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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 21 — Oct. 10, 2011
  • pp: 20751–20760
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A compact light concentrator by the use of plasmonic faced folded nano-rods

Taerin Chung, Yongjun Lim, Il-Min Lee, Seoung-Yeol Lee, Jinyoung Choi, Sookyoung Roh, Kyoung-Youm Kim, and Byoungho Lee  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 21, pp. 20751-20760 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.020751


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Abstract

We propose a compact nano-metallic structure for enhancing and concentrating far-field transmission: a faced folded nano-rod (FFR) unit, composed of two folded metallic nano-rods placed facing each other in an aperture. By analyzing local charge, field, and current distributions in the FFR unit using three-dimensional finite difference time domain (FDTD) calculation results, we show that although charge and field configurations become somewhat different depending on the polarization states of the illumination, similar current flows are formed in the FFR unit, which entail similar far-field radiation patterns regardless of the polarization states, making the FFR unit a quasi-polarization-insensitive field concentrator. We demonstrate this functionality of the FFR unit experimentally using the holographic microscopy which provides us a three-dimensional map of the complex wavefronts of optical fields emanating from the FFR unit.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

When light waves interact with metallic structures, it is well known that they can be concentrated on and enhanced at the metal surfaces even in subwavelength scales [1

1. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824–830 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The collective oscillatory motions of electrons coupled with these light waves, called surface plasmons (SPs) [2

2. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer Verlag, 1988).

], play key roles in this phenomenon on the metal surface whose characteristics have been exploited in many nano-technological applications such as bio- or chemical-sensors [3

3. B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lunstrom, “Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing,” Sens. Actuat. 4299–304 (1983). [CrossRef]

, 4

4. J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7, 442–453 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 5

5. S. Rho, T. Chung, and B. Lee, “Overview of the characteristics of micro- and nano-structured surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Sensors 11, 1565–1588 (2011). [CrossRef]

], integrated photonics [6

6. L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principles of Nano-Optics (Cambridge University Press, 2006).

, 7

7. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440, 508–511 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and high-density optical data storages [8

8. M. H. Kryder, E. C. Gage, T. W. McDaniel, W. A. Challener, R. E. Rottmayer, G. P. Ju, Y. T. Hsia, and M. F. Erden, “Heat assisted magnetic recording,” Proc. IEEE 96, 1810–1835 (2008). [CrossRef]

, 9

9. M. Mansuripur, A. R. Zakharian, A. Lesuffleur, S.-H. Oh, R. J. Jones, N. C. Lindquist, H. Im, A. Kobyakov, and J. V. Moloney, “Plasmonic nano-structures for optical data storage,” Opt. Express 17, 14001–14014 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Not only the physics behind this concentration or enhancement of light near the vicinity of metal surface but also its utilization in practical devices have been studied quite extensively. Enhanced efficiencies in such devices as solar cells [10

10. H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9, 205–213 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], photo detectors [11

11. I. Tsutomu, J. Fujikata, K. Makita, T. Baba, and K. Ohashi, “Si nano-photodiode with a surface plasmon antenna,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L364–L366 (2005). [CrossRef]

], light emitting diodes [12

12. K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3, 601–605 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and lasers [13

13. R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461, 629–632 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] are some of those examples.

On the other hand, the re-radiation of plasmonically concentrated and enhanced light into free space attracted significant research interests as well [14

14. T. Ebbesen, H. Lezec, H. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–669 (1998). [CrossRef]

, 15

15. H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297, 820–822 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The re-radiation accompanying field enhancement or concentration by a properly-designed metallic nano-structure can be effectively accounted for using the well-known terminology of antenna and there have been lots of literatures dealing with these so-called plasmonic antennas [16

16. R. D. Grober, R. J. Schoelkopf, and D. E. Prober, “Optical antenna: towards a unity efficiency near-field optical probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1354–1356 (1997). [CrossRef]

,17

17. J.-J. Greffet, “Nanoantennas for light emission,” Science 308, 1561–1563 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,18

18. Q.-H. Park, “Optical antennas and plasmonics,” Contemp. Phys. 50, 407–423 (2009). [CrossRef]

,19

19. P. Bharadwaj, B. Deutsch, and L. Novotny, “Optical antennas,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1, 438–483 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. In the context of plasmonic antennas, the manipulation of light emissions from metallic structures is of great concerns to ensure the functionality in addition to that of light concentration.

