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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 21 — Oct. 10, 2011
  • pp: 20003–20008
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Salinity sensor based on polyimide-coated photonic crystal fiber

Chuang Wu, Bai-Ou Guan, Chao Lu, and Hwa-Yaw Tam  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 21, pp. 20003-20008 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.020003


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Abstract

We proposed and experimentally demonstrated a highly sensitive salinity sensor using a polyimide-coated Hi-Bi photonic crystal fiber Sagnac interferometer based on the coating swelling induced radial pressure. This is the first time to exploit fiber coating induced pressure effect for salinity sensing. The achieved salinity sensitivity is 0.742 nm/(mol/L), which is 45 times more sensitive than that of a polyimide-coated fiber Bragg grating. A bare fiber Bragg grating is incorporated into the fiber loop for temperature compensation.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

Tremendous research effort has been invested in the study of photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) in the last decade [1

1. P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic-crystal fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4729–4749 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. PCFs exhibit structural flexibility and new light guiding mechanism that distinguishes them from conventional fibers in many aspects. Benefiting from these novel properties, various fiber-optic devices [2

2. B. J. Eggleton, C. Kerbage, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, and A. Hale, “Microstructured optical fiber devices,” Opt. Express 9(13), 698–713 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] have been developed based on PCFs particularly in fiber sensors [3

3. O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, F. M. Araújo, and L. A. Ferreira, “Optical sensing with photonic crystal fibers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(6), 449–459 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. In addition to the unique features reported in [1

1. P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic-crystal fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4729–4749 (2006). [CrossRef]

3

3. O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, F. M. Araújo, and L. A. Ferreira, “Optical sensing with photonic crystal fibers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(6), 449–459 (2008). [CrossRef]

], PCFs also possess the advantages of conventional optical fibers in sensing applications such as EMI immunity, compact size, corrosion resistance, light weight, multiplexing capability, etc. Optical fiber sensors are also attractive for in situ monitoring of different physical, chemical, and biological parameters, e.g., strain [4

4. H. Y. Choi, M. J. Kim, and B. H. Lee, “All-fiber Mach-Zehnder type interferometers formed in photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5711–5720 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 5

5. J. Villatoro, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, and G. Badenes, “Simple all-microstructured-optical-fiber interferometer built via fusion splicing,” Opt. Express 15(4), 1491–1496 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], temperature [6

6. W. W. Qian, C. L. Zhao, S. L. He, X. Y. Dong, S. Q. Zhang, Z. X. Zhang, S. Z. Jin, J. T. Guo, and H. F. Wei, “High-sensitivity temperature sensor based on an alcohol-filled photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” Opt. Lett. 36(9), 1548–1550 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], refractive index [7

7. V. P. Minkovich, J. Villatoro, D. Monzón-Hernández, S. Calixto, A. Sotsky, and L. Sotskaya, “Holey fiber tapers with resonance transmission for high-resolution refractive index sensing,” Opt. Express 13(19), 7609–7614 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], pH [8

8. B. Gu, M. J. Yin, A. P. Zhang, J. W. Qian, and S. L. He, “Low-cost high-performance fiber-optic pH sensor based on thin-core fiber modal interferometer,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22296–22302 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], relative humidity [9

9. B. Gu, M. J. Yin, A. P. Zhang, J. W. Qian, and S. L. He, “Optical fiber relative humidity sensor based on FBG incorporated thin-core fiber modal interferometer,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4140–4146 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 10

10. Q. Wu, Y. Semenova, J. Mathew, P. Wang, and G. Farrell, “Humidity sensor based on a single-mode hetero-core fiber structure,” Opt. Lett. 36(10), 1752–1754 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and water salinity [11

11. J. Cong, X. M. Zhang, K. S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Fiber optic Bragg grating sensor based on hydrogels for measuring salinity,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 87(3), 487–490 (2002). [CrossRef]

