## Photonic approach to microwave frequency measurement with digital circular-code results |

Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 21, pp. 20580-20585 (2011)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.020580

Acrobat PDF (952 KB)

### Abstract

A photonic approach to measuring microwave frequency with digital results is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. In the proposed approach, *N* photonic phase-shifted filters with a phase shift increment of *π/N* in the transmission responses are designed. The filters are then employed to process the single optical sideband generated by applying a microwave signal to a single sideband suppressed-carrier (SSB-SC) modulation module, to perform frequency-to-amplitude conversion and analog-to-digital conversion simultaneously. After the implementation of power detection and decision operation to the filtered optical sideband, an *N-*bit result in the form of the circular code is obtained, which indicates the frequency of the microwave signal. A proof-of-concept experiment is performed to verify the proposed approach and a 5-bit circular code is generated to indicate microwave frequency up to 40 GHz.

© 2011 OSA

## 1. Introduction

1. B. Boashash, “Estimating and interpreting the instantaneous frequency of a signal. I. Fundamentals,” Proc. IEEE **80**(4), 520–538 (1992). [CrossRef]

2. B. Boashash, “Estimating and interpreting the instantaneous frequency of a signal. II. Algorithms and applications,” Proc. IEEE **80**(4), 540–568 (1992). [CrossRef]

4. R. A. Minasian, “Photonic signal processing of microwave signals,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. **54**(2), 832–846 (2006). [CrossRef]

7. C. Wang and J. Yao, “Photonic generation of chirped millimeter-wave pulses based on nonlinear frequency-to-time mapping in a nonlinearly chirped fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. **56**(2), 542–553 (2008). [CrossRef]

8. L. V. T. Nguyen and D. B. Hunter, “A photonic technique for microwave frequency measurement,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. **18**(10), 1188–1190 (2006). [CrossRef]

12. Y. Wang, J. Ni, H. Chi, X. Zhang, S. Zheng, and X. Jin, “Photonic instantaneous microwave frequency measurement based on two different phase modulation to intensity modulation conversions,” Opt. Commun. **284**(16-17), 3928–3932 (2011). [CrossRef]

13. J. Zhou, S. Aditya, P. P. Shum, and J. P. Yao, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using a photonic microwave filter with an infinite impulse response,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. **22**(10), 682–684 (2010). [CrossRef]

16. J. Niu, S. N. Fu, K. Xu, J. Q. Zhou, S. Aditya, J. Wu, P. P. Shum, and J. T. Lin, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement based on amplified fiber-optic recirculating delay loop and broadband incoherent light source,” J. Lightwave Technol. **29**(1), 78–84 (2011). [CrossRef]

17. S. T. Winnall, A. C. Lindsay, M. W. Austin, J. Canning, and A. Mitchell, “A microwave channelizer and spectroscope based on an integrated optical Bragg-grating Fabry-Perot and integrated hybrid Fresnel lens system,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. **54**(2), 868–872 (2006). [CrossRef]

18. X. Zou, W. Pan, B. Luo, and L. Yan, “Photonic approach for multiple-frequency-component measurement using spectrally sliced incoherent source,” Opt. Lett. **35**(3), 438–440 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19. N. Sarkhosh, H. Emami, L. Bui, and A. Mitchell, “Reduced cost photonic instantaneous frequency measurement system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. **20**(18), 1521–1523 (2008). [CrossRef]

21. M. V. Drummond, C. A. F. Marques, P. P. Monteiro, and R. N. Nogueira, “Photonic instantaneous microwave frequency measurement system based on signal remodulation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. **22**(16), 1226–1228 (2010). [CrossRef]

22. H. Chi, X. Zou, and J. P. Yao, “An approach to the measurement of microwave frequency based on optical power monitoring,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. **20**(14), 1249–1251 (2008). [CrossRef]

25. X. Zou, W. Pan, B. Luo, and L. Yan, “Photonic instantaneous frequency measurement using a single laser source and two quadrature optical filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. **23**(1), 39–41 (2011). [CrossRef]

## 2. Principle

*k*-th filter is derived aswhere

*k*-th filter and that of the reference branch, an optical power ratio can be derived as