To manipulate the radiation properties of light in plasmonic nano-structures, the shape, type of metals, and the wavelength of incident light should be appropriately chosen for SPs to be efficiently excited in a desired way. For example, the radiation from a metallic nano-rod shows a far-field pattern analogous to that of a dipole antenna in radio frequencies [20

20. S. Park, M. Pelton, M. Liu, P. Guyot-Sionnest, and N. F. Scherer, “Ultrafast resonant dynamics of surface plasmons in gold nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 116–123 (2007) [CrossRef]

,21

21. K. Sendur and E. Baran, “Near-field optical power transmission of dipole nano-antennas,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 325–335 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. By controlling shape, dimension, and spatial arrangement of such nano-rods, we can modify the radiation characteristics significantly [22

22. T. Pakizeh and M. Kall, “Unidirectional ultracompact optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 9, 2343–2349 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 23

23. T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, and H. F. Hofmann, “Directional control of light by a nano-optical Yagi–Uda antenna,” Nat. Photonics 4, 312–315 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. Therefore, properly-designed metallic nano-structures can offer a convenient way to concentrate light waves. Recently, we have proposed a faced folded nano-rod (FFR) unit in a conference [24

24. T. Chung, J. Choi, Y. Lim, I.-M. Lee, K.-Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Faced folded rods as nano antenna for optical devices,” Proc. SPIE 7851, 78510S (2010). [CrossRef]

] to manipulate light distributions in free space. In that study, the enhancement of local fields in the near-field regime was reported and numerically analyzed. In this paper, we investigate it further and propose the use of the FFR unit as a field concentrator in the far-field region. To prove its functionality as a field concentrator in free space, both numerical and experimental results will be presented.

2. FFR unit and fundamentals

Let us first introduce the concept of the FFR unit illustrated in Fig. 1(a). An exemplary fabrication result is also shown in Fig. 1(b). It is composed of two folded metallic (Au) nano-rods placed facing each other. We performed the numerical analysis of the FFR unit in the first place using the three-dimensional finite difference time domain (FDTD) method [25

25. A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687–702 (2010). [CrossRef]

], using the Palik parameters for the permittivity of Au [26

26. E. Palik, Handboook of Optical Constant of Solids (Academic, 1985).

], and assuming normal plane waves (wavelength λ = 633 nm) incident uniformly from the rear side of the SiO2 substrate (having a refractive index of 1.46 at 633 nm). We extracted the structural parameters shown in Fig. 1(a) based on the assumption that the more enhanced the local fields of the FFR unit are, the better far-field characteristics we can obtain (see Appendix I for more details).

Fig. 1 (a) Schematic diagram of a faced folded nano-rod (FFR) unit. (b) SEM picture of an exemplary fabrication result.

It is obvious that optical responses of the FFR unit will be dependent on the polarization state of the incident light. Let us first consider the case when the illuminating light is polarized along the horizontal or x direction. In Figs. 2(a)–2(c), we plotted (a) the intensity and (b) the magnitude/direction of the electric fields inside the FFR unit (z = 65 nm) with (c) the current flows at its top surface. From the results, we can easily see that the most dominant fields in the FFR unit appear across two narrow (40 nm) gaps along the x direction. They are due to the so-called capacitive coupling effect, i.e., generated by the accumulated charges near the sharp edges of the rods (charged by the depolarization of surface charges [27

27. E. Cubukcu, N. Yu, E. J. Smythe, L. Diehl, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antennas and related devices,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1448–1461 (2008). [CrossRef]