18

18. L. V. Nguyen, M. Vasiliev, and K. Alameh, “Three-Wave Fiber Fabry–Pérot Interferometer for Simultaneous Measurement of Temperature and Water Salinity of Seawater,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(7), 450–452 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. Salinity sensors play an important role in manufacturing process control and protection of ecosystems. Fiber optic salinity sensors have been reported based on salinity sensitive hydrogel/polyimide-coated fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) [11

11. J. Cong, X. M. Zhang, K. S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Fiber optic Bragg grating sensor based on hydrogels for measuring salinity,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 87(3), 487–490 (2002). [CrossRef]

, 12

12. L. Q. Men, P. Lu, and Q. Y. Chen, “A multiplexed fiber Bragg grating sensor for simultaneous salinity and temperature measurement,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(5), 053107 (2008). [CrossRef]

], surface Plasmon resonance effect [13

13. N. Díaz-Herrera, O. Esteban, M. C. Navarrete, M. Le Haitre, and A. González-Cano, “In situ salinity measurements in seawater with a fibre-optic probe,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(8), 2227–2232 (2006). [CrossRef]

, 14

14. D. J. Gentleman and K. S. Booksh, “Determining salinity using a multimode fiber optic surface plasmon resonance dip-probe,” Talanta 68(3), 504–515 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and refractive index detection with long-period fiber gratings [15

15. R. Falate, O. Frazão, G. Rego, J. L. Fabris, and J. L. Santos, “Refractometric sensor based on a phase-shifted long-period fiber grating,” Appl. Opt. 45(21), 5066–5072 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 16

16. G. R. C. Possetti, R. C. Kamikawachi, C. L. Prevedello, M. Muller, and J. L. Fabris, “Salinity measurement in water environment with a long period grating based interferometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(3), 034003 (2009). [CrossRef]

], etched FBG [17

17. D. A. Pereira, O. Frazão, and J. L. Santos, “Fiber Bragg grating sensing system for simultaneous measurement of salinity and temperature,” Opt. Eng. 43(2), 299–304 (2004). [CrossRef]

], and femtosecond laser micro-machined Fabry–Pérot interferometer [18

18. L. V. Nguyen, M. Vasiliev, and K. Alameh, “Three-Wave Fiber Fabry–Pérot Interferometer for Simultaneous Measurement of Temperature and Water Salinity of Seawater,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(7), 450–452 (2011). [CrossRef]

] to derive salinity response. However, these salinity sensors have relatively low sensitivity and/or exhibit large temperature cross sensitivity which degrades the sensor performance.

In this paper, a novel fiber optic salinity sensor based on polyimide-coated polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber (PM-PCF) Sagnac interferometer is presented. The PM-PCF has been investigated for different sensing applications [19

19. C. L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, “Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2535–2537 (2004). [CrossRef]

25

25. H. Y. Fu, A. C. L. Wong, P. A. Childs, H. Y. Tam, Y. B. Liao, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Multiplexing of polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based Sagnac interferometric sensors,” Opt. Express 17(21), 18501–18512 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], in which the two most interesting achievements are temperature insensitivity and ultrahigh pressure-sensitivity [23

23. H. Y. Fu, H. Y. Tam, L. Y. Shao, X. Y. Dong, P. K. A. Wai, C. Lu, and S. K. Khijwania, “Pressure sensor realized with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber-based Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 47(15), 2835–2839 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. By exploiting the high pressure-sensitivity and the coating swelling induced radial pressure, a high salinity sensitivity of 0.742 nm/(mol/L) is achieved, which is 45 times more sensitive than FBG-based salinity sensors reported in [12

12. L. Q. Men, P. Lu, and Q. Y. Chen, “A multiplexed fiber Bragg grating sensor for simultaneous salinity and temperature measurement,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(5), 053107 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. Although the PM-PCF itself is insensitive to temperature, the coating’s thermal expansion causes a temperature sensitivity of −0.0149 nm/°C. Thus a bare FBG was incorporated into the fiber loop for temperature compensation. This paper reports some important improvements over our earlier work [29

29. C. Wu, H. Y. Fu, H. Y. Au, B. O. Guan, and H. Y. Tam, “High-sensitivity salinity sensor realized with photonic crystal fiber Sagnac interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 7753, 77531B (2011). [CrossRef]

].

