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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 21 — Oct. 10, 2011
  • pp: 19895–19900
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Tiny surface plasmon resonance sensor integrated on silicon waveguide based on vertical coupling into finite metal-insulator-metal plasmonic waveguide

Dong-Jin Lee, Hae-Dong Yim, Seung-Gol Lee, and Beom-Hoan O  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 21, pp. 19895-19900 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.019895


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Abstract

We propose a tiny surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor integrated on a silicon waveguide based on vertical coupling into a finite thickness metal-insulator-metal (f-MIM) plasmonic waveguide structure acting as a Fabry-Perot resonator. The resonant characteristics of vertically coupled f-MIM plasmonic waveguides are theoretically investigated and optimized. Numerical results show that the SPR sensor with a footprint of ~0.0375 μm2 and a sensitivity of ~635 nm/RIU can be designed at a 1.55 μm transmission wavelength.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors have been extensively explored for biochemical or biomedical applications [1

1. S. Roh, T. Chung, and B. Lee, “Overview of the Characteristics of Micro- and Nano-Structured Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 11(2), 1565–1588 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. Refractive index variations in the analyte, as the result of a bio-molecular interaction, are rapidly monitored with SPR techniques providing a high sensitivity and a label-free analysis. Various types of SPR sensors have been investigated. Prism coupling is the most widely used method among the SPR platform [2

2. J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B 54, 3–15 (1999).

], but the prism is too bulky to integrate. Other types of SPR sensors have been proposed, including a nanoparticle-based sensor [3

3. W. J. Galush, S. A. Shelby, M. J. Mulvihill, A. Tao, P. Yang, and J. T. Groves, “A nanocube plasmonic sensor for molecular binding on membrane surfaces,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 2077–2082 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,4

4. H. Jiang and J. Sabarinathan, “Effects of Coherent Interactions on the Sensing Characteristics of Near-Infrared Gold Nanorings,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(36), 15243–15250 (2010). [CrossRef]

], an EOT-based sensor [5

5. L. Pang, G. M. Hwang, B. Slutsky, and Y. Fainman, “Spectral sensitivity of two-dimensional nanohole array surface plasmon polariton resonance sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123112 (2007). [CrossRef]

], a ring resonator-based sensor [6

6. D. G. Kim, W. K. Choi, Y. W. Choi, and N. Dagli, “Triangular resonator based on surface plasmon resonance of attenuated reflection mirror,” Electron. Lett. 43(24), 1365–1367 (2007). [CrossRef]

], and so on.

In recent years, there has been a growing tendency to incorporate SPR sensors within a photonic integrated circuit to form lab-on-chip systems [7

7. D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442(7101), 381–386 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Such an integrated system would bring the benefits of a high level of automation, improved performance and low-cost large-scale production. Some integrated SPR solutions have been realized. Galina Nemova and associates proposed a Mach-Zehnder interferometer based SPR sensor to detect phase variation [8

8. G. Nemova, A. V. Kabashin, and R. Kashyap, “Surface plasmon-polariton Mach-Zehnder refractive index sensor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(10), 1673–1677 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. The sensitivity of the sensor was ~250 nm/RIU. Yang Hyun Joo and associates proposed a Bragg grating resonance sensor based on long-range SPR excited on an asymmetric double-electrode waveguide structure with a μ-fluidic channel [9

9. Y. H. Joo, S. H. Song, and R. Magnusson, “Long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide sensors with a Bragg gratingin the asymmetric double-electrode structure,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10606–10611 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The sensitivity was about ~120 nm/RIU, and the bulk index resolution was of the order 10−7-10−6 RIU. Yifen Liu and associates numerically presented SPR sensors based on an asymmetric metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguide structure as a solution to enhance the coupling between SPPs and optical waves propagating along dielectric waveguides [10

10. Y. Liu and J. Kim, “Numerical investigation of finite thickness metal-insulator-metal structure for waveguide-based surface plasmon resonance biosensing,” Sens. Actuators B 148, 23–28 (2010).

