OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 21 — Oct. 10, 2011
  • pp: 20773–20784
« Show journal navigation

Hollow-bottle optical microresonators

G. Senthil Murugan, M. N. Petrovich, Y. Jung, J. S. Wilkinson, and M. N. Zervas  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 21, pp. 20773-20784 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.020773


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1576 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Selective excitation of whispering-gallery and bottle modes in a robust hollow-bottle optical microresonator, fabricated from a silica microcapillary by a pressure-compensated, “soften-and-compress” method, is demonstrated. Characteristic resonance spectra of bottle modes were obtained by using a tapered fiber coupled at different locations along the hollow bottle. The spectral characteristics (Q-factor, excitation efficiency) are shown to have high tolerance to angular misalignment of the tapered fiber. In addition, introduction of localized losses on the outer surface of the resonator results in selective clean-up of the transmission spectrum and superior performance. A theoretical analysis of modal turning points and associated resonant wavelengths is used to explain the mechanism of mode-suppression and the resultant spectral cleaning.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

In addition to solid bottle microresonators, there have been recent demonstrations of hollow (or “empty”) bottle microresonators [15

15. Ch. Strelow, H. Rehberg, C. M. Schultz, H. Welsch, Ch. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, “Optical microcavities formed by semiconductor microtubes using a bottlelike geometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(12), 127403 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,16

16. F. Li, Z. Mi, and S. Vicknesh, “Coherent emission from ultrathin-walled spiral InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot microtubes,” Opt. Lett. 34(19), 2915–2917 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] formed by semiconductor microtubes, as well as optical microbubble resonators [17

17. M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, and R. S. Windeler, “Optical microbubble resonator,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 898–900 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19

19. A. Watkins, J. Ward, Y. Wu, and S. Nic Chormaic, “Single-input spherical microbubble resonator,” Opt. Lett. 36(11), 2113–2115 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] formed on optical microcapillaries. In the former configuration, the bottle-like geometry has been achieved by the formation of a parabolic lobe, resulting in an effective variation of the axial propagation constant of a rolled-up microtube. In this case, the effective “bulge” is only a small percentage of the microtube radius and, due to scattering at the inevitable internal and external stepped edges, the resulting Q factors were limited to ~2000-2500. The latter configuration, on the other hand, has been achieved by localised CO2 laser heating of a pressurised glass microtube. In this case, the microbubble shows a very pronounced “bulge”, with its final diameter almost double the original capillary radius.

In this paper, we present a pressure-compensated, “soften-and-compress” method for fabricating high quality hollow micro-bottle resonator (HMBR). We show that the resulting high Q resonances are insensitive to optical excitation angular misalignments, greatly facilitating the optical integration of these devices. We also show that the introduction of a localized scattering loss on the HMBR outer surface preferentially attenuates a subset of the bottle modes and results in substantial spectral “cleaning-up”. Finally, mode numbers and the associated resonant wavelengths calculated for experimentally observed resonance spectra of HMBR are used to give physical insight into the spectral cleaning mechanism.

2. Experimental Results

In this paper, we extend our previously published “soften-and-compress” fabrication technique of solid microbottle resonators [9

9. M. N. Zervas, G. S. Murugan, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Demonstration of novel high-Q fiber WGM “bottle” microresonators”, Proc. 10th anniversary International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks 4, 58 (2008).

11

11. G. Senthil Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and M. N. Zervas, “Selective excitation of whispering gallery modes in a novel bottle microresonator,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11916–11925 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] to produce highly-controllable, high performance HMBRs [20

20. M. N. Zervas, G. S. Murugan, M. N. Petrovich, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Hollow-Bottle Optical Microresonator”, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics 2011, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper JTuI14.

