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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 21 — Oct. 10, 2011
  • pp: 20364–20371
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All-optical XOR logic gate for 40Gb/s DPSK signals via FWM in a silicon nanowire

F. Li, T. D. Vo, C. Husko, M. Pelusi, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, R. Ma, S. Janz, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 21, pp. 20364-20371 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.020364


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Abstract

We demonstrate an all-optical XOR logic function for 40Gb/s differential phase-shift keyed (DPSK) data signals in the C-band, based on four-wave mixing (FWM) in a silicon nanowire. Error-free operation with a system penalty of ~3.0dB and ~4.3dB at 10−9 BER is achieved.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

All-optical nonlinear signal processing is seen [1

1. Nature Photonics Workshop on the Future of Optical Communications; Tokyo, Japan, Oct. 2007. www.nature.com/nphoton/supplements/techconference2007

,2

2. B. Metcalfe, Toward Terabit Ethernet Plenary Talk, Optical Fiber Communications 2008, see www.ofcnfoec.org/conference_program/Plenary-video.aspx and www.lightreading.com/tv/tv_popup.asp?doc_id=146223

] as a key for future telecommunication networks to overcome the electronic bandwidth bottlenecks as systems evolve towards 640Gb/s [3

3. M. Galili, J. Xu, H. C. Mulvad, L. K. Oxenløwe, A. T. Clausen, P. Jeppesen, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, A. Rode, D.-Y. Choi, M. Pelusi, F. Luan, and B. J. Eggleton, “Breakthrough switching speed with an all-optical chalcogenide glass chip: 640 Gbit/s demultiplexing,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2182–2187 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], Terabit Ethernet [4

4. B. J. Eggleton, D. J. Moss, and S. Radic, Nonlinear Optics in Communications: From Crippling Impairment to Ultrafast Tools Ch. 20 (Academic Press, Oxford, 2008).

], and beyond [5

5. H. C. H. Mulvad, M. Galili, L. K. Oxenløwe, H. Hu, A. T. Clausen, J. B. Jensen, C. Peucheret, and P. Jeppesen, “Demonstration of 5.1 Tbit/s data capacity on a single-wavelength channel,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1438–1443 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,6

6. D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s−1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 364–371 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. All-optical logic gate functions, an important aspect to this, have been investigated in a variety of platforms for on-off keying (OOK) formats [7

7. J. Qiu, K. Sun, M. Rochette, and L. R. Chen, “Reconfigurable all-optical multi-logic gate (XOR, AND, and OR) based on cross phase modulation in a highly nonlinear fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(16), 1199–1201 (2010). [CrossRef]

,8

8. A. Bogoni, X. Wu, Z. Bakhtiari, S. Nuccio, and A. E. Willner, “640 Gbits/s photonic logic gates,” Opt. Lett. 35(23), 3955–3957 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Recently, advanced modulation format signals involving phase-encoding, such as differential phase shift keying (DPSK), have attracted attention because of their high tolerance to system impairments and nonlinearities. All-optical logic gates for DPSK data have been successfully demonstrated in a number of platforms such as highly nonlinear silica fiber (HNLF) [9

9. J. Wang, Q. Sun, and J. Sun, “All-optical 40 Gbit/s CSRZ-DPSK logic XOR gate and format conversion using four-wave mixing,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12555–12563 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) [10

10. N. Deng, K. Chan, C.-K. Chan, and L.-K. Chen, “An all-optical XOR logic gate for high-speed RZ-DPSK signals by FWM in semiconductor optical amplifier,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 702–707 (2006). [CrossRef]

], and periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) [11

11. J. Wang, J. Sun, X. Zhang, D. Huang, and M. M. Fejer, “Ultrafast all-optical three-input Boolean XOR operation for differential phase-shift keying signals using periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1419–1421 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. However, these platforms all suffer from drawbacks of one form or another, such as fiber dispersion in HNLF [9

9. J. Wang, Q. Sun, and J. Sun, “All-optical 40 Gbit/s CSRZ-DPSK logic XOR gate and format conversion using four-wave mixing,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12555–12563 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], free-carrier induced patterning effects in SOAs [10

10. N. Deng, K. Chan, C.-K. Chan, and L.-K. Chen, “An all-optical XOR logic gate for high-speed RZ-DPSK signals by FWM in semiconductor optical amplifier,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 702–707 (2006). [CrossRef]

] that ultimately limit high-speed operation, and the requirement for precise temperature control in PPLN [12

12. M. R. E. Lamont, V. G. Ta’eed, M. A. F. Roelens, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Error-free wavelength conversion via cross phase modulation in 5 cm of As2S3 chalcogenide glass rib waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 43(17), 945 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. Therefore, alternative platforms are of significant interest to circumvent these issues and allow the integration of these devices into real systems.