]. They obtained SPR sensing resolutions of 1.53×10−5 RIU. Yi-Shin Chu and associates investigated SPR sensors made by multi-mode silica-on-silicon channel waveguides with a sensitivity of ~683 nm/RIU in the 1.333-1.348 index range [11

11. Y.-S. Chu, W.-H. Hsu, C.-W. Lin, and W.-S. Wang, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors using silica-on-silicon optical waveguides,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 48(5), 955–957 (2006). [CrossRef]

].

In this paper, we propose a tiny SPR sensor integrated on a Si waveguide based on vertical coupling into a finite thickness MIM (f-MIM) plasmonic waveguide structure acting as a Fabry-Perot (FP) resonator. MIM waveguides use gap surface plasmons that allow extremely tight mode confinement and high field enhancement [12

12. Y. Kurokawa and H. T. Miyazaki, “Metal-insulator-metal plasmon nanocavities: Analysis of optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B 75(3), 035411 (2007). [CrossRef]

], and are thereby especially suitable for sensing applications. The development of a silicon-based SPR on-chip platform also allows for potential integration of existing CMOS technology with nanophotonic structures and devices. We theoretically and numerically investigate the resonant characteristics of a vertically coupled f-MIM plasmonic waveguide, and then show the sensing characteristics of a tiny SPR sensor integrated on Si waveguide.

2. Structure design and calculation based on fabry-perot resonator

As shown in Fig. 1(a)
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the proposed tiny SPR sensor integrated on a Si waveguide. (b) The magnetic (Hy) field distribution at λ=1.55 um in which LFP=250nm, ta=50nm, and tm=50nm.
, the proposed tiny SPR sensor structure is simply composed of a f-MIM plasmonic waveguide vertically coupled with a Si waveguide. At a resonant wavelength, for the TM-polarization (magnetic field along the y-axis), the evanescent field of the Si waveguide was coupled into a f-MIM plasmonic waveguide structure acting as a FP resonator. The resonant wavelength was dependent on various external parameters, such as the core (analyte) thickness, the length of the f-MIM plasmonic waveguide, and the refractive index of analyte. The refractive index of the Si and SiO2 was assumed to be 3.24 and 1.45, respectively, and the height of the Si waveguide (h) was set to be 250 nm. For a f-MIM plasmonic waveguide, ta, tm, and LFP stand for the core (analyte) thickness, the metal thickness, and the length of the f-MIM plasmonic waveguide, respectively. The refractive index of the analyte, na, was set to be 1.33, and the complex relative permittivity of gold was described by the well-known Drude modelεAu(ω)=εωp2/(ω2+iγω), withε=1.1431,ωp=8.69eV and γ=0.071eV(parameters obtained by fitting the experimental data [13

13. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972). [CrossRef]

] at the infrared frequencies). The contour profile of the magnetic (Hy) field distribution, which is calculated from the two-dimensional (2D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, in the proposed structure at λ = 1.55 μm in which LFP=250 nm, ta=50 nm, and tm=50 nm is depicted in Fig. 1(b).

To understand the resonant characteristics of the proposed structure, we theoretically investigated the characteristics based on a three-layer FP structure, which was composed of an air (nair=1)/f-MIM waveguide (neff, f-MIM)/Si waveguide (neff, Si). First, to obtain the effective refractive index of the f-MIM plasmonic waveguide, we derived the expressions for the dispersion of the SPP modes in the f-MIM waveguide. The f-MIM waveguides support the four geometry modes – two symmetric and two antisymmetric - because of the coupling between the four metal-dielectric interfaces in the geometry [14

14. D. Woolf, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “The forces from coupled surface plasmon polaritons in planar waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19996–20011 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 15

