22(5), 055304 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Though the experiment and theoretic of laser-induced ripples have been studied widely, the mechanism of laser-induced ripples is still not very clear and the application of the ripples on optoelectronic device is absent, therefore, further studies are still needed.

In this paper, we report on the ripples with orientations perpendicular and parallel to the laser polarization are both formed on ZF6 glass by normal incidence femtosecond laser pulse. We find that the period of R (the ripples with direction parallel to laser polarization) increases with increasing pulse number, but that of R (the ripples with direction perpendicular to laser polarization) almost keeps constant. The fine ripples (with a wavelength of ~200-~400nm) with direction perpendicular the laser polarization distributes around the perimeter of laser modified region.

2. Experiments

The ultrafast laser pulses are produced by a Ti: sapphire regenerative amplified laser system (Coherent Inc) with pulse width of 120fs, wavelength of 800 nm and repetition rate of 1–1000 Hz. After passing through a polarimeter and an attenuator, the laser pulse is focused at normal incidence on the sample surface through a lens with a focal length of 200 mm. The pulse number is controlled by a fast mechanical shutter (SSH-C4B, SIGMA). The laser power is measured by a power meter (EPM2000, Coherent). The repetition rate of the laser is set to be 5 pulses per second. The sample ZF6 glass (Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) is mounted on a computer-controlled xyz translation stage (ProScan II, PRIOR, precision: 100nm). The absorbance spectrum of ZF6 glass as shown in Fig. 1 (a)
Fig. 1 The absorbance spectrum (a) and the surface configuration (b) of 2-mm-thick ZF6 glass before laser irradiation.
indicates that one-photon absorption is negligible at a wavelength of 800nm. The surface configuration image of the ZF6 glass before laser irradiation is shown in Fig. 1(b). In this paper, all the experiments are performed in air and normal pressure. The environment temperature and relevant humidity is ~22°C and <25%, respectively. The sample ZF6 glass is ultrasonic cleaned by acetone for 10 min., ethanol for 10 min. and deionized water for 10min before laser irradiation. The as-formed structures are observed by scanning electronic microscope (SEM, S-4700, Hitachi).

3. Results and discussions

Figure 2(a)
Fig. 2 (a) The SEM image of the ripples formed by 8 pulses at the energy density of 0.71μJ/cm2, (b) and (c) are the zoomed-in pictures of region (a) and (b) in Fig. 2(a). (d) is the 2D-FT picture of Fig. 2(a). The repetition rate of the laser is set to be 5Hz.
shows the SEM photographs of the ripples formed on ZF6 glass surface irradiated by sequential 8 pulses. Figure 2(b) and 2(c) are the zoomed-in pictures of Fig. 2(a). The energy density used in the experiment is 0.71J/cm2, which is slightly lower than the ablation threshold (~0.75J/cm2) of single pulse on ZF6 glass. As can be seen in Fig. 2(a), 2(b) and 2(c), there are three kinds of microstructures can be observed in the laser modified region: (i) The ripples with direction parallel to the laser polarization (R) distributes in a pit locating at the center of the laser modified region, the period is about 800nm. In this region, the melting of the glass can be observed obviously, as shown in Fig. 2(b). (ii) The ripples with direction perpendicular to laser polarization locates around the region of R, the period is about 750nm. There is no trace of melting materials can be observed, as shown in Fig. 2(a) and 2(c). (iii) The fine R distributes around the perimeter of R, the period is about 200-400nm, as can be seen in Fig. 2(c). In order to reveal the distribution of the ripples spatial frequencies in the Fourier space, the corresponding two-dimensional Fourier Transform (2D-FT) of Fig. 2(a) is given in Fig. 2(d). The central region of the 2D-FT image reflects large spatial frequencies (i.e. large-scale corrugations like crater itself). The dark regions represent increased amplitudes in the Fourier space. The 2D-FT image is dominated by two sickle-shaped features in vertical direction, two sickle-shaped features and two dark regions in horizon direction. The corresponding spatial period are around 800nm (1/Λ1.25μm1) in vertical direction, 750nm (1/Λ1.3μm1) and 200-400nm (1/Λ(2.55)μm1) in horizon direction, respectively.