]. The HMBRs were fabricated from a glass capillary using a standard fusion splicer. This method has the advantage of being easy to implement, and yet very flexible. First, a glass capillary was fabricated by drawing a high purity synthetic silica tube (Heraeus Suprasil F300) in a fiber drawing tower. The silica tube was first etched on the inside using a standard gas-phase etching procedure and then fire polished on both the inside and outside using a oxy-hydrogen flame. A small positive pressure was applied during fiber drawing in order to maintain the circularity of the capillary cross-section. The outside diameter (OD) of the capillary, Dc, was 218 ± 1μm and the wall thickness, Tc, was approximately 15 ± 1μm. Sections of about 1m length were used for the fabrication of the HMBRs. One end of the capillary was sealed, while the other was connected to a custom-built pressurisation system. In contrast with the technique reported in [17

17. M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, and R. S. Windeler, “Optical microbubble resonator,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 898–900 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], which relies on high internal pressure only to form the microbubble, our technique relies on a combination of moderate pressure, mainly aimed at counteracting the surface tension in the softened glass, and the “compression” action of the splicer in order to form a highly-controllable-curvature “bottle” shape. The overlap factor of the splicer and pressure within the capillary were optimised independently (our pressurisation system had a resolution of approximately 0.1kPa), which enabled the realization of precise harmonic oscillator profiles [11

11. G. Senthil Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and M. N. Zervas, “Selective excitation of whispering gallery modes in a novel bottle microresonator,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11916–11925 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] in our HMBRs with excellent consistency and reproducibility. At the center of the resonator, the final HMBRs were designed to have ODs, Db, and wall thicknesses, Tb, of about 265 ± 1μm and 13.5 ± 1μm, respectively. The observed small thinning of the micro-bottle wall is a result of slightly larger internal pressure and overcompensation of the surface tension. The dimensions were determined after the microresonator was sliced carefully at the center and measured using an optical microscope. The control over the resonator curvature is very good and depends on the accuracy of the compression movement of the translation stages of the splicer and the accuracy of the pressurisation. Resonators with thinner walls could be readily obtained by using a capillary fibre with comparatively higher aspect (ID/OD) ratio.

Figure 1
Fig. 1 Hollow-bottle microresonator with fitted truncated harmonic-oscillator profile (red line). Capillary diameter Dc = 218μm, bottle outer diameter Db = 265 μm, bottle length Lb≈550 μm, wall thickness Tb = 13.5 μm (for the fitted harmonic oscillator profile: Δk = 0.0027μm−1).
shows a fabricated typical HMBR with dimensions summarised in the caption. The bottle shape was fitted very well with a truncated harmonic-oscillator profile [radius R(z) = Rb[1+(Δkz)2]-1/2] with Δk = 0.0027μm−1 [11

11. G. Senthil Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and M. N. Zervas, “Selective excitation of whispering gallery modes in a novel bottle microresonator,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11916–11925 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] (red line). A number of microbottle resonators were fabricated with varying shape curvatures characterized with Δk up to 0.007μm−1. Larger Δk is achievable although the structure starts resembling the micro-bubble resonator [17

17. M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, and R. S. Windeler, “Optical microbubble resonator,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 898–900 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Figure 3
Fig. 3 Transmission spectra of the fiber-coupled hollow-bottle microresonator excited at the center, with the excitation tapered fiber (a) perpendicular to the bottle axis and (b) misaligned by 3.25°.
shows spectra with the HMBR excited at the center, with the excitation fiber taper (a) perpendicular to the bottle axis and (b) misaligned by 3.25°. It can be seen that the wavelengths and Q-factors of the individual resonant dips in the transmission spectrum are essentially insensitive to misalignments of the excitation taper. Actually, as the insets in Fig. 3 show, the magnitudes of some resonances increase and their Q factors improve as a consequence of the small misalignment. This is believed to be due to tilt-induced tuning of the coupling constant rendering it closer to critical coupling. High-Q resonances, albeit with lower excitation efficiency, were observed even at extreme tilt angles of 45°. The full investigation and theoretical analysis of this effect is beyond the scope of this paper. The relaxed requirements on excitation-fiber alignment are in sharp contrast with those for standard hollow cylindrical microresonators, such as micro-capillaries, used in various optofluidic sensor applications [21

21. I. M. White, H. Oveys, and X. Fan, “Liquid-core optical ring-resonator sensors,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1319–1321 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23

23. M. Sumetsky, R. S. Windeler, Y. Dulashko, and X. Fan, “Optical liquid ring resonator sensor,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14376–14381 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In the case of these cylindrical microresonators inevitable spreading of the launched light results in spiral modes and asymmetrically broadened spectra, so that very precise alignment [24

24. X. Fan, I. W. White, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and H. Oveys, “Overview of novel integrated optical ring resonator bio/chemical sensors”, Proc. SPIE vol. 6452, 64520M (2007).