15. J. Chen, G. A. Smolyakov, S. R. J. Brueck, and K. J. Malloy, “Surface plasmon modes of finite, planar, metal-insulator-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14902–14909 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. We define the mode symmetry in terms of the magnetic field (Hy) with respect to the waveguide median. Solving the Maxwell equation using the boundary condition for the symmetric modes, we find the following dispersion relation:
S+:εr1kz3εr3kz1coth(kz1ta2)=1+εr2kz3εr3kz2tanh(kz2tm)1+εr3kz2εr2kz3tanh(kz2tm)
(1)
S:εr1kz3εr3kz1coth(kz1ta2)=1+εr2kz3εr3kz2coth(kz2tm)1+εr3kz2εr2kz3coth(kz2tm)
(2)
where εr1,εr2,εr3are the relative permittivity in the analyte, gold, and air, respectively, and kz1,2,3is defined by momentum conservation as follows:

kz1,2,32=kx2εr1,2,3(ωc)2
(3)

The dispersion relation for the antisymmetric modes is given by replacing coth(kz1ta/2)with tanh(kz1ta/2)in the left hand side of Eq. (1)-(2). Figure 2(a)
Fig. 2 (a) The dispersion relation of the f-MIM plasmonic waveguide (n = 1.33 and 1 are the waveguide core and cladding indices, respectively) and the MIM waveguide. The antisymmetric modes of the f-MIM waveguide do not appear in this wavelength range. The inset shows (top) the enlarged view of the dispersion relation in the 1.5–1.6 μm wavelength range and (bottom) the geometry of the f-MIM waveguide. (b) The Hy field patterns (λ=1.55 μm) of the f-MIM SPP modes with ta=tm=50 nm and the MIM SPP mode as a function of z. (c) Effective refractive indices (neff) of the Si waveguide (dashed line) and the f-MIM waveguide (solid line) as a function of wavelength when tm is 50 nm. The inset shows the schematic of the Si waveguide structure used for calculation of the effective refractive indices. The resonant wavelength from the calculated results (d) as a function of LFP when ta and tm are both 50 nm, (inset) as a function of ta when LFP and tm are 250 nm, 50 nm, respectively.
shows the dispersion relation of the f-MIM waveguide with ta=tm=50 nm and the MIM waveguide with semi-infinite metal thickness. As shown in Fig. 2(a), the dispersion relations for the two symmetric modes of the f-MIM waveguide were nearly identical to that of the MIM waveguide. The results in Fig. 2(b) indicate the mode profile of the f-MIM SPP and the MIM SPP at λ=1.55 μm, and Fig. 2(c) shows the effective refractive index (neff) for the S+ mode of the f-MIM waveguide as a function of wavelength as the core thickness (ta) was varied from 30 nm up to 100 nm, and in which tm was kept as 50 nm. For a wavelength of 1.55 μm, the effective refractive indices of the f-MIM waveguide with ta=30, 50, 70, and 100 nm were 2.13, 1.85, 1.72, and 1.61, respectively.

The effective refractive index of the Si waveguide was calculated based on three-layer planar waveguides, which comprised the f-MIM waveguide (neff, f-MIM)/Si (nSi)/SiO2 (nSiO2) as shown in the inset image of Fig. 2(c). Figure 2(c) shows the effective refractive index of the Si waveguide as a function of wavelength as core thickness (ta) was varied from 30 nm up to 100 nm, in which tm was kept as 50 nm. For a wavelength of 1.55 μm, the effective refractive indices of the Si waveguide with ta=30, 50, 70, and 100 nm were 2.28, 2.17, 2.13, and 2.11, respectively. As the core thickness (ta) increased, the effective refractive index (neff) of the f-MIM waveguide and the Si waveguide decreased.

Based on the calculated results of the effective refractive indices, the resonant wavelength of the f-MIM plasmonic waveguides vertically coupled with a Si waveguide can be simply estimated with the following equation:
0.5(φ1+φ2)α=mπ
(4)
where α=k0neff,fMIMLFP, φ1and φ2are the additional phase shifts of a beam reflected on the upper and lower facets of the f-MIM waveguide with the following equation:

r1=|r1|eiφ1=neff,fMIMneff,Sineff,fMIM+neff,Si,r2=|r2|eiφ2=neff,fMIMnairneff,fMIM+nair
(5)

Figure 2(d) shows the resonant wavelength calculated from Eq. (4) as a function of LFP when ta and tm are both 50 nm and the inset of Fig. 2(d) as a function of ta when LFP and tm are 250 nm, and 50 nm, respectively. The operating wavelength of the proposed structure can be effectively modulated by altering the length and the core thickness of the f-MIM waveguide.