Integrated nanophotonic devices, particularly in highly nonlinear materials, have been a key approach to reducing operating power requirements of all-optical devices by increasing the nonlinear parameter, γ = ω n2 / c Aeff (where Aeff is the waveguide effective area). Both silicon and chalcogenide nanowires have achieved extraordinarily high γ ‘s ranging from 15 W−1 m−1 in ChG waveguides [12

12. M. R. E. Lamont, V. G. Ta’eed, M. A. F. Roelens, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Error-free wavelength conversion via cross phase modulation in 5 cm of As2S3 chalcogenide glass rib waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 43(17), 945 (2007). [CrossRef]

] to 95W−1 m−1 in ChG tapered fiber nanowires [13

13. D. I. Yeom, E. C. Mägi, M. R. E. Lamont, M. A. F. Roelens, L. Fu, and B. J. Eggleton, “Low-threshold supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear chalcogenide nanowires,” Opt. Lett. 33(7), 660–662 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], to 300W−1 m−1 in Si nanowires [14

14. R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 35–38 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. This led to the first demonstration of chip-based all-optical exclusive-OR (XOR) logic gate for 40Gb/s and 160Gb/s DPSK signals in ChG nanowires [15

15. T. D. Vo, R. Pant, M. D. Pelusi, J. Schröder, D.-Y. Choi, S. K. Debbarma, S. J. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic chip-based all-optical XOR gate for 40 and 160 Gbit/s DPSK signals,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 710–712 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. It would be of significant interest to be able to accomplish all-optical logic at these high bit rates in silicon nanophotonic devices, particularly since they are seen as being compatible with CMOS electronic circuits.

All-optical logic gates have been demonstrated in a number of silicon devices based on single [16

16. Q. Xu and M. Lipson, “All-optical logic based on silicon micro-ring resonators,” Opt. Express 15(3), 924–929 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] or cascaded [17

17. L. Zhang, R. Q. Ji, L. X. Jia, L. Yang, P. Zhou, Y. H. Tian, P. Chen, Y. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Jiang, Y. L. Liu, Q. Fang, and M. B. Yu, “Demonstration of directed XOR/XNOR logic gates using two cascaded microring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1620–1622 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] microring resonators, in waveguides using two-photon absorption [18

18. D. J. Moss, L. Fu, I. Littler, and B. J. Eggleton, “Ultrafast all-optical modulation via two-photon absorption in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 41(6), 320 (2005). [CrossRef]

,19

19. T. Liang, L. Nunes, M. Tsuchiya, K. Abedin, T. Miyazaki, D. Vanthourhout, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and H. Tsang, “High speed logic gate using twophoton absorption in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 265(1), 171–174 (2006). [CrossRef]

], Raman gain [20

20. V. M. N. Passaro and F. De Passaro, “All-optical AND gate based on Raman effect in silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 38(9-11), 877–888 (2007). [CrossRef]

], and interference effects [21

21. D. C. Wheeler and D. C. Hall, “Optical interference logic in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 6130, 61300G, 61300G-8 (2006). [CrossRef]

,22

22. M. Khorasaninejad and S. S. Saini, “All-optical logic gates using nonlinear effects in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 48(25), F31–F37 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] in couplers. However, the data rates in all of these demonstrations have been limited to < 1 Gb/s for on-off key signals, for a variety of reasons including the bandwidth limitation posed by ring resonators, even though silicon itself has been shown to be capable of all-optical signal processing at much higher speeds [23

23. B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of broadband wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s in silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(3), 182–184 (2009). [CrossRef]

26

26. B. Corcoran, T. D. Vo, M. D. Pelusi, C. Monat, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, R. Ma, S. Janz, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, “Silicon Nanowire Based Radio-Frequency Spectrum Analyzer,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20190–20200 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Third-order nonlinear processes such as parametric gain and four wave mixing [27

