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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 21 — Oct. 10, 2011
  • pp: 20462–20467
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Strong infrared absorber: surface-microstructured Au film replicated from black silicon

Saifeng Zhang, Yuan Li, Guojin Feng, Baocheng Zhu, Shiyi Xiao, Lei Zhou, and Li Zhao  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 21, pp. 20462-20467 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.020462


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Abstract

With quasi-periodic microstructures, great enhancement of infrared light absorption of Au film over a broad wavelength band (2.7~15.1 μm) was realized experimentally for the first time. The microstructured Au film was prepared by replica molding of the surface of femtosecond (fs) laser microstructured silicon (black silicon). This unique absorption characteristic is mainly ascribed to good impedance match from free space to Au film. The surface of the sample was examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the four peaks of absorptance were ascribed to residual polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), H2SO4, adsorbed water and CO2 in the air, respectively.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

With cumulative femtosecond (fs) pulses irradiation on the surface of silicon in the ambient of SF6, a quasi-periodic micro-sized conical structure can be formed [7

7. T. H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, S. Deliwala, and E. Mazur, “Microstructuring of silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1673 (1998). [CrossRef]

]. Around the year of 2000, extremely strong (close to 90%) light absorption of this microstructured silicon surface over a wide wavelength range from 0.25 to 16.7 μm was discovered [8

8. C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, “Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(13), 1850 (2001). [CrossRef]

,9

9. Y. Liu, S. Liu, Y. Wang, G. Feng, J. Zhu, and L. Zhao, “Broad band enhanced infrared light absorption of a femtosecond laser microstructured silicon,” Laser Phys. 18(10), 1148–1152 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. Due to its unique absorption property, it is called “black silicon”. Ever since then, a lot of interests have been attracted to go deep into its mechanism or apply it to devices [10

10. R. Younkin, J. E. Carey, E. Mazur, J. A. Levinson, and C. M. Friend, “Infrared absorption by conical silicon microstructures made in a variety of background gases using femtosecond-laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(5), 2626 (2003). [CrossRef]

15

15. M. T. Winkler, D. Recht, M. J. Sher, A. J. Said, E. Mazur, and M. J. Aziz, “Insulator-to-metal transition in sulfur-doped silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(17), 178701 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Here, we replicated the conical structure from the surface of a black silicon to a thin Au film. The optical absorption property of three samples with different spike heights (~32, 16, 6 μm) was measured in the wavelength range of 2.0~15.1 μm. Our results for the first time revealed broad band strong infrared light absorption of Au film with this structure on the surface. The absorptance of 0.7~0.8 was observed in the wavelength range of 2.7~15.1 μm for sample with the highest conical structure (~32 μm). The absorptance becomes stronger when the height of the spike increases, implying that impedance match tends to be optimal, which is consistent with Rephaeli and Fan’s theoretical result.

2. Experimental details

The surface of silicon (100) wafer (undoped, single crystalline, 350 μm thick) was structured in the ambient gas of 70 kPa SF6 with cumulative pulsed (800 nm, 120 fs) irradiation of fs laser. The focused laser beam was normally incident upon the sample surface. The laser beam was scanned along the surface of silicon wafer at a certain speed to fabricate samples of large area (over 10 × 10 mm2). The irradiation resulted in arrays of conical spikes formed on the surface. In present experiments, three types of samples were prepared. The heights of the spikes are ~32, 16, 6 μm, respectively.

Microstructured Au films were prepared by replicating the surface of fs laser microstructured silicon. Two steps are involved as illustrated in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of sample preparation: (a) fabrication of a black silicon by fs laser assisted chemical etching, (b) fabrication of a negative PDMS replica (negative mold) from the black silicon, (c) evaporation of 300 nm Au film on PDMS negative mold in vacuum, (d) dissolving PDMS in oil of vitriol (mass fraction 98.3%) followed by rinsing it in ethanol and careful up-down reversal. The down part of each schematic diagram shows corresponding image.
. The first step is similar to the process done by Reinhardt et al. [16