] and/or monitoring of backscattered light [25

25. V. Zamora, A. Díez, M. V. Andrés, and B. Gimeno, “Interrogation of whispering-gallery modes resonances in cylindrical microcavities by backreflection detection,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 1039–1041 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] are needed to minimise spreading and maximise the resonance Q. In the HMBR case, the diverging light is reflected back at the corresponding turning points, resulting in high-Q resonances being maintained.

From the data in Fig. 3 and Fig. 4 we observe that in addition to robustness against misalignment and the spectral “cleaning”, most of the transmission resonances increase in magnitude. In the case of misalignment, wavefront tilt is believed to decrease the overall coupling constant (integrated along the length of the coupled region) of an initially overcoupled system, resulting in coupling closer to the critical value. In the case of the “cleaned-up” spectrum, the extra scattering losses are believed to reduce the Q and bring the system closer to critical coupling.

3. Bottle Microresonator Mode Theory

3.1 Modal characteristics

Φ(r,z)={AmJm(Umpr/R(z))Jm(Ump)rR(z)AmKm(Umpr/R(z))Km(Ump)r>R(z)
(1)

In highly multimoded fibers, ignoring polarization effects Ump is approximated by the pth root of the Jm(U) function. Ump can also be approximated by the analytical expression [27

27. S. Schiller and R. L. Byer, “High-resolution spectroscopy of whispering gallery modes in large dielectric spheres,” Opt. Lett. 16(15), 1138–1140 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,28

28. C. C. Lam, P. T. Leung, and K. Young, “Explicit asymptotic formulas for the positions, widths, and strengths of resonances in Mie scattering,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9(9), 1585 (1992). [CrossRef]

]:
Ump=m+αp(m2)1/3+(320)αp2(m2)1/3
(2)
where αp is the pth root of the Airy function (αp = 2.3381, 4.0879, 5.5205, 6.7867, 7.9441 for p = 1,2,3,4,5 respectively). The two aforementioned approximations give almost identical results. In the case of a harmonic oscillator profile, the axial distribution of the field is given analytically by:
Ψ(z)=CmqHq(ΔEm2z)exp(ΔEm4z2)
(3)
where ΔEm=2UmpΔk/Rb, Hq is the mth order Hermite polynomial and Cmq=[ΔEm/(π22q+1(q!)2)]1/4. The axial spreading of each mode is defined by the corresponding turning point, given by [11

11. G. Senthil Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and M. N. Zervas, “Selective excitation of whispering gallery modes in a novel bottle microresonator,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11916–11925 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]:
zc=±[4ΔEm(q+12)]12
(4)
measured from the bottle center. Beyond this point the mode is evanescent. The resonant wavelength for each (m,p,q) mode is given by:
λmpq=2πn0[(UmpRb)2+(q+12)ΔEm]12
(5)
When Δk=0 [R(z) = Rb: the case of a cylindrical resonator], Eq. (5) reduces to the well-known formula λmp=2πn0Rb/Ump giving the resonant wavelength of the (m,p) mode supported by a cylindrical resonator of radius Rb. In all calculations, we have used the experimentally obtained values shown in the caption of Fig. 1.

Based on our calculations, when compared to the excitation fiber, microbottle modes with p>3 exhibit highly mismatched propagation constants and are not expected to show significant excitation. Figure 5(a)
Fig. 5 Intensity distribution (a) along the length and (b) over transverse cross-section of the microbottle for mode (733,3,4). The resonant wavelength and turning point are 1554.61nm and 24.8µm, respectively.
shows details of the intensity distribution for mode (733,3,4) along the microbottle length. Figure 5(b), on the other hand, shows the intensity distribution of the same mode over the transverse cross-section of the microbottle. The resonant wavelength is 1554.61nm and the corresponding turning point is 24.8µm. For the modes with p≤3 considered in this study, the radial extent of the field radial is much smaller than the wall thickness and, therefore, the effect of the inner glass/air interface can be ignored. The field penetration of the mode shown in Fig. 5 is about 6µm. The penetration for p=1 and 2 modes is even smaller. The small penetration of these modes justifies the use of Eqs. (1) that strictly apply to solid microbottle resonators. Higher radial-order modes and/or thinner wall thicknesses would require a modification of Eqs. (1) to take into account the inner glass/air interface. Note that in Fig. 5(a) dimensions are truncated in order to emphasize some of the intensity distribution characteristics.