2. Experimental setup and operation principle

Figure 1 (a)
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the water salinity measurement setup. The inset shows the photograph of the polyimide-coated PM-PCF salinity sensor coiled into 1.8-cm diameter loops. BBS: broadband light source; OSA: optical spectrum analyzer. (b) The output spectrum of the sensor head: a Sagnac interferometer combined with a fiber Bragg grating.
illustrates the experimental setup for water salinity measurement. The light source used in the experiment is a broadband light source which is a superluminescent light-emitting diode (SLED) centered at 1550 nm. The salinity sensor consists of a 3-dB coupler, a 20.8-cm long polyimide-coated PM-PCF and an FBG arranged within the fiber loop. The PM-PCF was coiled into a small circle with a diameter of 1.8 cm. The PM-PCF used in the experiments is a commercially available fiber (PM-1550-01, NKT Photonics) and has a high birefringence with beat length less than 4 mm at 1550 nm. Furthermore, it has very low temperature sensitivity and an ultra low bending loss [23

23. H. Y. Fu, H. Y. Tam, L. Y. Shao, X. Y. Dong, P. K. A. Wai, C. Lu, and S. K. Khijwania, “Pressure sensor realized with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber-based Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 47(15), 2835–2839 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. These merits make it ideal for making compact sensor probe. The PM-PCF can be easily spliced to single-mode fiber, achieving both low splicing loss and good mechanical strength [26

26. M. L. V. Tse, H. Y. Tam, L. B. Fu, B. K. Thomas, L. Dong, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Fusion splicing holey fibers and single-mode fibers: A simple method to reduce loss and increase strength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 164–166 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. The total splicing loss was ~3 dB for the two splicing points. Note that the relatively small splicing loss ensures that the Bragg reflection of the FBG can be observed regardless of the interference fringe’s shift. Figure 1 (b) shows the output spectrum of the sensor observed by an optical spectrum analyzer. The interference pattern has an intensity contrast of over 25 dB and a period of 13.52 nm, and the FBG reflection wavelength peak is at 1548.38 nm.

An automated polyimide (PI) recoater (Vytran PTR-200-PRL) was used to recoat the PM-PCF. We stripped off the acrylate coating of the PM-PCF and then recoated the fiber with PI. The coating thickness is about 18 μm. By using the automated recoater, a very smooth coating with uniform coating thickness can be easily achieved. To ensure the stability of the Sagnac interferometer for salinity measurement, we coiled the PM-PCF to make the sensing head compact and secured it on a steel rod. Then the sensor head was submerged in water inside a water tank as shown in Fig. 1 (a).

3. Experimental results and discussion

3.1 Salinity response

To find out how salinity sensitivity depends on the length (L) of PM-PCF, we consider the pressure sensitivity of a PM-PCF Sagnac interferometer. Refs [23

23. H. Y. Fu, H. Y. Tam, L. Y. Shao, X. Y. Dong, P. K. A. Wai, C. Lu, and S. K. Khijwania, “Pressure sensor realized with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber-based Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 47(15), 2835–2839 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and [24

24. H. Y. Fu, C. Wu, M. L. Tse, L. Zhang, K. C. Cheng, H. Y. Tam, B.-O. Guan, and C. Lu, “High pressure sensor based on photonic crystal fiber for downhole application,” Appl. Opt. 49(14), 2639–2643 (2010). [CrossRef]

] demonstrated that such interferometers with different Ls showed similar pressure sensitivities. It can be expected that the PI-coated interferometers with different Ls will also have similar salinity sensitivities since they are based on pressure effect of the coating. Note that the 20.8-cm PM-PCF we used is just an example, and the length of 20.8-cm is not a necessary value. The salinity sensitivity can be further improved by using a thicker PI coating at the expense of longer response time. A thicker coating will induce larger pressure and hence result in higher salinity sensitivity. However it will take longer time to response to ambient environmental change. Limited by the recoater, we can only fabricate PI coating with a maximum thickness of 18 µm.