16. C. Reinhardt, S. Passinger, V. Zorba, B. N. Chichkov, and C. Fotakis, “Replica molding of picosecond laser fabricated Si microstructures,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 87(4), 673–677 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. The casting material used was Sylgard 184 from Dow Corning, Co. The polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) base and the curing agent were mixed in the weight ratio of 10:1 for 10 min. The mixture was put into a vacuum chamber for 30 min to remove the air contained in it. Then it was poured over the master structure of black silicon placed in a small plastic cup. After another removal of air being trapped in the spikes for 40 min, the samples were heated under the temperature of 65°C for 5 hours. The PDMS mold was carefully peeled off from the black silicon master mold when the sample was cooled for 24 hours. At this stage, a surface replicating the negative-sculpture microstructure of the original master was obtained. During the second step, an Au film with thickness of ~300 nm was deposited onto the PDMS surface by vacuum thermal evaporation (VTE). After that, it was dissolved in oil of vitriol (mass fraction 98.3%) for 12 hours to remove the PDMS. When all PDMS was dissolved, an ultrathin Au film was left floating on the surface of sulfuric acid. With a trap valve, the ultrathin Au film can be transferred to ethanol in a glass culture dish. After being rinsed for several times, it was reversed upside down carefully with a tweezer and placed on an undoped, double-side polished single crystalline silicon substrate.

The total hemispherical (specular and diffuse) reflectance (R) and transmittance (T) of the microstructured Au films were measured over the wavelength range of 2.0~15.1 μm. The absorptance were calculated via the formula A=1-R-T [8

8. C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, “Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(13), 1850 (2001). [CrossRef]

]. The absorption spectra of the substrate (an undoped, double-side polished, single crystalline silicon wafer) and a flat Au film (~300 nm) deposited on the silicon substrate were also measured for comparison. All optical measurements were performed with a Bruker Equinox 55 Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer equipped with an integrating sphere detector. The incident angle is ~9° to the normal of sample port. The surfaces of samples were examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) with an Axis Ultra DLD spectrometer from Kratos, Co.

3. Results and discussion

Figure 2(a)
Fig. 2 SEM images of (a) the surface of black silicon and (b) the surface of Au film with microstructures replicated from the counterpart. The inset of (a) and (b) show the side of the spike at a smaller scale.
shows the scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of microstructured silicon with the spike height of about 16 μm. It can be seen that micrometer-scale quasi-periodic spike arrays are formed on silicon surface and the side of the spike is covered with nanostructures. Many of them are protuberances. These samples exhibit ultrahigh light absorption in the visible and infrared wavelength range [8

8. C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, “Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(13), 1850 (2001). [CrossRef]

,9

9. Y. Liu, S. Liu, Y. Wang, G. Feng, J. Zhu, and L. Zhao, “Broad band enhanced infrared light absorption of a femtosecond laser microstructured silicon,” Laser Phys. 18(10), 1148–1152 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. Figure 2(b) shows the SEM image of microstructured Au film replicated from the above microstructured silicon. It can be seen that the spikes look smoother and there are also some protuberances on each spike, though they are not as dense as those on spikes of microstructured silicon. The average height (16±2 μm) and density of the spike (25±2 per this area) are nearly the same with its counterpart. For the feasibility of this replica molding method, Reinhardt et al. gave a relatively strict experimental demonstration [16

16. C. Reinhardt, S. Passinger, V. Zorba, B. N. Chichkov, and C. Fotakis, “Replica molding of picosecond laser fabricated Si microstructures,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 87(4), 673–677 (2007). [CrossRef]

].

Figure 3
Fig. 3 (a) reflectance, (b) transmittance and (c) absorptance spectrum for sample 1, sample 2, sample 3 (denoted as S1, S2 and S3 corresponding to the spike height of ~32, 16 and 6 μm, respectively) and a flat Si substrate, a flat Au film (denoted as Si and Flat Au, respectively) in the wavelength range of 2~15.1 μm.
shows the reflectance, transmittance and absorptance spectra of three types of samples (denoted as S1, S2 and S3 corresponding to the spike height of ~32, 16 and 6 μm, respectively), as well as a flat Si substrate and a flat Au film (denoted as Si and Flat Au, respectively) for comparison. In Fig. 3(a), sample 1 shows the lowest reflectance, close to 0.15 and sample 3 shows the highest, close to 0.45 over most part of wavelength range from 2.7 to 15.1 μm. It implies that the height of the spikes plays an important role in the reflectance. Higher spikes result in lower reflectance. There are four valleys over the whole measured wavelength range, which are located at 2.5~3.7 μm, 4.2~4.3 μm, 5.4~6.5 μm and 7.8~10 μm. As for flat Au film and silicon substrate, it is well known that the former exhibits good reflectance higher than 0.9 and the latter is about 0.45 in this wavelength range [3