]), whose oscillations can enhance the far-field radiation significantly [28

28. R. D. Murley, “Mie theory of light scattering—limitations on accuracy of approximate methods of computation,” J. Phys. Chem. 64, 161–162 (1960). [CrossRef]

]. Moreover, the interference between these radiations from upper and lower gaps can increase further the light intensity in the far-field region just as a folded dipole antenna in RF regime provides a four-fold-enhanced radiation over its dipole version [29

29. W. Stutzman and G. Thiele, Antenna Theory and Design, 2nd ed. (John Wiley & Sons, 1998).

]. These indicate that parts of the folded rods parallel with the polarization direction of the illuminating light play major roles in the overall response of the FFR unit. In Fig. 2(d), we showed, for the comparison, the response (field intensity) of double (upper and lower) coupled-rods, which are placed only along the x direction. We can clearly identify that when the incident light is x-polarized, the optical response of the FFR unit can be approximated into that of double coupled-rods.

Fig. 2 (a) Intensity, (b) magnitude/direction of the electric fields inside the FFR unit (z = 65 nm) at a specific phase at which the capacitive electric fields across two narrow gaps are maximized, and (c) distribution of the current flows at the top surface of the FFR unit at π/5 after the phase used in (b). Note that it takes about π/5 for the electric field shown in (b) to reach the top surface. From (a) to (c), the illuminating light is x-polarized. (d) Electric field intensity of double (upper and lower) coupled-rods. In case of horizontally-polarized illumination, the optical response of the FFR unit is very similar to this. (e) The vertical part of the folded rod is like a bridge between upper and lower rods and becomes a new path for the charge exchange. Semi-circular current flows can be induced due to these vertical parts. However, we note that dual dipoles induced via the capacitive coupling play key roles and the effects of charge exchange or redistribution through the vertical parts are rather weak.

However, there is more than this in the FFR unit. We have to investigate the contributions of the vertical (placed perpendicular to the polarization direction) part of the folded rod. This vertical part acts as a bridge between upper and lower rods, providing a new path for the charge exchange. Due to this path, semi-circular current flows are induced as is shown in Fig. 2(e). In Fig. 2(a), we can find relatively strong fields near the vertical parts of the folded rods resulting from this folding effect, not visible in the coupled-rod structure [see Fig. 2(d)]. We note that these fields should be distinguished from those originated from the capacitive coupling via an interior space [180 nm (x) × 130 nm (y), which can be considered as additional gaps for each direction], because the electric fields near the center of the interior space almost vanish.

Now, let us turn our attention to the vertically-polarized illumination case. Calculated electric field distribution inside the FFR unit (z = 65 nm) and the current flows at its top surface are shown in Figs. 3(a)–3(c). For the comparison, we showed the response (field intensity) of two vertical rods of the same length as the FFR unit in Fig. 3(d) [30

30. We can find almost the same response when the length of vertical rods is ∼ 430 nm, the same as the folded rods when unfolded.

]. These rods, which are placed only along the y direction, do not show any resonance feature, which indicates that the strong field inside of the FFR unit results mostly from the horizontal parts of the folded rods. Their effects are shown schematically in Fig. 3(e): upper and lower horizontal parts provide short paths for charge deposits which in turn induce capacitive coupling between them. Since there are two single folded rods in the FFR unit which are placed very close (∼ 40 nm) to each other and have mirror-symmetric charge distributions, their respective capacitive couplings interfere constructively in the interior of the FFR unit and dominate the overall response. That is, we can approximate the FFR unit into vertical dual dipoles formed through semi-circular current flows [see Fig. 3(e)]. Although somewhat different charge distribution and resultant fields are configured compared with those of the x-polarized light illumination, we can expect much similar current flows (and thus, a similar far-field radiation pattern) in this y-polarized incident light. Therefore, contrary to the conventional monopole metal rod or coupled nano-rods in which the strong radiations occur only when the incident polarization direction is along their major axis, the radiations from the FFR unit can be regarded as quasi-polarization-insensitive.