3.2 Temperature response and compensation

Temperature cross sensitivity of sensors is a big concern for real application since temperature fluctuation is inevitable in most applications and therefore affect the accuracy of the sensors. The sensor head was placed inside a hot water bath to investigate its temperature response. Data were collected when the temperature of the water bath was falling from 60 °C to 20 °C during the cooling-down process with steps of 5 °C. As shown in Fig. 4 (a) and (b)
Fig. 4 (a) Spectra at different temperatures. (b) Wavelength shift as a function of temperature.
, the FBG red shifts with a sensitivity of 0.0106 nm/°C, whereas the Sagnac interferometer blue shifts with a sensitivity of −0.0149 nm/°C which is at the same order of the grating based salinity sensors [11

11. J. Cong, X. M. Zhang, K. S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Fiber optic Bragg grating sensor based on hydrogels for measuring salinity,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 87(3), 487–490 (2002). [CrossRef]

, 12

12. L. Q. Men, P. Lu, and Q. Y. Chen, “A multiplexed fiber Bragg grating sensor for simultaneous salinity and temperature measurement,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(5), 053107 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. Hence, our sensor exhibits lower cross-sensitivity to temperature since it has much higher salinity sensitivity than that of the grating based sensors.

Using the salinity and temperature sensitivities obtained above, and substituting them to Eq. (1), temperature compensation can be performed using Eq. (2).
[ΔTΔS]=10.742×0.0106[0.7420.014900.0106][ΔλFBGΔλSagnac],
(2)
where ΔλFBG and ΔλSagnac are in nm, ΔT and ΔS are obtained in °C and mol/L, respectively. Based on this equation, temperature and salinity can be simultaneously determined. To verify whether such a temperature compensation scheme works, we measured the water salinity at different temperatures using our sensor and the results are shown in Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Demonstration of temperature compensation for salinity measurements.
. The standard deviations for the two measurements are 0.026 and 0.027 mol/L, which mainly come from the inaccuracy during data collection and the limitation of the OSA resolution (0.02 nm). The resolution of salinity measurement can be calculated as: 0.02 nm / 0.742 nm/(mol/L) = 0.027 mol/L, which is comparable with above error values.

4. Summary

In conclusion, we report a highly sensitive fiber-optic salinity sensor using a PI-coated PM-PCF Sagnac interferometer by exploiting the high pressure-sensitivity of the PM-PCF Sagnac interferometer and the coating swelling induced radial pressure effect on the fiber. This is the first time to exploit fiber coating induced pressure effect for salinity sensing. The achieved salinity sensitivity is 45 times higher than that of a PI-coated FBG. In addition, temperature compensation was successfully implemented by incorporating a bare FBG into the fiber loop. This fiber-optic salinity sensor features high sensitivity, compact size, ease for fabrication, and good thermal stability.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported in part by The Hong Kong Polytechnic University under the grant number G-YJ30, in part by the Key Project of National Natural Science Foundation of China (60736039), and in part by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (21609102).

References and links

1.

P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic-crystal fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4729–4749 (2006). [CrossRef]

2.

B. J. Eggleton, C. Kerbage, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, and A. Hale, “Microstructured optical fiber devices,” Opt. Express 9(13), 698–713 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, F. M. Araújo, and L. A. Ferreira, “Optical sensing with photonic crystal fibers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(6), 449–459 (2008). [CrossRef]

4.