In order to study the formation mechanisms of the ripples, the evolvement of the ripples with the increasing pulse number is given in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 SEM pictures and corresponding 2D-FT images of ripples evolve with the increasing pulse number (N). (a)N = 2, (c) N = 7, (e) N = 10, (g) N = 15, (i) N = 20. The repetition rate of the laser is set to be 5Hz. The energy density is 0.71μJ/cm2.
. The energy density is 0.71μJ/cm2. There is no any trace of ripples or ablation can be seen after irradiating one pulse (not shown here). Then, the R emerges at the center of the laser modified region after irradiating two pulses as shown in Fig. 3(a). Both of the SEM image and the corresponding 2D-FT [Fig. 3(b)] reveal that the period of the as-formed ripples is ~700nm (1/Λ1.5μm1). When the pulse number increases to 7, the R emerges around the R region, the period of the R is about 750nm (1/Λ1.3μm1), as shown in Fig. 3(c). The fine R emerges at the tail of the R along the perimeter of the laser modified region, the period is about 200-400nm (1/Λ2.55μm1). The period of the R increases to ~750nm(1/Λ1.3μm1). With the pulse number increasing to 10, 15 and 20, the period of the R increases gradually from ~750nm to ~1300nm, while the period of the R always keeps unchanged as can be seen clearly in Fig. 3(e), 3(g) and 3(i). The 2D-FT images [Fig. 3[b], 3[d], 3(f), 3(h) and 3(j)] show clearly the shifting of R feature in vertical direction towards to the lower spatial frequencies with the increasing pulse number, i.e. the corresponding period of the ripples increases with the increasing pulse number, while the spatial frequencies of the R almost keep constant with the increasing pulse number, i.e. the period of the ripples keep constant with the increasing pulse number.

The ripples with direction perpendicular to the laser polarization had been reported by many groups [2

2. Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(36), 4039–4043 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7

7. A. M. Ozkan, A. P. Malshe, T. A. Railkar, W. D. Brown, M. D. Shirk, and P. A. Molian, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic structure writing on diamond crystals and microclusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(23), 3716–3718 (1999). [CrossRef]

,9

9. R. Buividas, L. Rosa, R. Sliupas, T. Kudrius, G. Slekys, V. Datsyuk, and S. Juodkazis, “Mechanism of fine ripple formation on surfaces of (semi)transparent materials via a half-wavelength cavity feedback,” Nanotechnology 22(5), 055304 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13

13. M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident laser,” ACS Nano 3(12), 4062–4070 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,15

15. T. Tomita, K. Kinoshita, S. Matsuo, and S. Hashimoto, “Effect of surface roughening on femtosecond laser-induced ripple structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 153115 (2007). [CrossRef]

,16

16. E. V. Golosov, A. A. Ionin, Y. R. Kolobov, S. I. Kudryashov, A. E. Ligachev, S. V. Makarov, Y. N. Novoselov, L. V. Seleznev, D. V. Sinitsyn, and A. R. Sharipov, “Near-threshold femtosecond laser fabrication of one-dimensional subwavelength nanogratings on a graphite surface,” Phys. Rev. B 83(11), 115426 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. The general mechanism of the ripples is the interference of incident laser with the surface plasma wave [8

8. M. Z. Tang, H. T. Zhang, and T.-H. Her, “Self-assembly of tunable and highly uniform tungsten nanogratings induced by a femtosecond laser with nanojoule energy,” Nanotechnology 18(48), 485304 (2007). [CrossRef]

,11

11. Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,13

13. M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident laser,” ACS Nano 3(12), 4062–4070 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The period of the ripple is given by [13

13. M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident laser,” ACS Nano 3(12), 4062–4070 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

],
Λ=λλλs±sinθ,
where λand λsdenotes the wavelength of the incident laser and the surface plasma wave, respectively, θ is the incident angle of the laser. On our experiments, the laser is normal incident (θ=0). Therefore, Λ=λs . As to the direction of R, many researches have given some evidence. Garrelie et al. have shown that the TM polarized laser could induce ripples on the surface of nickel with the as-formed grating, while TE polarization laser could not induce any ripples [14

14. F. Garrelie, J. P. Colombier, F. Pigeon, S. Tonchev, N. Faure, M. Bounhalli, S. Reynaud, and O. Parriaux, “Evidence of surface plasmon resonance in ultrafast laser-induced ripples,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9035–9043 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Shimotsuma et al. have also shown that the electron plasma wave could couple with the incident light wave only if it propagates in the plane of light polarization. Initial coupling is produced by the inhomogeneities induced by electrons moving in the plane of light polarization [11

11. Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

In many reports, the period of the R decreases with the increasing pulse number due to the decreasing of electronic density (originating from the increasing diameter of laser modified region) [13

13. M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident laser,” ACS Nano 3(12), 4062–4070 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. While in our experiments, the period of the R keep constant with the increasing pulse number, we believe that once the R is formed in the laser modified region, the subsequent pulse will deepen it due to the grating assisted surface plasmon laser coupling [11

11. Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and the period of the induced ripples is the same with that of the original grating [14

14. F. Garrelie, J. P. Colombier, F. Pigeon, S. Tonchev, N. Faure, M. Bounhalli, S. Reynaud, and O. Parriaux, “Evidence of surface plasmon resonance in ultrafast laser-induced ripples,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9035–9043 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Therefore, with the increasing pulse number, the period of R keep constant, while the structures become more and more regular.