Fig. 3 (a)–(c) The same as Fig. 2 when the illuminating light is y-polarized, in which case the optical response of the FFR unit is completely different from that of two vertical rods whose electric field intensity is plotted in (d). Here the phase taken in (b) is when the electric fields in the interior of the FFR unit are maximized. (e) In the vertically-polarized illumination, upper and lower horizontal parts of the single folded rod provide short paths for charge deposits, producing capacitive coupling between them, and the interference between two capacitive couplings in left and right single folded rods dominates the overall response and the far-field radiation of the FFR unit.

3. Experiments

In what follows, we investigate experimentally the functionalities of these radiations from the FFR unit. We adopted the holographic microscopy technique [31

31. Y. Lim, J. Hahn, S. Kim, J. Park, H. Kim, and B. Lee, “Plasmonic light beaming manipulation and its detection using holographic microscopy,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 300–305 (2010). [CrossRef]

, 32

32. Y. Lim, S.-Y. Lee, and B. Lee, “Transflective digital holographic microscopy and its use for probing plasmonic light beaming,” Opt. Express 19, 5202–5212 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] to obtain a three-dimensional reconstruction of the complex wavefronts of optical fields emanating from the FFR unit. The experimental setup is shown in Fig. 4. We used a He-Ne laser with the wavelength of 633 nm as a light source. We placed an FFR unit in a square aperture (2 μm × 2 μm) keeping the distance between the FFR unit and the surrounding metallic wall large enough to avoid any coupling between them. The 130-nm Au layer on the SiO2 substrate with a 5-nm chromium adhesion layer is prepared with an electron beam evaporator (KVE-3004, Korea Vaccum Corp.). FFR units and surrounding apertures are fabricated with a focused ion beam (FIB) machine (Quanta200 3D, FEI Corp.). Fabricated samples of a bare aperture and an FFR unit placed in it are shown in Fig. 5(a) and Fig. 6(a), respectively. The signal light passing through these structures reaches the CCD camera (XCD-SX90, Sony Corp.) via a 100× microscope objective (MPlanApo, Olympus Corp., NA 0.85). The reference beam undergoes phase shift whose amount is controlled by a piezoelectric-driven mirror. After recording the interference patterns between the signal light and four consecutive reference beams with a relative phase shift of π/2, we can reconstruct the three-dimensional map of the signal light emanating from the FFR unit through a convolution form of the Fresnel transform [31

31. Y. Lim, J. Hahn, S. Kim, J. Park, H. Kim, and B. Lee, “Plasmonic light beaming manipulation and its detection using holographic microscopy,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 300–305 (2010). [CrossRef]

] (see Appendix II for a brief summary).

Fig. 4 Experimental setup adopting the holographic microscopy to measure and reconstruct a three-dimensional distribution of optical fields radiated by the FFR unit.
Fig. 5 (a) SEM picture of a fabricated bare aperture (2 μm × 2 μm) and (b), (c) transmitted light intensities through it at y = 0 and x = 0 planes, respectively. In this case, we do not have to consider whether the illumination is polarized horizontally or vertically since the aperture is a square. Intensities are normalized with respect to the maximum value among the results of (b), (c), and Figs. 6(b)–6(e) before normalization.
Fig. 6 (a) SEM picture of a fabricated FFR unit placed in an aperture and (b)–(e) transmitted light intensities through it. (b), (c) At y = 0 and x = 0 planes, respectively, when the incident light is polarized horizontally. (d), (e) The same as (b) and (c) for the case of vertically-polarized illumination. Intensities are normalized with respect to the maximum value among the results of (b)–(e) and Figs. 5(b)–5(c) before normalization.

The intensities of the transmitted light through a bare aperture and an FFR unit in an aperture are shown in Figs. 5 and 6, respectively. We note that all the plotted intensities are normalized with respect to the same value, i.e., the maximum among the results of Figs. 5(b)–5(c) and Figs. 6(b)–6(e) before normalization. In Fig. 5, we can find that the transmitted light seems to be focused at z ∼ 2μm, and then spreads. Our simple calculations based on the Fresnel diffraction theory [33

33. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1996).