H. Y. Choi, M. J. Kim, and B. H. Lee, “All-fiber Mach-Zehnder type interferometers formed in photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5711–5720 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

J. Villatoro, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, and G. Badenes, “Simple all-microstructured-optical-fiber interferometer built via fusion splicing,” Opt. Express 15(4), 1491–1496 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

W. W. Qian, C. L. Zhao, S. L. He, X. Y. Dong, S. Q. Zhang, Z. X. Zhang, S. Z. Jin, J. T. Guo, and H. F. Wei, “High-sensitivity temperature sensor based on an alcohol-filled photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” Opt. Lett. 36(9), 1548–1550 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

V. P. Minkovich, J. Villatoro, D. Monzón-Hernández, S. Calixto, A. Sotsky, and L. Sotskaya, “Holey fiber tapers with resonance transmission for high-resolution refractive index sensing,” Opt. Express 13(19), 7609–7614 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

B. Gu, M. J. Yin, A. P. Zhang, J. W. Qian, and S. L. He, “Low-cost high-performance fiber-optic pH sensor based on thin-core fiber modal interferometer,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22296–22302 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

B. Gu, M. J. Yin, A. P. Zhang, J. W. Qian, and S. L. He, “Optical fiber relative humidity sensor based on FBG incorporated thin-core fiber modal interferometer,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4140–4146 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

Q. Wu, Y. Semenova, J. Mathew, P. Wang, and G. Farrell, “Humidity sensor based on a single-mode hetero-core fiber structure,” Opt. Lett. 36(10), 1752–1754 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

J. Cong, X. M. Zhang, K. S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Fiber optic Bragg grating sensor based on hydrogels for measuring salinity,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 87(3), 487–490 (2002). [CrossRef]

12.

L. Q. Men, P. Lu, and Q. Y. Chen, “A multiplexed fiber Bragg grating sensor for simultaneous salinity and temperature measurement,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(5), 053107 (2008). [CrossRef]

13.

N. Díaz-Herrera, O. Esteban, M. C. Navarrete, M. Le Haitre, and A. González-Cano, “In situ salinity measurements in seawater with a fibre-optic probe,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(8), 2227–2232 (2006). [CrossRef]

14.

D. J. Gentleman and K. S. Booksh, “Determining salinity using a multimode fiber optic surface plasmon resonance dip-probe,” Talanta 68(3), 504–515 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

R. Falate, O. Frazão, G. Rego, J. L. Fabris, and J. L. Santos, “Refractometric sensor based on a phase-shifted long-period fiber grating,” Appl. Opt. 45(21), 5066–5072 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

G. R. C. Possetti, R. C. Kamikawachi, C. L. Prevedello, M. Muller, and J. L. Fabris, “Salinity measurement in water environment with a long period grating based interferometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(3), 034003 (2009). [CrossRef]

17.

D. A. Pereira, O. Frazão, and J. L. Santos, “Fiber Bragg grating sensing system for simultaneous measurement of salinity and temperature,” Opt. Eng. 43(2), 299–304 (2004). [CrossRef]

18.

L. V. Nguyen, M. Vasiliev, and K. Alameh, “Three-Wave Fiber Fabry–Pérot Interferometer for Simultaneous Measurement of Temperature and Water Salinity of Seawater,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(7), 450–452 (2011). [CrossRef]

19.

C. L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, “Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2535–2537 (2004). [CrossRef]

20.

D. H. Kim and J. U. Kang, “Sagnac loop interferometer based on polarization maintaining photonic crystal fiber with reduced temperature sensitivity,” Opt. Express 12(19), 4490–4495 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbańczyk, “Measurements of modal birefringence and polarimetric sensitivity of the birefringent holey fiber to hydrostatic pressure and strain,” Opt. Commun. 241(4-6), 339–348 (2004). [CrossRef]

22.

X. Y. Dong, H. Y. Tam, and P. Shum, “Temperature-insensitive strain sensor with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 151113 (2007). [CrossRef]

23.

H. Y. Fu, H. Y. Tam, L. Y. Shao, X. Y. Dong, P. K. A. Wai, C. Lu, and S. K. Khijwania, “Pressure sensor realized with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber-based Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 47(15), 2835–2839 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

H. Y. Fu, C. Wu, M. L. Tse, L. Zhang, K. C. Cheng, H. Y. Tam, B.-O. Guan, and C. Lu, “High pressure sensor based on photonic crystal fiber for downhole application,” Appl. Opt. 49(14), 2639–2643 (2010). [CrossRef]

25.