The fine Raround the perimeter of laser modified region may be formed in nonthermalized irradiation system due to the initial surface rough [15

15. T. Tomita, K. Kinoshita, S. Matsuo, and S. Hashimoto, “Effect of surface roughening on femtosecond laser-induced ripple structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 153115 (2007). [CrossRef]

] or formed by the multiangle diffraction of the multiple incident laser pulses on the intermediate nonsinusoidal surface grating [16

16. E. V. Golosov, A. A. Ionin, Y. R. Kolobov, S. I. Kudryashov, A. E. Ligachev, S. V. Makarov, Y. N. Novoselov, L. V. Seleznev, D. V. Sinitsyn, and A. R. Sharipov, “Near-threshold femtosecond laser fabrication of one-dimensional subwavelength nanogratings on a graphite surface,” Phys. Rev. B 83(11), 115426 (2011). [CrossRef]

].

The R is formed in the center of laser modified region, where the melting of materials can be seen clearly as shown in Fig. 2(b). Figure 2(b) also gives the obvious information that the R are the convection roll structures. Therefore, we deduce that the Maragoni-driven convection mechanism should be responsible for the formation of R. The intensity of femtosecond laser is Gaussian distribution, therefore, the created temperature field decreases from the center to the edge of the molten zone. Consequently, the temperature-gradient-induced thermocapillary force will result in an outward flow of melting materials [18

18. Y. Lu, S. Theppakuttai, and S. C. Chen, “Marangoni effect in nanosphere-enhanced laser nanopatterning of silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(23), 4143–4145 (2003). [CrossRef]

,19

19. X. C. Wang, H. Y. Zheng, C. W. Tan, F. Wang, H. Y. Yu, and K. L. Pey, “Fabrication of silicon nanobump arrays by near-field enhanced laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 084101 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. However, the highest surface tension exists in the center of the molten zone induces an inward flow of the molten material towards the center if the chemicapillary force dominates [18

18. Y. Lu, S. Theppakuttai, and S. C. Chen, “Marangoni effect in nanosphere-enhanced laser nanopatterning of silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(23), 4143–4145 (2003). [CrossRef]

,19

19. X. C. Wang, H. Y. Zheng, C. W. Tan, F. Wang, H. Y. Yu, and K. L. Pey, “Fabrication of silicon nanobump arrays by near-field enhanced laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 084101 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. We deduce that the disturbance of the melting glass induced by the thermocapillary force and chemicapillary force forming the R. While the specific direction of convection rolls structures (parallel to the laser polarization) is still an open question.

In the experiments, the laser energy density is lower than the ablation threshold of single pulse on ZF6 glass, therefore, there is no any trace of melting materials or ripples can be seen in laser irradiation region after irradiating 1 pulse. However, the melting materials and ripples can be observed clearly in the laser modified region after irradiating two pulses. We deduce that the incubation effect should be happen by multiple pulses irradiation [20

20. V. Koubassov, J. F. Laprise, F. Théberge, E. Förster, R. Sauerbrey, B. Müller, U. Glatzel, and S. L. Chin, “Ultrafast laser-induced melting of glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 79, 499–505 (2004). [CrossRef]

], lowering the ablation threshold of the subsequent pulses. But the incubation effect should be induced by the accumulation of defects not by the accumulation of heat [20

20. V. Koubassov, J. F. Laprise, F. Théberge, E. Förster, R. Sauerbrey, B. Müller, U. Glatzel, and S. L. Chin, “Ultrafast laser-induced melting of glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 79, 499–505 (2004). [CrossRef]

], because the thermal equilibrium have been reached (~ns) [21

21. M. Li, S. Menon, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, “Ultrafast Electron Dynamics in Femtosecond Optical Breakdown of Dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2394–2397 (1999). [CrossRef]

] at the interval of 200ms (the repetition rate is 5Hz) between two sequential pulses.

In order to reveal the dependence of the ripples on laser polarization, we rotate laser polarization to 90° and 60° with the original direction. We find that the as-formed R and the R are rotated 60° and 90° accordingly, that is, the ripples still keep the directions parallel and perpendicular to laser polarization, respectively, as shown in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The evolution of the ripples with the changing laser polarization direction, the repetition rate of the laser is set to be 5Hz.
. This result indicates that the ripples are dependent on the laser polarization.