*k*-th filter, the output bit is labeled as “1” if the power ratio is not less than 0.5; otherwise, the bit is encoded as “0”. Therefore, we obtain an

*N*-bit circular-code result which indicates the frequency value. An unambiguous measurement range of full

*N*= 8. From Eqs. (1) and (3), eight phase-shifted transmission responses or eight power ratios are present. The

25. X. Zou, W. Pan, B. Luo, and L. Yan, “Photonic instantaneous frequency measurement using a single laser source and two quadrature optical filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. **23**(1), 39–41 (2011). [CrossRef]

## 3. Experiment and results

*FSRs*are achieved for all five branches or filters, due to the use of the same differential group delay. On the other hand, at each branch an independent polarization controller is used to adjust the polarization angle and the initial phase of the optical sideband. Thus phase-shifted transmission responses are generated at the outputs of the five branches.

^{st}or the −1

^{st}sideband and a single optical sideband is generated after the external modulation [25

25. X. Zou, W. Pan, B. Luo, and L. Yan, “Photonic instantaneous frequency measurement using a single laser source and two quadrature optical filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. **23**(1), 39–41 (2011). [CrossRef]

22. H. Chi, X. Zou, and J. P. Yao, “An approach to the measurement of microwave frequency based on optical power monitoring,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. **20**(14), 1249–1251 (2008). [CrossRef]

23. J. Dai, K. Xu, X. Sun, J. Niu, Q. Lv, J. Wu, X. Hong, W. Li, and J. Lin, “A simple photonic-assisted microwave frequency measurement system based on MZI with tunable measurement range and high resolution,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. **22**(15), 1162–1164 (2010). [CrossRef]

## 4. Discussions

*2N*are generated in the proposed approach and the experiment, which is regarded as a simple and minimum-error encoding way. On the one hand, compared with the Gray code or the natural binary code with a code length of

*2*, the encoding efficiency here is lower. For instance, the number of effective bits for the 5-bit circular-code results in the experiment is 3.32. On the other hand, the circular code is much easier to be implemented for the digital frequency measurement since the phase-shifted filters with identical

^{N}*FSRs*can be designed using the same Hi-Bi element. While for the Gray code or the natural binary code results, filters with several exactly multiplied

*FSRs*are required, which are more practically difficult to develop.

^{nd}sidebands are too small to be detected by the optical power-meter. Thus the dynamic range of the frequency measurement is 34.6 dB.

## 5. Summary

*N*transmission responses are specified as

*N*-bit circular codes were generated. The measurement range and the resolution were

## Acknowledgments

## References and links

1. | B. Boashash, “Estimating and interpreting the instantaneous frequency of a signal. I. Fundamentals,” Proc. IEEE |

2. | B. Boashash, “Estimating and interpreting the instantaneous frequency of a signal. II. Algorithms and applications,” Proc. IEEE |

3. | J. B. Y. Tsui, Digital techniques for wideband receivers (second version) (SciTech Publishing, Inc., Raleigh, 2004). |

4. | R. A. Minasian, “Photonic signal processing of microwave signals,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. |

5. | J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics |

6. | G. C. Valley, “Photonic analog-to-digital converters,” Opt. Express |

7. | C. Wang and J. Yao, “Photonic generation of chirped millimeter-wave pulses based on nonlinear frequency-to-time mapping in a nonlinearly chirped fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. |

8. | L. V. T. Nguyen and D. B. Hunter, “A photonic technique for microwave frequency measurement,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. |

9. | X. Zou and J. P. Yao, “An optical approach to microwave frequency measurement with adjustable measurement range and resolution,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. |

10. | M. Attygalle and D. B. Hunter, “Improved photonic technique for radio-frequency measurement,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. |

11. | B. Vidal, “Photonic-based instantaneous microwave frequency measurement with extended range,” Opt. Commun. |

12. | Y. Wang, J. Ni, H. Chi, X. Zhang, S. Zheng, and X. Jin, “Photonic instantaneous microwave frequency measurement based on two different phase modulation to intensity modulation conversions,” Opt. Commun. |