3. C. G. Granqvist, “Solar Energy Materials,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 15(21), 1789–1803 (2003). [CrossRef]

, 17

17. G. B. Smith, G. A. Niklasson, J. S. E. M. Svensson, and C. G. Granqvist, “Noble-metal-based transparent infrared reflectors: Experiments and theoretical analyses for very thin gold films,” J. Appl. Phys. 59(2), 571 (1986). [CrossRef]

, 18

18. K. Sopian, N. Asim, N. Amin, and S. H. Zaidi, “Enhancement of Optical Absorption in Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells in Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) Configuration,” Eur. J. Sci. Res. 24, 358 (2008).

]. From Fig. 3(b), it can be seen that, except the sample Si, all Au samples show nearly zero transmittance in the whole wavelength range. Accordingly, it can be concluded that the microstructured Au film replicated from black silicon is completely continuous. That is to say, there is no hole or slot in the structure otherwise the transmittance would not be so low. Figure 3(c) shows the absorption of all samples calculated with formula A=1-R-T. It can be seen that sample 1 shows the highest absorption of 0.7~0.8 and sample 3 shows the lowest one of about 0.5 over the wavelength range from 2.7 to 15.1 μm. One can also find that higher spikes result in higher absorption. There are four absorption peaks in the wavelength range: 2.5~3.7 μm, 4.2~4.3 μm, 5.4~6.5 μm and 7.8~10 μm, corresponding to the four valleys in the reflectance spectra. Compared to the flat Au film (~0.05 over the whole range), all microstructured Au films (S1, S2 and S3) exhibit great enhancement in the infrared light absorption. As for the sample of smooth silicon substrate, no absorption can be seen in the whole wavelength range because of the band gap 1.12 eV (corresponding to 1.1 μm) of silicon. Therefore, the influence of the substrate can be neglected in our experiments.

Figure 4
Fig. 4 Four peaks of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (O 1s, Si 2p, C 1s and S 2p) for the surface of sample 3 (S3)
shows the XPS of sample 3. The results reveal that there are some other substances existing on the surface of the sample, which may affect its light absorption. Most of them are residua yielded during the replicating process. Figure 4(a) gives the O 1s peak and it can be fitted well by two PDMS O 1s peak (533.2 eV and 532.05 eV) [19

19. B. Schnyder, T. Lippert, R. Kotz, A. Wokaun, V.-M. Graubner, and O. Nuyken, “UV-irradiation induced modification of PDMS films investigated by XPS and spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Surf. Sci. 532–535, 1067–1071 (2003). [CrossRef]

,20

20. J. Xu, X. H. Huang, N. L. Zhou, J. S. Zhang, J. Ch. Bao, T. H. Lu, and C. Li, “Synthesis, XPS and fluorescence properties of Eu3+ complex with polydimethylsiloxane,” Mater. Lett. 58(12-13), 1938–1942 (2004). [CrossRef]

] and one H2O O 1s peak (534.2 eV) [21

21. X. Deng, T. Herranz, C. Weis, H. Bluhm, and M. Salmeron, “Adsorption of Water on Cu2O and Al2O3 Thin Films,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(26), 9668–9672 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. Figure 4(b) shows the Si 2p peak and it can also be well fitted by two PDMS Si 2p peaks (103.35 eV and 102.45 eV) [19

19. B. Schnyder, T. Lippert, R. Kotz, A. Wokaun, V.-M. Graubner, and O. Nuyken, “UV-irradiation induced modification of PDMS films investigated by XPS and spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Surf. Sci. 532–535, 1067–1071 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. Figure 4(c) shows a C 1s peak, which can also be assigned to PDMS (284.6 eV) [20

20. J. Xu, X. H. Huang, N. L. Zhou, J. S. Zhang, J. Ch. Bao, T. H. Lu, and C. Li, “Synthesis, XPS and fluorescence properties of Eu3+ complex with polydimethylsiloxane,” Mater. Lett. 58(12-13), 1938–1942 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. Figure 4(d) gives the S 2p peak corresponding to H2SO4 (169.5 eV). Then it can be concluded that the residua contain PDMS and H2SO4. H2O should be the adsorbed water on the Au microstructured surface. Thus, two absorption peaks of 2.5~3.7 μm and 5.4~6.5 μm can be ascribed to the absorption of H2O [22