4. Conclusions

In summary, we have observed polarization dependent ripples are formed on the surface of ZF6 glass by femtosecond laser pulse. The period of R gradually increases with the increasing pulse number, but the period of the R keeps constant. The formation of R is mainly resulted from the interference of incident laser with surface plasma wave, while the R is formed by the Maragoni convection due to the disturbance induced by the competition of thermocapillary force and chemicapillary force.

Acknowledgments

This work is supported by Natural Scientific Research Innovation Foundation in Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT. NSRIF. 2011106) and the Scientific Research Foundation of Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai (HIT (WH) X201103).

References and links

1.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057404 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(36), 4039–4043 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Femtosecond laser erasing and rewriting of self-organized planar nanocracks in fused silica glass,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2888–2890 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

L. P. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Tuning the structural properties of femtosecond-laser-induced nanogratings,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 100(1), 1–6 (2010). [CrossRef]

5.

Q. Z. Zhao, S. Malzer, and L. J. Wang, “Formation of subwavelength periodic structures on tungsten induced by ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 32(13), 1932–1934 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

T. Tomita, Y. Fukumori, K. Kinoshita, S. Matsuo, and S. Hashimoto, “Observation of laser-induced surface waves on flat silicon surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013104 (2008). [CrossRef]

7.

A. M. Ozkan, A. P. Malshe, T. A. Railkar, W. D. Brown, M. D. Shirk, and P. A. Molian, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic structure writing on diamond crystals and microclusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(23), 3716–3718 (1999). [CrossRef]

8.

M. Z. Tang, H. T. Zhang, and T.-H. Her, “Self-assembly of tunable and highly uniform tungsten nanogratings induced by a femtosecond laser with nanojoule energy,” Nanotechnology 18(48), 485304 (2007). [CrossRef]

9.

R. Buividas, L. Rosa, R. Sliupas, T. Kudrius, G. Slekys, V. Datsyuk, and S. Juodkazis, “Mechanism of fine ripple formation on surfaces of (semi)transparent materials via a half-wavelength cavity feedback,” Nanotechnology 22(5), 055304 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

G. Miyaji and K. Miyazaki, “Ultrafast dynamics of periodic nanostructure formation on diamondlike carbon films irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191902 (2006). [CrossRef]

11.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

J. Young, J. Preston, H. van Driel, and J. Sipe, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al, and brass,” Phys. Rev. B 27(2), 1155–1172 (1983). [CrossRef]

13.

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident laser,” ACS Nano 3(12), 4062–4070 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

F. Garrelie, J. P. Colombier, F. Pigeon, S. Tonchev, N. Faure, M. Bounhalli, S. Reynaud, and O. Parriaux, “Evidence of surface plasmon resonance in ultrafast laser-induced ripples,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9035–9043 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

T. Tomita, K. Kinoshita, S. Matsuo, and S. Hashimoto, “Effect of surface roughening on femtosecond laser-induced ripple structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 153115 (2007). [CrossRef]

16.

E. V. Golosov, A. A. Ionin, Y. R. Kolobov, S. I. Kudryashov, A. E. Ligachev, S. V. Makarov, Y. N. Novoselov, L. V. Seleznev, D. V. Sinitsyn, and A. R. Sharipov, “Near-threshold femtosecond laser fabrication of one-dimensional subwavelength nanogratings on a graphite surface,” Phys. Rev. B 83(11), 115426 (2011). [CrossRef]

17.

H. L. Chen, K. T. Huang, C. H. Lin, W. Y. Wang, and W. Fan, “Fabrication of sub-wavelength antireflective structures in solar cells by utilizing modified illumination and defocus techniques in optical lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(5-8), 750–754 (2007). [CrossRef]

18.

Y. Lu, S. Theppakuttai, and S. C. Chen, “Marangoni effect in nanosphere-enhanced laser nanopatterning of silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(23), 4143–4145 (2003). [CrossRef]

19.

X. C. Wang, H. Y. Zheng, C. W. Tan, F. Wang, H. Y. Yu, and K. L. Pey, “Fabrication of silicon nanobump arrays by near-field enhanced laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 084101 (2010). [CrossRef]

20.

V. Koubassov, J. F. Laprise, F. Théberge, E. Förster, R. Sauerbrey, B. Müller, U. Glatzel, and S. L. Chin, “Ultrafast laser-induced melting of glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 79, 499–505 (2004). [CrossRef]

21.