For the microbottle resonator dimensions realized here, for a fixed q and consecutive azimuthal mode numbers m around 755, the calculated wavelength spacing is about 2.1nm. This value increases to about 2.3nm for m varying around 720. On the other hand, for fixed m and consecutive axial mode numbers q, the wavelength spacing is about 0.7nm. As a result the various mode orders are strongly interleaved and result in transmission spectra with extremely complex characteristics, as demonstrated experimentally in Fig. 2, Fig. 3 and Fig. 4(a).

3.2 Modal filtering, mode resonant wavelengths and corresponding turning points

3.3 Comparison with experimental data

Under closer inspection, group B appears to align well with modes characterized by p = 2. The experimental wavelength spacing within this group is ~0.04nm which agrees very well with the theoretical average discussed previously. Group A, on the other hand, appears to align predominantly with the p = 1 modes. It shows main resonances with average spacing of ~0.025nm, which agrees reasonably well with the corresponding theoretical average spacing of ~0.03nm. Finally, Group C appears to align predominantly with the p = 3 modes. It shows main resonances with average spacing of ~0.06nm, which again agrees reasonably well with the corresponding theoretical average spacing of ~0.05nm. In addition, Group C shows minor resonances with spacing of ~0.025nm, most likely as a result of the Group A spectral overlap.

In the case of the normal spectrum, shown in Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Experimental normal spectrum. Superimposed are the theoretical resonant wavelengths and the corresponding azimuthal mode numbers (right axis).
, it is obvious that the much denser experimental spectral resonances reflect the presence of a large number of strongly overlapping and interleaved modes of different orders. The excitation strength of each mode will depend on the coupling coefficient between the fundamental mode of the microtaper and each individual microbottle mode as well as the round-trip losses of that mode, in common with microsphere resonators [29

29. Y. Panitchob, G. S. Murugan, M. N. Zervas, P. Horak, S. Berneschi, S. Pelli, G. Nunzi Conti, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Whispering gallery mode spectra of channel waveguide coupled microspheres,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11066–11076 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The coupling constant in turn is a function of the evanescent field overlap and the mismatch in propagation coefficient mismatch the modes under consideration.

4. Summary

In summary, we have presented a pressure-compensated, “soften-and-compress” method for fabricating high quality hollow-bottle optical microresonators. This new class of glass microresonator exhibits rich optical spectra, which depend on the excitation position, similar to their solid counterparts [11

11. G. Senthil Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and M. N. Zervas, “Selective excitation of whispering gallery modes in a novel bottle microresonator,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11916–11925 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. For central excitation they also show very high Q factors (~107). In addition, wavelengths and Q factors of the modes observed in the fiber-taper-coupled transmission spectrum show improved insensitivity to optical excitation misalignments, when compared with cylindrical resonators, greatly facilitating the interrogation and optical integration of these devices. We have also shown that the introduction of a localized scattering loss on the outer surface of the HMBR preferentially attenuates bottle modes with turning points further from the bottle center and results in substantial “clean-up” of the WGM spectrum. This is expected to improve the performance of these devices substantially when used as tunable filters or refractometric and optofluidic sensors. Finally, the controlled curvature and smooth bottle shape will facilitate laminar flow in potential optofluidic applications.

Finally, mode numbers and the associated resonant wavelengths of the experimental HMBR have been calculated and used to give physical insight into the spectral cleaning mechanism, showing very good agreement with the experiment.

References and links

1.

K. J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature 424(6950), 839–846 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

V. S. Ilchenko and A. B. Matsko, “Optical Resonators with Whispering-Gallery Modes -Part II: Applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 15–32 (2006). [CrossRef]

3.

A. B. Matsko and V. S. Ilchenko, “Optical Resonators with Whispering-Gallery Modes -Part I: Basics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 3–14 (2006). [CrossRef]

4.