13. | J. Zhou, S. Aditya, P. P. Shum, and J. P. Yao, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using a photonic microwave filter with an infinite impulse response,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. |

14. | S. Pan and J. P. Yao, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using a photonic microwave filter pair,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. |

15. | S. Fu, J. Zhou, P. P. Shum, and K. Lee, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using programmable differential group delay (DGD) modules,” IEEE Photon. J. |

16. | J. Niu, S. N. Fu, K. Xu, J. Q. Zhou, S. Aditya, J. Wu, P. P. Shum, and J. T. Lin, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement based on amplified fiber-optic recirculating delay loop and broadband incoherent light source,” J. Lightwave Technol. |

17. | S. T. Winnall, A. C. Lindsay, M. W. Austin, J. Canning, and A. Mitchell, “A microwave channelizer and spectroscope based on an integrated optical Bragg-grating Fabry-Perot and integrated hybrid Fresnel lens system,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. |

18. | X. Zou, W. Pan, B. Luo, and L. Yan, “Photonic approach for multiple-frequency-component measurement using spectrally sliced incoherent source,” Opt. Lett. |

19. | N. Sarkhosh, H. Emami, L. Bui, and A. Mitchell, “Reduced cost photonic instantaneous frequency measurement system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. |

20. | L. A. Bui, M. D. Pelusi, T. D. Vo, N. Sarkhosh, H. Emami, B. J. Eggleton, and A. Mitchell, “Instantaneous frequency measurement system using optical mixing in highly nonlinear fiber,” Opt. Express |

21. | M. V. Drummond, C. A. F. Marques, P. P. Monteiro, and R. N. Nogueira, “Photonic instantaneous microwave frequency measurement system based on signal remodulation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. |

22. | H. Chi, X. Zou, and J. P. Yao, “An approach to the measurement of microwave frequency based on optical power monitoring,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. |

23. | J. Dai, K. Xu, X. Sun, J. Niu, Q. Lv, J. Wu, X. Hong, W. Li, and J. Lin, “A simple photonic-assisted microwave frequency measurement system based on MZI with tunable measurement range and high resolution,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. |

24. | Z. Li, B. Yang, H. Chi, X. Zhang, S. Zheng, and X. Jin, “Photonic instantaneous measurement of microwave frequency using fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Commun. |

25. | X. Zou, W. Pan, B. Luo, and L. Yan, “Photonic instantaneous frequency measurement using a single laser source and two quadrature optical filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. |

26. | R. van de Plassche, CMOS integrated analog-to-digital and digital-to- analog converters (2nd edition), (Boston, MA: Kluwer, 2003) |

**OCIS Codes**

(230.0250) Optical devices : Optoelectronics

(350.4010) Other areas of optics : Microwaves

(060.5625) Fiber optics and optical communications : Radio frequency photonics

(230.7408) Optical devices : Wavelength filtering devices

**ToC Category:**

Optical Devices

**History**

Original Manuscript: July 28, 2011

Revised Manuscript: September 3, 2011

Manuscript Accepted: September 4, 2011

Published: October 3, 2011

**Citation**

Xihua Zou, Wei Pan, Bin Luo, Lianshan Yan, and Yushi Jiang, "Photonic approach to microwave frequency measurement with digital circular-code results," Opt. Express **19**, 20580-20585 (2011)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-21-20580