22. K. J. Hwang, S. H. Lee, H. J. Kim, J. Y. Lee, and J. S. Kim, “A Balloon Filled with Nitrogen Gas Does Not Satisfy the Air- or Moisture-Free Reaction Condition,” Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 31(2), 515–516 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. The peak of 7.8~10 μm corresponds to the absorption of PDMS [20

20. J. Xu, X. H. Huang, N. L. Zhou, J. S. Zhang, J. Ch. Bao, T. H. Lu, and C. Li, “Synthesis, XPS and fluorescence properties of Eu3+ complex with polydimethylsiloxane,” Mater. Lett. 58(12-13), 1938–1942 (2004). [CrossRef]

, 23

23. D. Bodas and C. Khan-Malek, “Formation of more stable hydrophilic surfaces of PDMS by plasma and chemical treatments,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(4-9), 1277–1279 (2006). [CrossRef]

] and H2SO4 [24

24. R. F. Majkowski, “Infrared absorption coefficient of H2SO4 vapor from 1190 to 1260 cm−1,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67(5), 624 (1977). [CrossRef]

]. The last small peak of 4.2~4.3 μm should be due to the little absorption of CO2 in the air [22

22. K. J. Hwang, S. H. Lee, H. J. Kim, J. Y. Lee, and J. S. Kim, “A Balloon Filled with Nitrogen Gas Does Not Satisfy the Air- or Moisture-Free Reaction Condition,” Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 31(2), 515–516 (2010). [CrossRef]

] because all optical measurements were performed in atmosphere. In addition, it can be seen in Fig. 3(c) that the observed characteristic absorption peaks of PDMS, H2SO4 and H2O are weak, especially in view of surface enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) effect. Other discrete characteristic peaks of these materials do not appear at all, implying that the amount of residua is little and can be neglected when one considers the wide band absorption of the surface-microstructured Au film.

In general, the infrared light absorption of bulk metal or smooth metal film is quite low. However, in our experiment, the surface-microstructured Au films show great enhancement of infrared light absorption over such a wide wavelength range (2.0~15.1 μm). Higher spikes on Au film result in lower reflectance and therefore higher absorptance. As for this new characteristic, the impedance match should be the dominating factor according to Rephaeli and Fan’s simulation result [6

6. E. Rephaeli and S. Fan, “Tungsten black absorber for solar light with wide angular operation range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(21), 211107 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. We found that the effective impedance of the microstructured Au film changes gradually from ~1.0Z0 at the peak position of spike to ~0.10Z0 at the bottom [25

25. B. C. Zhu, S. Y. Xiao, and L. Zhou, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai, 200433, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Strong and wide-angular infrared absorption of metallic spike arrays”.

], so that light can be easily coupled into the device (since the impedance matches well with air at the device surface) and is then absorbed efficiently inside the medium due to losses of metal. Increasing the height of the spikes provides a longer and more gradual transition region from free space to Au film, which can generally improve absorption characteristic. Although a certain period cannot be fixed for the spike arrays, the distance between two spikes is either smaller than the wavelength or comparable to it, which is crucial to achieve broad band absorption. Numerical simulations show that the absorption effect is rather insensitive to the incident angle. Light trapping resulted from diffuse reflection by spikes and the protuberances on their surfaces may also contribute to the whole band increment [8

8. C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, “Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(13), 1850 (2001). [CrossRef]

].

4. Conclusions

In summary, we present the fabrication and infrared characterization of Au films with micro-sized quasi-periodic spike arrays. By using the method of replica molding, we successfully transferred the spike arrays from the fs laser microstructured silicon to Au film. Enhanced broad band infrared light absorption was observed in the wavelength range of 2.7~15.1 μm. This property is clearly different from that of bulk Au or flat Au film. It is mainly ascribed to the good impedance match between free space and surface-microstructured Au film. As a new infrared absorber, this kind of metal film may have some potential applications in infrared thermal sensor, detector, and stealth military technology, etc.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by National Key Basic Research Special Foundation of China (Grant No. 2010CB933802) and Chinese NSF (Nos. 11074042, 60725417, 60990321, 11174055). The authors want to thank Prof. Zhanghai Chen in the physics department, Fudan University and J. Zhu in the Institute of Precision Optical Engineering, Tongji University for helpful discussions.