3. Simulation results

The 2D FDTD method was used to obtain the spectral response of an f-MIM plasmonic waveguide vertically coupled with a Si waveguide. Figure 3(a)
Fig. 3 Transmission spectra for the proposed tiny SPR sensor integrated on a Si waveguide (a) with LFP ranging from 200 nm to 300 nm, in increments of 20 nm (exception: 10 nm between 240 nm and 260 nm), in which ta and tm are both kept as 50 nm, (b) with ta equaling 30 nm, 50 nm, 70 nm, and 100 nm, in which LFP and tm are kept as 250 nm, 50 nm, respectively. The resonant wavelength from calculated (black dots and line) and 2D FDTD simulated (red dots and line) results (c) as a function of LFP with ta=tm=50 nm, (d) as a function of ta with LFP=250 nm and tm=50 nm.
shows the transmission spectra when LFP ranged from 200 nm to 300 nm and ta and tm were both kept as 50 nm, and the resonant wavelength as a function of a LFP is shown in Fig. 3(c). Figure 3(c) reveals that the resonant wavelength had a linear relationship with the length of the f-MIM plasmonic waveguide and exhibited a redshift with an increasing value of LFP, which agrees with the solution of Eq. (4). For a resonant wavelength of 1.55 μm, we calculated the length (LFP) of the f-MIM waveguide with Eq. (4) and found it to be 245 nm, which is quite close to the value of 250 nm from FDTD simulated result. Figure 3(b) shows the transmission spectra when ta equals to 30 nm, 50 nm, 70 nm, 100 nm and LFP and tm are kept as 250 nm, 50 nm, respectively, and the resonant wavelength as a function of a ta is shown in Fig. 3(d). For a core thickness (ta) of the f-MIM waveguide of 50 nm, the resonant wavelength is 1.576 μm from calculated results, as compared to 1.55 μm from the 2D FDTD results.

4. SPR sensor

We investigated the sensitivity of a f-MIM plasmonic waveguide vertically coupled with a Si waveguide to change the refractive index of analyte (na) at 1.33-1.35 RIU. Figure 4(a)
Fig. 4 (a) Transmission spectra for the proposed tiny SPR sensor integrated on a Si waveguide in which LFP=250 nm, ta=50 nm, and tm=50 nm when the refractive index of the analyte is changed from 1.33 to 1.35 RIU. (b) Resonant wavelength as a function of the refractive index of the analyte. (c) Schematic of the tiny SPR sensor integrated on a Si waveguide with a micro/nano fluidic channel. (d) Transmission spectra for the left inset of Fig. 4(d) which is the cross section in the micro/nano fluidic region of Fig. 4(c), in which LFP=250 nm, ta=50 nm, and tm=50 nm when the refractive index of the analyte is changed from 1.33 to 1.35 RIU. The right inset shows the resonant wavelength shift as a function of the refractive index of the analyte.
shows the transmission spectra for the proposed tiny SPR sensor integrated on a Si waveguide in which LFP=250 nm, ta=tm=50 nm, and Fig. 4(b) shows the resonant wavelength shift when the refractive indices of the analyte are varied from 1.33 to 1.35. The slope of the resonant wavelength shift is nearly constant, ~635 nm/RIU, which is moderate as compared with other SPR on-chip platforms [8

8. G. Nemova, A. V. Kabashin, and R. Kashyap, “Surface plasmon-polariton Mach-Zehnder refractive index sensor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(10), 1673–1677 (2008). [CrossRef]

,9

9. Y. H. Joo, S. H. Song, and R. Magnusson, “Long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide sensors with a Bragg gratingin the asymmetric double-electrode structure,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10606–10611 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,11

11. Y.-S. Chu, W.-H. Hsu, C.-W. Lin, and W.-S. Wang, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors using silica-on-silicon optical waveguides,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 48(5), 955–957 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. Assuming the ability to detect 0.03% change in power, the sensing resolution around λ=1.5 um was ~2.5x10−4 RIU. This is about one order of magnitude lower than published result under the same detectible ability [10

10. Y. Liu and J. Kim, “Numerical investigation of finite thickness metal-insulator-metal structure for waveguide-based surface plasmon resonance biosensing,” Sens. Actuators B 148, 23–28 (2010).