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### References

- B. Boashash, “Estimating and interpreting the instantaneous frequency of a signal. I. Fundamentals,” Proc. IEEE80(4), 520–538 (1992). [CrossRef]
- B. Boashash, “Estimating and interpreting the instantaneous frequency of a signal. II. Algorithms and applications,” Proc. IEEE80(4), 540–568 (1992). [CrossRef]
- J. B. Y. Tsui, Digital techniques for wideband receivers (second version) (SciTech Publishing, Inc., Raleigh, 2004).
- R. A. Minasian, “Photonic signal processing of microwave signals,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(2), 832–846 (2006). [CrossRef]
- J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics1(6), 319–330 (2007). [CrossRef]
- G. C. Valley, “Photonic analog-to-digital converters,” Opt. Express15(5), 1955–1982 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- C. Wang and J. Yao, “Photonic generation of chirped millimeter-wave pulses based on nonlinear frequency-to-time mapping in a nonlinearly chirped fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.56(2), 542–553 (2008). [CrossRef]
- L. V. T. Nguyen and D. B. Hunter, “A photonic technique for microwave frequency measurement,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(10), 1188–1190 (2006). [CrossRef]
- X. Zou and J. P. Yao, “An optical approach to microwave frequency measurement with adjustable measurement range and resolution,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(23), 1989–1991 (2008). [CrossRef]
- M. Attygalle and D. B. Hunter, “Improved photonic technique for radio-frequency measurement,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(4), 206–208 (2009). [CrossRef]
- B. Vidal, “Photonic-based instantaneous microwave frequency measurement with extended range,” Opt. Commun.284(16-17), 3996–3999 (2011). [CrossRef]
- Y. Wang, J. Ni, H. Chi, X. Zhang, S. Zheng, and X. Jin, “Photonic instantaneous microwave frequency measurement based on two different phase modulation to intensity modulation conversions,” Opt. Commun.284(16-17), 3928–3932 (2011). [CrossRef]
- J. Zhou, S. Aditya, P. P. Shum, and J. P. Yao, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using a photonic microwave filter with an infinite impulse response,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(10), 682–684 (2010). [CrossRef]
- S. Pan and J. P. Yao, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using a photonic microwave filter pair,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(19), 1437–1439 (2010). [CrossRef]
- S. Fu, J. Zhou, P. P. Shum, and K. Lee, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using programmable differential group delay (DGD) modules,” IEEE Photon. J.2, 967–973 (2010).
- J. Niu, S. N. Fu, K. Xu, J. Q. Zhou, S. Aditya, J. Wu, P. P. Shum, and J. T. Lin, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement based on amplified fiber-optic recirculating delay loop and broadband incoherent light source,” J. Lightwave Technol.29(1), 78–84 (2011). [CrossRef]
- S. T. Winnall, A. C. Lindsay, M. W. Austin, J. Canning, and A. Mitchell, “A microwave channelizer and spectroscope based on an integrated optical Bragg-grating Fabry-Perot and integrated hybrid Fresnel lens system,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(2), 868–872 (2006). [CrossRef]
- X. Zou, W. Pan, B. Luo, and L. Yan, “Photonic approach for multiple-frequency-component measurement using spectrally sliced incoherent source,” Opt. Lett.35(3), 438–440 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- N. Sarkhosh, H. Emami, L. Bui, and A. Mitchell, “Reduced cost photonic instantaneous frequency measurement system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(18), 1521–1523 (2008). [CrossRef]
- L. A. Bui, M. D. Pelusi, T. D. Vo, N. Sarkhosh, H. Emami, B. J. Eggleton, and A. Mitchell, “Instantaneous frequency measurement system using optical mixing in highly nonlinear fiber,” Opt. Express17(25), 22983–22991 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- M. V. Drummond, C. A. F. Marques, P. P. Monteiro, and R. N. Nogueira, “Photonic instantaneous microwave frequency measurement system based on signal remodulation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(16), 1226–1228 (2010). [CrossRef]
- H. Chi, X. Zou, and J. P. Yao, “An approach to the measurement of microwave frequency based on optical power monitoring,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(14), 1249–1251 (2008). [CrossRef]
- J. Dai, K. Xu, X. Sun, J. Niu, Q. Lv, J. Wu, X. Hong, W. Li, and J. Lin, “A simple photonic-assisted microwave frequency measurement system based on MZI with tunable measurement range and high resolution,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(15), 1162–1164 (2010). [CrossRef]
- Z. Li, B. Yang, H. Chi, X. Zhang, S. Zheng, and X. Jin, “Photonic instantaneous measurement of microwave frequency using fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Commun.283(3), 396–399 (2010). [CrossRef]
- X. Zou, W. Pan, B. Luo, and L. Yan, “Photonic instantaneous frequency measurement using a single laser source and two quadrature optical filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(1), 39–41 (2011). [CrossRef]
- R. van de Plassche, CMOS integrated analog-to-digital and digital-to- analog converters (2nd edition), (Boston, MA: Kluwer, 2003)

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