References and links

1.

S. Bauer, S. Bauer-Gogonea, W. Becker, R. Fettig, B. Ploss, W. Ruppel, and W. von Münch, “Thin metal films as absorbers for infrared sensors,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 37–38, 497–501 (1993). [CrossRef]

2.

W. R. Blevin and J. Geist, “Influence of Black Coatings on Pyroelectric Detectors,” Appl. Opt. 13(5), 1171–1178 (1974). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

C. G. Granqvist, “Solar Energy Materials,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 15(21), 1789–1803 (2003). [CrossRef]

4.

V. G. Kravets, F. Schedin, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Plasmonic blackbody: Almost complete absorption of light in nanostructured metallic coatings,” Phys. Rev. B 78(20), 205405 (2008). [CrossRef]

5.

V. G. Kravets, S. Neubeck, A. N. Grigorenko, and A. F. Kravets, “Plasmonic blackbody: Strong absorption of light by metal nanoparticles embedded in a dielectric matrix,” Phys. Rev. B 81(16), 165401 (2010). [CrossRef]

6.

E. Rephaeli and S. Fan, “Tungsten black absorber for solar light with wide angular operation range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(21), 211107 (2008). [CrossRef]

7.

T. H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, S. Deliwala, and E. Mazur, “Microstructuring of silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1673 (1998). [CrossRef]

8.

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, “Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(13), 1850 (2001). [CrossRef]

9.

Y. Liu, S. Liu, Y. Wang, G. Feng, J. Zhu, and L. Zhao, “Broad band enhanced infrared light absorption of a femtosecond laser microstructured silicon,” Laser Phys. 18(10), 1148–1152 (2008). [CrossRef]

10.

R. Younkin, J. E. Carey, E. Mazur, J. A. Levinson, and C. M. Friend, “Infrared absorption by conical silicon microstructures made in a variety of background gases using femtosecond-laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(5), 2626 (2003). [CrossRef]

11.

J. Zhu, G. Yin, M. Zhao, D. Chen, and L. Zhao, “Evolution of silicon surface microstructures by picosecond and femtosecond laser irradiations,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 245(1-4), 102–108 (2005). [CrossRef]

12.

Y. Mo, M. Z. Bazant, and E. Kaxiras, “Sulfur point defects in crystalline and amorphous silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 70(20), 205210 (2004). [CrossRef]

13.

Z. Huang, J. E. Carey, M. Liu, X. Guo, E. Mazur, and J. C. Campbell, “Microstructured silicon photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(3), 033506 (2006). [CrossRef]

14.

M. Halbwax, T. Sarnet, Ph. Delaporte, M. Sentis, H. Etienne, F. Torregrosa, V. Vervisch, I. Perichaud, and S. Martinuzzi, “Micro and nano-structuration of silicon by femtosecond laser: Application to silicon photovoltaic cells fabrication,” Thin Solid Films 516(20), 6791–6795 (2008). [CrossRef]

15.

M. T. Winkler, D. Recht, M. J. Sher, A. J. Said, E. Mazur, and M. J. Aziz, “Insulator-to-metal transition in sulfur-doped silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(17), 178701 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

C. Reinhardt, S. Passinger, V. Zorba, B. N. Chichkov, and C. Fotakis, “Replica molding of picosecond laser fabricated Si microstructures,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 87(4), 673–677 (2007). [CrossRef]

17.

G. B. Smith, G. A. Niklasson, J. S. E. M. Svensson, and C. G. Granqvist, “Noble-metal-based transparent infrared reflectors: Experiments and theoretical analyses for very thin gold films,” J. Appl. Phys. 59(2), 571 (1986). [CrossRef]

18.

K. Sopian, N. Asim, N. Amin, and S. H. Zaidi, “Enhancement of Optical Absorption in Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells in Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) Configuration,” Eur. J. Sci. Res. 24, 358 (2008).

19.

B. Schnyder, T. Lippert, R. Kotz, A. Wokaun, V.-M. Graubner, and O. Nuyken, “UV-irradiation induced modification of PDMS films investigated by XPS and spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Surf. Sci. 532–535, 1067–1071 (2003). [CrossRef]

20.