].

Figure 4(c) shows the schematic of the tiny SPR sensor integrated on Si waveguide with a micro/nano fluidic channel, which can be fabricated by patterning nanoscale structures as the sacrificial material using E-beam lithography [16

16. K. P. Nichols, J. C. T. Eijkel, and H. J. G. E. Gardeniers, “Nanochannels in SU-8 with floor and ceiling metal electrodes and integrated microchannels,” Lab Chip 8(1), 173–175 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and removing the sacrificial material in a subsequent process. Figure 4(d) shows the transmission spectra for the inset of Fig. 4(d), which is the cross section in the micro/nano fluidic region of Fig. 4(c). Under the same structure parameters as in Fig. 4(a), with LFP=250 nm and ta=tm=50 nm, the resonances occur around 1.59 μm, as compared to 1.55 μm in Fig. 4(a), and the sensitivity was calculated to be ~460 nm/RIU, as compared to ~635 nm/RIU in Fig. 4(b).

5. Conclusions

Acknowledgements

This work was supported in part by INHA University and the KOSEF (Korea Science and Engineering Foundation) through a grant for the Integrated Photonics Technology Research Center (R11-2003-022) at the OPERA (Optics and Photonics Elite Research Academy), which is partially supported by the Key Research Institute Program through the NRF (National Research Foundation) of Korea funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2011-0018394).

References and links

1.

S. Roh, T. Chung, and B. Lee, “Overview of the Characteristics of Micro- and Nano-Structured Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 11(2), 1565–1588 (2011). [CrossRef]

2.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B 54, 3–15 (1999).

3.

W. J. Galush, S. A. Shelby, M. J. Mulvihill, A. Tao, P. Yang, and J. T. Groves, “A nanocube plasmonic sensor for molecular binding on membrane surfaces,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 2077–2082 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

H. Jiang and J. Sabarinathan, “Effects of Coherent Interactions on the Sensing Characteristics of Near-Infrared Gold Nanorings,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(36), 15243–15250 (2010). [CrossRef]

5.

L. Pang, G. M. Hwang, B. Slutsky, and Y. Fainman, “Spectral sensitivity of two-dimensional nanohole array surface plasmon polariton resonance sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123112 (2007). [CrossRef]

6.

D. G. Kim, W. K. Choi, Y. W. Choi, and N. Dagli, “Triangular resonator based on surface plasmon resonance of attenuated reflection mirror,” Electron. Lett. 43(24), 1365–1367 (2007). [CrossRef]

7.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442(7101), 381–386 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

G. Nemova, A. V. Kabashin, and R. Kashyap, “Surface plasmon-polariton Mach-Zehnder refractive index sensor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(10), 1673–1677 (2008). [CrossRef]

9.

Y. H. Joo, S. H. Song, and R. Magnusson, “Long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide sensors with a Bragg gratingin the asymmetric double-electrode structure,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10606–10611 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

Y. Liu and J. Kim, “Numerical investigation of finite thickness metal-insulator-metal structure for waveguide-based surface plasmon resonance biosensing,” Sens. Actuators B 148, 23–28 (2010).

11.

Y.-S. Chu, W.-H. Hsu, C.-W. Lin, and W.-S. Wang, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors using silica-on-silicon optical waveguides,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 48(5), 955–957 (2006). [CrossRef]

12.

Y. Kurokawa and H. T. Miyazaki, “Metal-insulator-metal plasmon nanocavities: Analysis of optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B 75(3), 035411 (2007). [CrossRef]

13.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972). [CrossRef]

14.