27. C. J. McKinstrie, R. O. Moore, S. Radic, and R. Jiang, “Phase-sensitive amplification of chirped optical pulses in fibers,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3737–3758 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] are particularly suited to all-optical signal processing where both maintaining the integrity of the signal phase while performing phase sensitive operations, is critical. This has been the primary motivation behind the recent work on all-optical phase amplification and regeneration [27

27. C. J. McKinstrie, R. O. Moore, S. Radic, and R. Jiang, “Phase-sensitive amplification of chirped optical pulses in fibers,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3737–3758 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 28

28. R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundstrom, M. Sjodin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Gruner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrom, R. Phelan, J. O'Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 690–695 (2010). [CrossRef]

].

In this paper, we report the first high bit rate operation for all-optical signal processing in a silicon device. We demonstrate all-optical XOR logic operation on a 40Gb/s (33% Return-to-Zero) DPSK PRBS data stream in the C-band via non-degenerate four wave mixing (FWM) in a silicon nanowire. Our method is based on an approach proposed and demonstrated in HNFL [9

9. J. Wang, Q. Sun, and J. Sun, “All-optical 40 Gbit/s CSRZ-DPSK logic XOR gate and format conversion using four-wave mixing,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12555–12563 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and chalcogenide glass waveguides [15

15. T. D. Vo, R. Pant, M. D. Pelusi, J. Schröder, D.-Y. Choi, S. K. Debbarma, S. J. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic chip-based all-optical XOR gate for 40 and 160 Gbit/s DPSK signals,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 710–712 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. We perform bit error ratio measurements and achieve error free operation with a penalty of ~4.3dB at 10−9 BER. Our results confirm that free-carrier dynamics, whilst they do adversely influence device performance, do not pose a barrier to device operation at extremely high bit rates. The high bit rate operation of this logic gate chip is a result of the ultrafast response of the Kerr nonlinearity together with the broad phase-matching achievable in this device.

2. Theory

Figure 1 (a)
Fig. 1 (a) Principle of operation of an all-optical XOR logic gate based on four-wave mixing (FWM) and (b) an illustration of the relationship of the phases between the two DPSK input signals and the output of the XOR gate, the idler produced by FWM between the input signals.
shows the principle of an all-optical XOR logic gate based on FWM [9

9. J. Wang, Q. Sun, and J. Sun, “All-optical 40 Gbit/s CSRZ-DPSK logic XOR gate and format conversion using four-wave mixing,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12555–12563 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,15

15. T. D. Vo, R. Pant, M. D. Pelusi, J. Schröder, D.-Y. Choi, S. K. Debbarma, S. J. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic chip-based all-optical XOR gate for 40 and 160 Gbit/s DPSK signals,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 710–712 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Two high bit rate DPSK data streams, centered at wavelengths λ1 and λ2 with phases (reflecting the data “1”s and “0”s) of φ1 and φ2, respectively, are co-propagated with a third CW signal at λp (with a constant phase φp) through a silicon nanowire. Four wave mixing between coinciding data streams and the CW probe generates idler pulses at a wavelength of λi with a phase given by φi = φ1 + φ2 - φp [10

10. N. Deng, K. Chan, C.-K. Chan, and L.-K. Chen, “An all-optical XOR logic gate for high-speed RZ-DPSK signals by FWM in semiconductor optical amplifier,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 702–707 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. The idler is then filtered by an optical band pass filter and directed into a one-bit-delay interferometer, followed by a receiver. Note that in principle the XOR output signal need not necessarily be detected but can simply be re-routed in optical form without electronic conversion or regeneration. Figure 1(b) shows the phase of the filtered FWM idler at the output of the silicon chip for all possible states of the modulation phase of the two DPSK signal inputs. Due to the phase periodicity, a phase of “0” is equivalent to “2π”. Thus, the phase of the FWM idler is “π” if the two input data have different modulation phases and “0” if they are in phase. The truth table of a two-input XOR gate in terms of the phase of the FWM idler is shown in the left-hand side of Fig. 1 (b) while the demodulated signals are shown in the right-hand side of Fig. 1(b) to verify the integrity of the XOR logic function. Note that Fig. 1(b) shows the demodulated signals from the destructive port of the DPSK demodulator.