M. L. Gorodetsky, A. A. Savchenkov, and V. S. Ilchenko, “Ultimate Q of optical microsphere resonators,” Opt. Lett. 21(7), 453–455 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(4), 549–551 (1998). [CrossRef]

6.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421(6926), 925–928 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

G. Senthil Murugan, Y. Panitchob, E. J. Tull, P. N. Bartlett, D. W. Hewak, M. N. Zervas, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Position-dependent coupling between a channel waveguide and a distorted microsphere resonator,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053105 (2010). [CrossRef]

8.

M. Sumetsky, “Whispering-gallery-bottle microcavities: the three-dimensional etalon,” Opt. Lett. 29(1), 8–10 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

M. N. Zervas, G. S. Murugan, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Demonstration of novel high-Q fiber WGM “bottle” microresonators”, Proc. 10th anniversary International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks 4, 58 (2008).

10.

G. S. Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and M. N. Zervas, “Experimental demonstration of a bottle microresonator,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics 2009, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper JTuD87.

11.

G. Senthil Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and M. N. Zervas, “Selective excitation of whispering gallery modes in a novel bottle microresonator,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11916–11925 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

A. A. Savchenkov,, A.B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, V.S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Mode filtering in optical whispering gallery resonators,” Electron. Lett. 41, 495 (2005).

13.

M. Pöllinger, D. O’Shea, F. Warken, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Ultrahigh-Q Tunable Whispering-Gallery-Mode Microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(5), 053901 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

G. S. Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and M. N. Zervas, “Optical excitation and probing of whispering gallery modes in bottle microresonators: potential for all-fiber add-drop filters,” Opt. Lett. 35(11), 1893–1895 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

Ch. Strelow, H. Rehberg, C. M. Schultz, H. Welsch, Ch. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, “Optical microcavities formed by semiconductor microtubes using a bottlelike geometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(12), 127403 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

F. Li, Z. Mi, and S. Vicknesh, “Coherent emission from ultrathin-walled spiral InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot microtubes,” Opt. Lett. 34(19), 2915–2917 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, and R. S. Windeler, “Optical microbubble resonator,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 898–900 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

H. Li, Y. Guo, Y. Sun, K. Reddy, and X. Fan, “Analysis of single nanoparticle detection by using 3-dimensionally confined optofluidic ring resonators,” Opt. Express 18(24), 25081–25088 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

A. Watkins, J. Ward, Y. Wu, and S. Nic Chormaic, “Single-input spherical microbubble resonator,” Opt. Lett. 36(11), 2113–2115 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

M. N. Zervas, G. S. Murugan, M. N. Petrovich, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Hollow-Bottle Optical Microresonator”, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics 2011, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper JTuI14.

21.

I. M. White, H. Oveys, and X. Fan, “Liquid-core optical ring-resonator sensors,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1319–1321 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

V. Zamora, A. Díez, M. V. Andrés, and B. Gimeno, “Refractometric sensor based on whispering-gallery modes of thin capillarie,” Opt. Express 15(19), 12011–12016 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

M. Sumetsky, R. S. Windeler, Y. Dulashko, and X. Fan, “Optical liquid ring resonator sensor,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14376–14381 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

X. Fan, I. W. White, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and H. Oveys, “Overview of novel integrated optical ring resonator bio/chemical sensors”, Proc. SPIE vol. 6452, 64520M (2007).

25.

V. Zamora, A. Díez, M. V. Andrés, and B. Gimeno, “Interrogation of whispering-gallery modes resonances in cylindrical microcavities by backreflection detection,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 1039–1041 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

D. Gloge, “Weakly guiding fibers,” Appl. Opt. 10(10), 2252–2258 (1971). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27.

S. Schiller and R. L. Byer, “High-resolution spectroscopy of whispering gallery modes in large dielectric spheres,” Opt. Lett. 16(15), 1138–1140 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

28.

C. C. Lam, P. T. Leung, and K. Young, “Explicit asymptotic formulas for the positions, widths, and strengths of resonances in Mie scattering,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9(9), 1585 (1992). [CrossRef]

29.