J. Xu, X. H. Huang, N. L. Zhou, J. S. Zhang, J. Ch. Bao, T. H. Lu, and C. Li, “Synthesis, XPS and fluorescence properties of Eu3+ complex with polydimethylsiloxane,” Mater. Lett. 58(12-13), 1938–1942 (2004). [CrossRef]

21.

X. Deng, T. Herranz, C. Weis, H. Bluhm, and M. Salmeron, “Adsorption of Water on Cu2O and Al2O3 Thin Films,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(26), 9668–9672 (2008). [CrossRef]

22.

K. J. Hwang, S. H. Lee, H. J. Kim, J. Y. Lee, and J. S. Kim, “A Balloon Filled with Nitrogen Gas Does Not Satisfy the Air- or Moisture-Free Reaction Condition,” Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 31(2), 515–516 (2010). [CrossRef]

23.

D. Bodas and C. Khan-Malek, “Formation of more stable hydrophilic surfaces of PDMS by plasma and chemical treatments,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(4-9), 1277–1279 (2006). [CrossRef]

24.

R. F. Majkowski, “Infrared absorption coefficient of H2SO4 vapor from 1190 to 1260 cm−1,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67(5), 624 (1977). [CrossRef]

25.

B. C. Zhu, S. Y. Xiao, and L. Zhou, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai, 200433, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Strong and wide-angular infrared absorption of metallic spike arrays”.

OCIS Codes
(160.3900) Materials : Metals
(300.1030) Spectroscopy : Absorption
(300.6340) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, infrared

ToC Category:
Materials

History
Original Manuscript: July 19, 2011
Revised Manuscript: September 2, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: September 8, 2011
Published: October 3, 2011

Citation
Saifeng Zhang, Yuan Li, Guojin Feng, Baocheng Zhu, Shiyi Xiao, Lei Zhou, and Li Zhao, "Strong infrared absorber: surface-microstructured Au film replicated from black silicon," Opt. Express 19, 20462-20467 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-21-20462


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References

  1. S. Bauer, S. Bauer-Gogonea, W. Becker, R. Fettig, B. Ploss, W. Ruppel, and W. von Münch, “Thin metal films as absorbers for infrared sensors,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.37–38, 497–501 (1993). [CrossRef]
  2. W. R. Blevin and J. Geist, “Influence of Black Coatings on Pyroelectric Detectors,” Appl. Opt.13(5), 1171–1178 (1974). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. G. Granqvist, “Solar Energy Materials,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)15(21), 1789–1803 (2003). [CrossRef]
  4. V. G. Kravets, F. Schedin, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Plasmonic blackbody: Almost complete absorption of light in nanostructured metallic coatings,” Phys. Rev. B78(20), 205405 (2008). [CrossRef]
  5. V. G. Kravets, S. Neubeck, A. N. Grigorenko, and A. F. Kravets, “Plasmonic blackbody: Strong absorption of light by metal nanoparticles embedded in a dielectric matrix,” Phys. Rev. B81(16), 165401 (2010). [CrossRef]
  6. E. Rephaeli and S. Fan, “Tungsten black absorber for solar light with wide angular operation range,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(21), 211107 (2008). [CrossRef]
  7. T. H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, S. Deliwala, and E. Mazur, “Microstructuring of silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(12), 1673 (1998). [CrossRef]
  8. C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, “Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(13), 1850 (2001). [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Liu, S. Liu, Y. Wang, G. Feng, J. Zhu, and L. Zhao, “Broad band enhanced infrared light absorption of a femtosecond laser microstructured silicon,” Laser Phys.18(10), 1148–1152 (2008). [CrossRef]
  10. R. Younkin, J. E. Carey, E. Mazur, J. A. Levinson, and C. M. Friend, “Infrared absorption by conical silicon microstructures made in a variety of background gases using femtosecond-laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys.93(5), 2626 (2003). [CrossRef]
  11. J. Zhu, G. Yin, M. Zhao, D. Chen, and L. Zhao, “Evolution of silicon surface microstructures by picosecond and femtosecond laser irradiations,” Appl. Surf. Sci.245(1-4), 102–108 (2005). [CrossRef]
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