H. Y. Fu, A. C. L. Wong, P. A. Childs, H. Y. Tam, Y. B. Liao, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Multiplexing of polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based Sagnac interferometric sensors,” Opt. Express 17(21), 18501–18512 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

M. L. V. Tse, H. Y. Tam, L. B. Fu, B. K. Thomas, L. Dong, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Fusion splicing holey fibers and single-mode fibers: A simple method to reduce loss and increase strength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 164–166 (2009). [CrossRef]

27.

M. G. Xu, L. Reekie, Y. T. Chow, and J. P. Dakin, “Optical in-fiber grating high pressure sensor,” Electron. Lett. 29(4), 398–399 (1993). [CrossRef]

28.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997). [CrossRef]

29.

C. Wu, H. Y. Fu, H. Y. Au, B. O. Guan, and H. Y. Tam, “High-sensitivity salinity sensor realized with photonic crystal fiber Sagnac interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 7753, 77531B (2011). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.2370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics sensors
(120.3180) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Interferometry
(120.5790) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Sagnac effect
(060.5295) Fiber optics and optical communications : Photonic crystal fibers

ToC Category:
Sensors

History
Original Manuscript: July 22, 2011
Revised Manuscript: August 29, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: September 1, 2011
Published: September 28, 2011

Citation
Chuang Wu, Bai-Ou Guan, Chao Lu, and Hwa-Yaw Tam, "Salinity sensor based on polyimide-coated photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 19, 20003-20008 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-21-20003


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References

  1. P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic-crystal fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(12), 4729–4749 (2006). [CrossRef]
  2. B. J. Eggleton, C. Kerbage, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, and A. Hale, “Microstructured optical fiber devices,” Opt. Express9(13), 698–713 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, F. M. Araújo, and L. A. Ferreira, “Optical sensing with photonic crystal fibers,” Laser Photonics Rev.2(6), 449–459 (2008). [CrossRef]
  4. H. Y. Choi, M. J. Kim, and B. H. Lee, “All-fiber Mach-Zehnder type interferometers formed in photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express15(9), 5711–5720 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Villatoro, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, and G. Badenes, “Simple all-microstructured-optical-fiber interferometer built via fusion splicing,” Opt. Express15(4), 1491–1496 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. W. W. Qian, C. L. Zhao, S. L. He, X. Y. Dong, S. Q. Zhang, Z. X. Zhang, S. Z. Jin, J. T. Guo, and H. F. Wei, “High-sensitivity temperature sensor based on an alcohol-filled photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” Opt. Lett.36(9), 1548–1550 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. V. P. Minkovich, J. Villatoro, D. Monzón-Hernández, S. Calixto, A. Sotsky, and L. Sotskaya, “Holey fiber tapers with resonance transmission for high-resolution refractive index sensing,” Opt. Express13(19), 7609–7614 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. B. Gu, M. J. Yin, A. P. Zhang, J. W. Qian, and S. L. He, “Low-cost high-performance fiber-optic pH sensor based on thin-core fiber modal interferometer,” Opt. Express17(25), 22296–22302 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. B. Gu, M. J. Yin, A. P. Zhang, J. W. Qian, and S. L. He, “Optical fiber relative humidity sensor based on FBG incorporated thin-core fiber modal interferometer,” Opt. Express19(5), 4140–4146 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Q. Wu, Y. Semenova, J. Mathew, P. Wang, and G. Farrell, “Humidity sensor based on a single-mode hetero-core fiber structure,” Opt. Lett.36(10), 1752–1754 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. Cong, X. M. Zhang, K. S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Fiber optic Bragg grating sensor based on hydrogels for measuring salinity,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.87(3), 487–490 (2002). [CrossRef]
  12. L. Q. Men, P. Lu, and Q. Y. Chen, “A multiplexed fiber Bragg grating sensor for simultaneous salinity and temperature measurement,” J. Appl. Phys.103(5), 053107 (2008). [CrossRef]
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