3. Experiment

The device is a 5mm long silicon-on-inslulator (SOI) “nanowire” with dimensions 450nm wide x 260nm thick (Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental setup for the XOR logic gate for 40Gb/s (33% RZ) DPSK signals based on a silicon nanowire. MZ = Mach-Zehnder modulator, PC = polarization controller.
), fabricated by electron-beam lithography and reactive ion etching. The waveguides were coated with SU8, and contained “inverse” taper regions to reduce coupling losses. The measured propagation loss was ~3dB/cm for both TE and TM polarizations and coupling losses were 5dB/facet for TM and TE polarizations, achieved via lensed fiber tapers with nanopositioning stages, resulting in a total insertion loss of ~11.5dB (for either polarization). The total dispersion (waveguide plus material) is anomalous and roughly constant at ~ + 500ps/nm/km over the C-band for TE and for TM it is normal and varies between ~-8,000 ps/nm/km and ~-16,000 ps/nm/km. We therefore used TE polarization for these experiments to ensure the phase-matching required for FWM.

The experimental setup for demonstrating an all-optical XOR logic gate for a 40Gb/s DPSK signal is shown in Fig. 2. Two 40 Gb/s RZ-DPSK signals were generated from two CW laser sources centered at λ = 1550.15 nm and λ = 1551.86 nm using a pair of Mach-Zehnder electro-optic modulators. The first MZ modulator carved 40 GHz RZ pulses with a 33% duty-cycle, while the second one encoded DPSK data on the pulses at 40 Gb/s with a 27−1 pseudorandom bit sequence (PRBS). The two DPSK data streams were amplified by an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) and then separated by an arrayed waveguide grating demultiplexer. An optical delay line (ΔT) created delays between the two data streams. The average power of each signal was 30 mW (incident, or ~9 mW in the waveguide) for a combined average incident launch power of 60 mW. The CW probe was centered at 1565 nm with an incident average power of 30 mW. The (TE polarized) signal and pump were combined with a 80:20 coupler before launching into the waveguide with polarizations aligned via polarization controllers (PC). The XOR product was then extracted using a 1-nm optical BPF and demodulated by a delay line interferometer before detection with a 40 Gb/s receiver (RX). Note that the destructive interference port of a DPSK demodulator was used in our experiments. An EDFA and a 0.6-nm BPF were used at the receiver end to improve the optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) of the detected signals. We performed system measurements in order to evaluate the transmission bit error ratio (BER) and system penalty of the device.

4. Results and discussion

The optical spectra at the waveguide output (Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Output optical spectrum measured on an OSA.
) shows the probe and signal spectra (separated by ~15 nm) as well as the XOR idler spectrum at 1537nm generated by FWM, showing a conversion efficiency of ~-25dB. Also visible to either side of the XOR idler peak are the spectra (at 1539nm and 1536nm) of the two idlers resulting from FWM between the individual DPSK signals and the CW probe. These do not contain cross-terms between the two DPSK signal inputs and so are of no interest in terms of logic operation and are removed by the filter. The side lobes visible around both the two input DPSK signals and the CW probe are a result of FWM between the DPSK signals and cross phase modulation of the CW probe from the RZ signals, and again they are not relevant to the logic operation and do not adversely affect performance.

Figure 4(a)
Fig. 4 Pulse traces (a) and eye diagrams (b) corresponding to (top) the 40Gb/s input DPSK signal at λ = 1550.18 nm, (middle) the 40Gb/s DPSK input signal at λ = 1551.86 nm and (bottom) the output 40Gb/s idler at λ = 1537nm, representing the XOR logic output.
shows the demodulated waveforms of the two input DPSK data streams along with the XOR signal, all extracted by tunable band-pass optical filters followed by an optical sampling oscilloscope (Picosolve). It is clearly observed that the phase of the FWM idler accurately reflects the XOR logic function of two input signals. The corresponding optimized eye diagram is shown in Fig. 4(b). All traces were measured with a 65GHz detector and sampling oscilloscope. The eye diagram of the 40 Gb/s demodulated XOR signal is clearly open, highlighting the effective all-optical XOR operation. Finally, the performance of this chip-based XOR logic function was confirmed with bit error-rate (BER) measurements. Figure 5
Fig. 5 BER measurements for the signal (blue and red lines) and the idler (black line) generated by a 30mW signal and a 30mW probe. The relative power penalty between the curves at a BER of 10-9 is 3.0dB and 4.3dB, respectively.
shows the system penalty measurements indicating a penalty, relative to back-to-back operation, of ~3.0dB and ~4.3dB at 10−9 BER.