] showed similar patterns to these results. Therefore, this focusing and spreading pattern, we can say, results from the diffraction of light through the square aperture.

Let us see Fig. 6 where the transmitted light intensities through the FFR unit are plotted. It is notable that we can record and reconstruct only the propagating components of the signal beam in the holographic microscopy. That is, the near-fields from the sample are neglected in the reconstructed results in our setup. In Fig. 6, we can identify two kinds of contributions: one is the diffraction through the aperture surrounding the FFR unit and the other the radiations form the FFR unit itself. Due to the latter, we can discern that the transmission is significantly enhanced. Moreover, the enhanced intensities are localized in a certain region (z = 1.5 ∼ 3.5 μm). In Fig. 7, we provided cross-sectional views of the transmitted light at these longitudinal coordinates. We can easily find that the transmitted light (or beam) maintains its intensity profile over this region. These results clearly indicate that the FFR unit can act as a field concentrator (along the transverse directions) or a beaming device in the far-field region.

Fig. 7 Cross-sectional views of transmitted light through an FFR unit at various longitudinal (z) positions for (a)–(c) horizontally- and (d)–(f) vertically-polarized incident light.

4. Conclusion

In this paper, we introduced the FFR unit structure which is composed of two folded metallic nano-rods in an aperture. Its use as a polarization-insensitive field concentrator was experimentally demonstrated using the holographic microscopy. Although its local charge and field configurations are dependent on the polarization states of the incident light, we can get similar, i.e., semi-circular current flows in the FFR unit. Due to this, the functionality of the FFR unit as a field concentrator becomes quasi-polarization-insensitive. We believe that the proposed FFR unit can contribute to the development of particle-based bio-sensors and cutting-edge nano-photonic devices for this capacity.

Appendix: Design of the structural parameters of the FFR unit

Here we describe the design procedure of the FFR unit briefly. As was mentioned in the main text, we assumed that the more enhanced the local fields of the FFR unit are, the better far-field characteristics we can obtain. This indicates that we optimized the FFR structure in such a way that its local fields via the SPs are maximized. For this purpose, we basically followed the design rules given in [34

34. J. Xu, T. Xu, J. Wang, and Q. Tian, “Design tips of nanoapertures with strong field enhancement and proposal of novel L-shaped aperture,” Opt. Eng. 44, 018001 (2004). [CrossRef]

] with the Barbinet principle [35

35. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University Press, 1999).

] taken into consideration.

We started with the known aperture design (see Fig. 2(b) of [34

34. J. Xu, T. Xu, J. Wang, and Q. Tian, “Design tips of nanoapertures with strong field enhancement and proposal of novel L-shaped aperture,” Opt. Eng. 44, 018001 (2004). [CrossRef]

]), changing the aperture into its complementary structure, i.e., a single folded rod in free space. Initially, the lengths of the horizontal and vertical parts of the single folded rod were set to be approximately quarter and half of the SP wavelength (λSPP ∼ 600 nm), respectively. By iterative numerical calculations, we derived the optimum values of the geometrical parameters shown in Fig. 1(a) except for the gap between two single folded rods. To determine an appropriate gap size, we have to consider the fabrication capability of our FIB system. Numerically we found that the local fields do not grow or increase significantly if the gap size becomes smaller than 40 nm, which is actually comparable to the minimum object size our FIB system can construct with high reliability. Therefore, we determined the gap size to be 40 nm. Figure 8 shows the maximum local fields on the top surface of the FFR unit for various wavelengths, which confirms that our FFR unit is designed to operate optimally near the visible wavelength of 633 nm.

Fig. 8 Plot of maximum local field values on the top surface of the FFR unit, changing the wavelength of incident light. It shows that the designed FFR unit is optimized near the visible wavelength of 633 nm.