D. Woolf, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “The forces from coupled surface plasmon polaritons in planar waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19996–20011 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

J. Chen, G. A. Smolyakov, S. R. J. Brueck, and K. J. Malloy, “Surface plasmon modes of finite, planar, metal-insulator-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14902–14909 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

K. P. Nichols, J. C. T. Eijkel, and H. J. G. E. Gardeniers, “Nanochannels in SU-8 with floor and ceiling metal electrodes and integrated microchannels,” Lab Chip 8(1), 173–175 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(130.6010) Integrated optics : Sensors
(230.7370) Optical devices : Waveguides
(240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons

ToC Category:
Sensors

History
Original Manuscript: August 11, 2011
Revised Manuscript: September 8, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: September 9, 2011
Published: September 26, 2011

Citation
Dong-Jin Lee, Hae-Dong Yim, Seung-Gol Lee, and Beom-Hoan O, "Tiny surface plasmon resonance sensor integrated on silicon waveguide based on vertical coupling into finite metal-insulator-metal plasmonic waveguide," Opt. Express 19, 19895-19900 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-21-19895


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References

  1. S. Roh, T. Chung, and B. Lee, “Overview of the Characteristics of Micro- and Nano-Structured Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland)11(2), 1565–1588 (2011). [CrossRef]
  2. J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B54, 3–15 (1999).
  3. W. J. Galush, S. A. Shelby, M. J. Mulvihill, A. Tao, P. Yang, and J. T. Groves, “A nanocube plasmonic sensor for molecular binding on membrane surfaces,” Nano Lett.9(5), 2077–2082 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. Jiang and J. Sabarinathan, “Effects of Coherent Interactions on the Sensing Characteristics of Near-Infrared Gold Nanorings,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(36), 15243–15250 (2010). [CrossRef]
  5. L. Pang, G. M. Hwang, B. Slutsky, and Y. Fainman, “Spectral sensitivity of two-dimensional nanohole array surface plasmon polariton resonance sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(12), 123112 (2007). [CrossRef]
  6. D. G. Kim, W. K. Choi, Y. W. Choi, and N. Dagli, “Triangular resonator based on surface plasmon resonance of attenuated reflection mirror,” Electron. Lett.43(24), 1365–1367 (2007). [CrossRef]
  7. D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature442(7101), 381–386 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. G. Nemova, A. V. Kabashin, and R. Kashyap, “Surface plasmon-polariton Mach-Zehnder refractive index sensor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B25(10), 1673–1677 (2008). [CrossRef]
  9. Y. H. Joo, S. H. Song, and R. Magnusson, “Long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide sensors with a Bragg gratingin the asymmetric double-electrode structure,” Opt. Express17(13), 10606–10611 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Y. Liu and J. Kim, “Numerical investigation of finite thickness metal-insulator-metal structure for waveguide-based surface plasmon resonance biosensing,” Sens. Actuators B148, 23–28 (2010).
  11. Y.-S. Chu, W.-H. Hsu, C.-W. Lin, and W.-S. Wang, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors using silica-on-silicon optical waveguides,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.48(5), 955–957 (2006). [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Kurokawa and H. T. Miyazaki, “Metal-insulator-metal plasmon nanocavities: Analysis of optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B75(3), 035411 (2007). [CrossRef]
  13. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B6(12), 4370–4379 (1972). [CrossRef]
  14. D. Woolf, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “The forces from coupled surface plasmon polaritons in planar waveguides,” Opt. Express17(22), 19996–20011 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. Chen, G. A. Smolyakov, S. R. J. Brueck, and K. J. Malloy, “Surface plasmon modes of finite, planar, metal-insulator-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express16(19), 14902–14909 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. K. P. Nichols, J. C. T. Eijkel, and H. J. G. E. Gardeniers, “Nanochannels in SU-8 with floor and ceiling metal electrodes and integrated microchannels,” Lab Chip8(1), 173–175 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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