The error-free operation of our device clearly demonstrates that free-carriers are not a barrier to effective device operation at these data rates. This is not unexpected since the error-free wavelength conversion via FWM in silicon nanowires has been demonstrated at data rates from 40Gb/s to 1.28Tb/s [23

23. B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of broadband wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s in silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(3), 182–184 (2009). [CrossRef]

26

26. B. Corcoran, T. D. Vo, M. D. Pelusi, C. Monat, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, R. Ma, S. Janz, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, “Silicon Nanowire Based Radio-Frequency Spectrum Analyzer,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20190–20200 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. However, it is clear that reducing free carrier effects will increase the device efficiency and reduce the operating power requirements. We also anticipate a significant reduction in both the system penalty and operating pump power by reducing coupling and propagation losses as well as optimizing the waveguide dispersion closer to the ideal for FWM, namely, small but anomalous. Note that the CW probe, DPSK signals and idler span the entire C-band in these experiments and so we expect efficient device performance across the C-band. All of these factors point to silicon all-optical logic devices based on the ultrafast response of the Kerr nonlinearity being able to operate at substantially higher bit rates.

5. Conclusions

We demonstrate an all-optical XOR logic function operating on a DPSK PRBS data stream at 40Gb/s (33% Return-to-Zero) in the C-band via FWM in a silicon nanowire. We perform bit error ratio measurements and achieve error free operation with a penalty of 3.0dB and 4.3dB at 10−9 BER. This device is expected to operate at even higher data rates owing to its broad phase-matching and the ultrafast response of the Kerr nonlinearity.

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by the Australian Research Council (ARC) Centers of Excellence (COE), Discovery Projects and Federation Fellowship programs.

References and links

1.

Nature Photonics Workshop on the Future of Optical Communications; Tokyo, Japan, Oct. 2007. www.nature.com/nphoton/supplements/techconference2007

2.

B. Metcalfe, Toward Terabit Ethernet Plenary Talk, Optical Fiber Communications 2008, see www.ofcnfoec.org/conference_program/Plenary-video.aspx and www.lightreading.com/tv/tv_popup.asp?doc_id=146223

3.

M. Galili, J. Xu, H. C. Mulvad, L. K. Oxenløwe, A. T. Clausen, P. Jeppesen, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, A. Rode, D.-Y. Choi, M. Pelusi, F. Luan, and B. J. Eggleton, “Breakthrough switching speed with an all-optical chalcogenide glass chip: 640 Gbit/s demultiplexing,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2182–2187 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

B. J. Eggleton, D. J. Moss, and S. Radic, Nonlinear Optics in Communications: From Crippling Impairment to Ultrafast Tools Ch. 20 (Academic Press, Oxford, 2008).

5.

H. C. H. Mulvad, M. Galili, L. K. Oxenløwe, H. Hu, A. T. Clausen, J. B. Jensen, C. Peucheret, and P. Jeppesen, “Demonstration of 5.1 Tbit/s data capacity on a single-wavelength channel,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1438–1443 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s−1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 364–371 (2011). [CrossRef]

7.

J. Qiu, K. Sun, M. Rochette, and L. R. Chen, “Reconfigurable all-optical multi-logic gate (XOR, AND, and OR) based on cross phase modulation in a highly nonlinear fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(16), 1199–1201 (2010). [CrossRef]

8.

A. Bogoni, X. Wu, Z. Bakhtiari, S. Nuccio, and A. E. Willner, “640 Gbits/s photonic logic gates,” Opt. Lett. 35(23), 3955–3957 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

J. Wang, Q. Sun, and J. Sun, “All-optical 40 Gbit/s CSRZ-DPSK logic XOR gate and format conversion using four-wave mixing,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12555–12563 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

N. Deng, K. Chan, C.-K. Chan, and L.-K. Chen, “An all-optical XOR logic gate for high-speed RZ-DPSK signals by FWM in semiconductor optical amplifier,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 702–707 (2006). [CrossRef]

11.