Appendix II: Holographic detection and reconstruction using phase-shifting interferometry

In this paper, the far-field probing was performed by the use of holographic microscopy. In digital holographic microscopy, the interference patterns are recorded on a CCD camera. Light waves from a coherent source are separated into two arms: One carries information on the optical far-field distribution emanating from an object (e.g., an FFR unit), and the other undergoes stepwise phase shifts. By the use of four-step phase-shift interferometry, light paths or far-field distributions coming out from the fabricated samples can be effectively retrieved. In our holographic detection, the fabricated structures are placed 20 μm away from the focal plane of the microscope objective so that twin image analysis in the frequency domain can be applied to resolve such phase-shifting errors caused by fluctuations and vibrations during the holographic probing process [36

36. J. Hahn, H. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, “Phase-shifting interferometry with genetic algorithm-based twin image noise elimination,” Appl. Opt. 47, 4068–4076 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The fabricated structures are placed on the motorized linear stage with the translational resolution of 100 nm, and the piezoelectric-driven mirror enabling us to obtain phase-shifting interferograms is controlled by our home-made LabVIEW-based software.

Acknowledgments

The authors acknowledge the support of the National Research Foundation and the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology of Korea through the Creative Research Initiative Program (Active Plasmonics Application Systems).

References and links

1.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824–830 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer Verlag, 1988).

3.

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lunstrom, “Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing,” Sens. Actuat. 4299–304 (1983). [CrossRef]

4.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7, 442–453 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

S. Rho, T. Chung, and B. Lee, “Overview of the characteristics of micro- and nano-structured surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Sensors 11, 1565–1588 (2011). [CrossRef]

6.

L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principles of Nano-Optics (Cambridge University Press, 2006).

7.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440, 508–511 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

M. H. Kryder, E. C. Gage, T. W. McDaniel, W. A. Challener, R. E. Rottmayer, G. P. Ju, Y. T. Hsia, and M. F. Erden, “Heat assisted magnetic recording,” Proc. IEEE 96, 1810–1835 (2008). [CrossRef]

9.

M. Mansuripur, A. R. Zakharian, A. Lesuffleur, S.-H. Oh, R. J. Jones, N. C. Lindquist, H. Im, A. Kobyakov, and J. V. Moloney, “Plasmonic nano-structures for optical data storage,” Opt. Express 17, 14001–14014 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9, 205–213 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

I. Tsutomu, J. Fujikata, K. Makita, T. Baba, and K. Ohashi, “Si nano-photodiode with a surface plasmon antenna,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L364–L366 (2005). [CrossRef]

12.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3, 601–605 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461, 629–632 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

T. Ebbesen, H. Lezec, H. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–669 (1998). [CrossRef]

15.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297, 820–822 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

R. D. Grober, R. J. Schoelkopf, and D. E. Prober, “Optical antenna: towards a unity efficiency near-field optical probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1354–1356 (1997). [CrossRef]

17.

J.-J. Greffet, “Nanoantennas for light emission,” Science 308, 1561–1563 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

Q.-H. Park, “Optical antennas and plasmonics,” Contemp. Phys. 50, 407–423 (2009). [CrossRef]

19.

P. Bharadwaj, B. Deutsch, and L. Novotny, “Optical antennas,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1, 438–483 (2009). [CrossRef]

20.

S. Park, M. Pelton, M. Liu, P. Guyot-Sionnest, and N. F. Scherer, “Ultrafast resonant dynamics of surface plasmons in gold nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 116–123 (2007) [CrossRef]

21.

K. Sendur and E. Baran, “Near-field optical power transmission of dipole nano-antennas,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 325–335 (2009). [CrossRef]

22.

T. Pakizeh and M. Kall, “Unidirectional ultracompact optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 9, 2343–2349 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, and H. F. Hofmann, “Directional control of light by a nano-optical Yagi–Uda antenna,” Nat. Photonics 4, 312–315 (2010). [CrossRef]

24.