M. Li, S. Menon, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, “Ultrafast Electron Dynamics in Femtosecond Optical Breakdown of Dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2394–2397 (1999). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(140.3390) Lasers and laser optics : Laser materials processing
(140.3440) Lasers and laser optics : Laser-induced breakdown
(320.2250) Ultrafast optics : Femtosecond phenomena

ToC Category:
Ultrafast Optics

History
Original Manuscript: July 19, 2011
Revised Manuscript: August 11, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: August 11, 2011
Published: September 19, 2011

Citation
Yanhua Han, Xiuli Zhao, and Shiliang Qu, "Polarization dependent ripples induced by femtosecond laser on dense flint (ZF6) glass," Opt. Express 19, 19150-19155 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-20-19150


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References

  1. V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(5), 057404 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  3. R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Femtosecond laser erasing and rewriting of self-organized planar nanocracks in fused silica glass,” Opt. Lett.32(19), 2888–2890 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. L. P. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Tuning the structural properties of femtosecond-laser-induced nanogratings,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.100(1), 1–6 (2010). [CrossRef]
  5. Q. Z. Zhao, S. Malzer, and L. J. Wang, “Formation of subwavelength periodic structures on tungsten induced by ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Lett.32(13), 1932–1934 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Tomita, Y. Fukumori, K. Kinoshita, S. Matsuo, and S. Hashimoto, “Observation of laser-induced surface waves on flat silicon surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 013104 (2008). [CrossRef]
  7. A. M. Ozkan, A. P. Malshe, T. A. Railkar, W. D. Brown, M. D. Shirk, and P. A. Molian, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic structure writing on diamond crystals and microclusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(23), 3716–3718 (1999). [CrossRef]
  8. M. Z. Tang, H. T. Zhang, and T.-H. Her, “Self-assembly of tunable and highly uniform tungsten nanogratings induced by a femtosecond laser with nanojoule energy,” Nanotechnology18(48), 485304 (2007). [CrossRef]
  9. R. Buividas, L. Rosa, R. Sliupas, T. Kudrius, G. Slekys, V. Datsyuk, and S. Juodkazis, “Mechanism of fine ripple formation on surfaces of (semi)transparent materials via a half-wavelength cavity feedback,” Nanotechnology22(5), 055304 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. Miyaji and K. Miyazaki, “Ultrafast dynamics of periodic nanostructure formation on diamondlike carbon films irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(19), 191902 (2006). [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(24), 247405 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Young, J. Preston, H. van Driel, and J. Sipe, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al, and brass,” Phys. Rev. B27(2), 1155–1172 (1983). [CrossRef]
  13. M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident laser,” ACS Nano3(12), 4062–4070 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. F. Garrelie, J. P. Colombier, F. Pigeon, S. Tonchev, N. Faure, M. Bounhalli, S. Reynaud, and O. Parriaux, “Evidence of surface plasmon resonance in ultrafast laser-induced ripples,” Opt. Express19(10), 9035–9043 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. T. Tomita, K. Kinoshita, S. Matsuo, and S. Hashimoto, “Effect of surface roughening on femtosecond laser-induced ripple structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(15), 153115 (2007). [CrossRef]
  16. E. V. Golosov, A. A. Ionin, Y. R. Kolobov, S. I. Kudryashov, A. E. Ligachev, S. V. Makarov, Y. N. Novoselov, L. V. Seleznev, D. V. Sinitsyn, and A. R. Sharipov, “Near-threshold femtosecond laser fabrication of one-dimensional subwavelength nanogratings on a graphite surface,” Phys. Rev. B83(11), 115426 (2011). [CrossRef]
  17. H. L. Chen, K. T. Huang, C. H. Lin, W. Y. Wang, and W. Fan, “Fabrication of sub-wavelength antireflective structures in solar cells by utilizing modified illumination and defocus techniques in optical lithography,” Microelectron. Eng.84(5-8), 750–754 (2007). [CrossRef]
  18. Y. Lu, S. Theppakuttai, and S. C. Chen, “Marangoni effect in nanosphere-enhanced laser nanopatterning of silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(23), 4143–4145 (2003). [CrossRef]
  19. X. C. Wang, H. Y. Zheng, C. W. Tan, F. Wang, H. Y. Yu, and K. L. Pey, “Fabrication of silicon nanobump arrays by near-field enhanced laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(8), 084101 (2010). [CrossRef]
  20. V. Koubassov, J. F. Laprise, F. Théberge, E. Förster, R. Sauerbrey, B. Müller, U. Glatzel, and S. L. Chin, “Ultrafast laser-induced melting of glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.79, 499–505 (2004). [CrossRef]
  21. M. Li, S. Menon, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, “Ultrafast Electron Dynamics in Femtosecond Optical Breakdown of Dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(11), 2394–2397 (1999). [CrossRef]

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