J. Wang, J. Sun, X. Zhang, D. Huang, and M. M. Fejer, “Ultrafast all-optical three-input Boolean XOR operation for differential phase-shift keying signals using periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1419–1421 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

M. R. E. Lamont, V. G. Ta’eed, M. A. F. Roelens, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Error-free wavelength conversion via cross phase modulation in 5 cm of As2S3 chalcogenide glass rib waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 43(17), 945 (2007). [CrossRef]

13.

D. I. Yeom, E. C. Mägi, M. R. E. Lamont, M. A. F. Roelens, L. Fu, and B. J. Eggleton, “Low-threshold supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear chalcogenide nanowires,” Opt. Lett. 33(7), 660–662 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 35–38 (2008). [CrossRef]

15.

T. D. Vo, R. Pant, M. D. Pelusi, J. Schröder, D.-Y. Choi, S. K. Debbarma, S. J. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic chip-based all-optical XOR gate for 40 and 160 Gbit/s DPSK signals,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 710–712 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

Q. Xu and M. Lipson, “All-optical logic based on silicon micro-ring resonators,” Opt. Express 15(3), 924–929 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

L. Zhang, R. Q. Ji, L. X. Jia, L. Yang, P. Zhou, Y. H. Tian, P. Chen, Y. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Jiang, Y. L. Liu, Q. Fang, and M. B. Yu, “Demonstration of directed XOR/XNOR logic gates using two cascaded microring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1620–1622 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

D. J. Moss, L. Fu, I. Littler, and B. J. Eggleton, “Ultrafast all-optical modulation via two-photon absorption in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 41(6), 320 (2005). [CrossRef]

19.

T. Liang, L. Nunes, M. Tsuchiya, K. Abedin, T. Miyazaki, D. Vanthourhout, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and H. Tsang, “High speed logic gate using twophoton absorption in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 265(1), 171–174 (2006). [CrossRef]

20.

V. M. N. Passaro and F. De Passaro, “All-optical AND gate based on Raman effect in silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 38(9-11), 877–888 (2007). [CrossRef]

21.

D. C. Wheeler and D. C. Hall, “Optical interference logic in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 6130, 61300G, 61300G-8 (2006). [CrossRef]

22.

M. Khorasaninejad and S. S. Saini, “All-optical logic gates using nonlinear effects in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 48(25), F31–F37 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of broadband wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s in silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(3), 182–184 (2009). [CrossRef]

24.

F. Li, M. Pelusi, D. X. Xu, A. Densmore, R. Ma, S. Janz, and D. J. Moss, “Error-free all-optical demultiplexing at 160Gb/s via FWM in a silicon nanowire,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3905–3910 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

H. Ji, M. Pu, H. Hu, M. Galili, L. K. Oxenlowe, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, and P. Jeppesen, “Optical Waveform Sampling and Error-Free Demultiplexing of 1.28 Tb/s Serial Data in a Nanoengineered Silicon Waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(4), 426–431 (2011). [CrossRef]

26.

B. Corcoran, T. D. Vo, M. D. Pelusi, C. Monat, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, R. Ma, S. Janz, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, “Silicon Nanowire Based Radio-Frequency Spectrum Analyzer,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20190–20200 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27.

C. J. McKinstrie, R. O. Moore, S. Radic, and R. Jiang, “Phase-sensitive amplification of chirped optical pulses in fibers,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3737–3758 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

28.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundstrom, M. Sjodin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Gruner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrom, R. Phelan, J. O'Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 690–695 (2010). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(130.0130) Integrated optics : Integrated optics
(130.5990) Integrated optics : Semiconductors
(160.4330) Materials : Nonlinear optical materials
(190.4380) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, four-wave mixing

ToC Category:
Integrated Optics

History
Original Manuscript: June 27, 2011
Revised Manuscript: September 15, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: September 15, 2011
Published: October 3, 2011

Citation
F. Li, T. D. Vo, C. Husko, M. Pelusi, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, R. Ma, S. Janz, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, "All-optical XOR logic gate for 40Gb/s DPSK signals via FWM in a silicon nanowire," Opt. Express 19, 20364-20371 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-21-20364