T. Chung, J. Choi, Y. Lim, I.-M. Lee, K.-Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Faced folded rods as nano antenna for optical devices,” Proc. SPIE 7851, 78510S (2010). [CrossRef]

25.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687–702 (2010). [CrossRef]

26.

E. Palik, Handboook of Optical Constant of Solids (Academic, 1985).

27.

E. Cubukcu, N. Yu, E. J. Smythe, L. Diehl, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antennas and related devices,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1448–1461 (2008). [CrossRef]

28.

R. D. Murley, “Mie theory of light scattering—limitations on accuracy of approximate methods of computation,” J. Phys. Chem. 64, 161–162 (1960). [CrossRef]

29.

W. Stutzman and G. Thiele, Antenna Theory and Design, 2nd ed. (John Wiley & Sons, 1998).

30.

We can find almost the same response when the length of vertical rods is ∼ 430 nm, the same as the folded rods when unfolded.

31.

Y. Lim, J. Hahn, S. Kim, J. Park, H. Kim, and B. Lee, “Plasmonic light beaming manipulation and its detection using holographic microscopy,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 300–305 (2010). [CrossRef]

32.

Y. Lim, S.-Y. Lee, and B. Lee, “Transflective digital holographic microscopy and its use for probing plasmonic light beaming,” Opt. Express 19, 5202–5212 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

33.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1996).

34.

J. Xu, T. Xu, J. Wang, and Q. Tian, “Design tips of nanoapertures with strong field enhancement and proposal of novel L-shaped aperture,” Opt. Eng. 44, 018001 (2004). [CrossRef]

35.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University Press, 1999).

36.

J. Hahn, H. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, “Phase-shifting interferometry with genetic algorithm-based twin image noise elimination,” Appl. Opt. 47, 4068–4076 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
(260.5430) Physical optics : Polarization
(050.6624) Diffraction and gratings : Subwavelength structures

ToC Category:
Optics at Surfaces

History
Original Manuscript: July 1, 2011
Revised Manuscript: August 22, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: September 11, 2011
Published: October 4, 2011

Citation
Taerin Chung, Yongjun Lim, Il-Min Lee, Seoung-Yeol Lee, Jinyoung Choi, Sookyoung Roh, Kyoung-Youm Kim, and Byoungho Lee, "A compact light concentrator by the use of plasmonic faced folded nano-rods," Opt. Express 19, 20751-20760 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-21-20751


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  26. E. Palik, Handboook of Optical Constant of Solids (Academic, 1985).
  27. E. Cubukcu, N. Yu, E. J. Smythe, L. Diehl, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antennas and related devices,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron.14, 1448–1461 (2008). [CrossRef]
  28. R. D. Murley, “Mie theory of light scattering—limitations on accuracy of approximate methods of computation,” J. Phys. Chem.64, 161–162 (1960). [CrossRef]
  29. W. Stutzman and G. Thiele, Antenna Theory and Design, 2nd ed. (John Wiley & Sons, 1998).
  30. We can find almost the same response when the length of vertical rods is ∼ 430 nm, the same as the folded rods when unfolded.
  31. Y. Lim, J. Hahn, S. Kim, J. Park, H. Kim, and B. Lee, “Plasmonic light beaming manipulation and its detection using holographic microscopy,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46, 300–305 (2010). [CrossRef]
  32. Y. Lim, S.-Y. Lee, and B. Lee, “Transflective digital holographic microscopy and its use for probing plasmonic light beaming,” Opt. Express19, 5202–5212 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1996).
  34. J. Xu, T. Xu, J. Wang, and Q. Tian, “Design tips of nanoapertures with strong field enhancement and proposal of novel L-shaped aperture,” Opt. Eng.44, 018001 (2004). [CrossRef]
  35. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University Press, 1999).
  36. J. Hahn, H. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, “Phase-shifting interferometry with genetic algorithm-based twin image noise elimination,” Appl. Opt.47, 4068–4076 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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