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References

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  9. J. Wang, Q. Sun, and J. Sun, “All-optical 40 Gbit/s CSRZ-DPSK logic XOR gate and format conversion using four-wave mixing,” Opt. Express17(15), 12555–12563 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. N. Deng, K. Chan, C.-K. Chan, and L.-K. Chen, “An all-optical XOR logic gate for high-speed RZ-DPSK signals by FWM in semiconductor optical amplifier,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(4), 702–707 (2006). [CrossRef]
  11. J. Wang, J. Sun, X. Zhang, D. Huang, and M. M. Fejer, “Ultrafast all-optical three-input Boolean XOR operation for differential phase-shift keying signals using periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett.33(13), 1419–1421 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. R. E. Lamont, V. G. Ta’eed, M. A. F. Roelens, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Error-free wavelength conversion via cross phase modulation in 5 cm of As2S3 chalcogenide glass rib waveguide,” Electron. Lett.43(17), 945 (2007). [CrossRef]
  13. D. I. Yeom, E. C. Mägi, M. R. E. Lamont, M. A. F. Roelens, L. Fu, and B. J. Eggleton, “Low-threshold supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear chalcogenide nanowires,” Opt. Lett.33(7), 660–662 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics2(1), 35–38 (2008). [CrossRef]
  15. T. D. Vo, R. Pant, M. D. Pelusi, J. Schröder, D.-Y. Choi, S. K. Debbarma, S. J. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic chip-based all-optical XOR gate for 40 and 160 Gbit/s DPSK signals,” Opt. Lett.36(5), 710–712 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Q. Xu and M. Lipson, “All-optical logic based on silicon micro-ring resonators,” Opt. Express15(3), 924–929 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. L. Zhang, R. Q. Ji, L. X. Jia, L. Yang, P. Zhou, Y. H. Tian, P. Chen, Y. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Jiang, Y. L. Liu, Q. Fang, and M. B. Yu, “Demonstration of directed XOR/XNOR logic gates using two cascaded microring resonators,” Opt. Lett.35(10), 1620–1622 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. D. J. Moss, L. Fu, I. Littler, and B. J. Eggleton, “Ultrafast all-optical modulation via two-photon absorption in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Electron. Lett.41(6), 320 (2005). [CrossRef]
  19. T. Liang, L. Nunes, M. Tsuchiya, K. Abedin, T. Miyazaki, D. Vanthourhout, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and H. Tsang, “High speed logic gate using twophoton absorption in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Commun.265(1), 171–174 (2006). [CrossRef]
  20. V. M. N. Passaro and F. De Passaro, “All-optical AND gate based on Raman effect in silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Quantum Electron.38(9-11), 877–888 (2007). [CrossRef]
  21. D. C. Wheeler and D. C. Hall, “Optical interference logic in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Proc. SPIE6130, 61300G, 61300G-8 (2006). [CrossRef]
  22. M. Khorasaninejad and S. S. Saini, “All-optical logic gates using nonlinear effects in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Appl. Opt.48(25), F31–F37 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of broadband wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s in silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.21(3), 182–184 (2009). [CrossRef]
  24. F. Li, M. Pelusi, D. X. Xu, A. Densmore, R. Ma, S. Janz, and D. J. Moss, “Error-free all-optical demultiplexing at 160Gb/s via FWM in a silicon nanowire,” Opt. Express18(4), 3905–3910 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. H. Ji, M. Pu, H. Hu, M. Galili, L. K. Oxenlowe, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, and P. Jeppesen, “Optical Waveform Sampling and Error-Free Demultiplexing of 1.28 Tb/s Serial Data in a Nanoengineered Silicon Waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol.29(4), 426–431 (2011). [CrossRef]
  26. B. Corcoran, T. D. Vo, M. D. Pelusi, C. Monat, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, R. Ma, S. Janz, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, “Silicon Nanowire Based Radio-Frequency Spectrum Analyzer,” Opt. Express18(19), 20190–20200 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. C. J. McKinstrie, R. O. Moore, S. Radic, and R. Jiang, “Phase-sensitive amplification of chirped optical pulses in fibers,” Opt. Express15(7), 3737–3758 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundstrom, M. Sjodin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Gruner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrom, R. Phelan, J. O'Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010). [CrossRef]

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