Y. Panitchob, G. S. Murugan, M. N. Zervas, P. Horak, S. Berneschi, S. Pelli, G. Nunzi Conti, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Whispering gallery mode spectra of channel waveguide coupled microspheres,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11066–11076 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(140.4780) Lasers and laser optics : Optical resonators
(140.3948) Lasers and laser optics : Microcavity devices
(280.4788) Remote sensing and sensors : Optical sensing and sensors
(230.7408) Optical devices : Wavelength filtering devices

ToC Category:
Optical Devices

History
Original Manuscript: July 6, 2011
Revised Manuscript: September 13, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: September 13, 2011
Published: October 4, 2011

Citation
G. Senthil Murugan, M. N. Petrovich, Y. Jung, J. S. Wilkinson, and M. N. Zervas, "Hollow-bottle optical microresonators," Opt. Express 19, 20773-20784 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-21-20773


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. K. J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature424(6950), 839–846 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. V. S. Ilchenko and A. B. Matsko, “Optical Resonators with Whispering-Gallery Modes -Part II: Applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 15–32 (2006). [CrossRef]
  3. A. B. Matsko and V. S. Ilchenko, “Optical Resonators with Whispering-Gallery Modes -Part I: Basics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 3–14 (2006). [CrossRef]
  4. M. L. Gorodetsky, A. A. Savchenkov, and V. S. Ilchenko, “Ultimate Q of optical microsphere resonators,” Opt. Lett.21(7), 453–455 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.10(4), 549–551 (1998). [CrossRef]
  6. D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature421(6926), 925–928 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. Senthil Murugan, Y. Panitchob, E. J. Tull, P. N. Bartlett, D. W. Hewak, M. N. Zervas, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Position-dependent coupling between a channel waveguide and a distorted microsphere resonator,” J. Appl. Phys.107(5), 053105 (2010). [CrossRef]
  8. M. Sumetsky, “Whispering-gallery-bottle microcavities: the three-dimensional etalon,” Opt. Lett.29(1), 8–10 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. N. Zervas, G. S. Murugan, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Demonstration of novel high-Q fiber WGM “bottle” microresonators”, Proc. 10th anniversary International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks 4, 58 (2008).
  10. G. S. Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and M. N. Zervas, “Experimental demonstration of a bottle microresonator,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics 2009, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper JTuD87.
  11. G. Senthil Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and M. N. Zervas, “Selective excitation of whispering gallery modes in a novel bottle microresonator,” Opt. Express17(14), 11916–11925 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. A. Savchenkov,, A.B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, V.S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Mode filtering in optical whispering gallery resonators,” Electron. Lett.41, 495 (2005).
  13. M. Pöllinger, D. O’Shea, F. Warken, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Ultrahigh-Q Tunable Whispering-Gallery-Mode Microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(5), 053901 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. G. S. Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and M. N. Zervas, “Optical excitation and probing of whispering gallery modes in bottle microresonators: potential for all-fiber add-drop filters,” Opt. Lett.35(11), 1893–1895 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Ch. Strelow, H. Rehberg, C. M. Schultz, H. Welsch, Ch. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, “Optical microcavities formed by semiconductor microtubes using a bottlelike geometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(12), 127403 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. F. Li, Z. Mi, and S. Vicknesh, “Coherent emission from ultrathin-walled spiral InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot microtubes,” Opt. Lett.34(19), 2915–2917 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, and R. S. Windeler, “Optical microbubble resonator,” Opt. Lett.35(7), 898–900 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. H. Li, Y. Guo, Y. Sun, K. Reddy, and X. Fan, “Analysis of single nanoparticle detection by using 3-dimensionally confined optofluidic ring resonators,” Opt. Express18(24), 25081–25088 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. A. Watkins, J. Ward, Y. Wu, and S. Nic Chormaic, “Single-input spherical microbubble resonator,” Opt. Lett.36(11), 2113–2115 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. M. N. Zervas, G. S. Murugan, M. N. Petrovich, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Hollow-Bottle Optical Microresonator”, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics 2011, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper JTuI14.
  21. I. M. White, H. Oveys, and X. Fan, “Liquid-core optical ring-resonator sensors,” Opt. Lett.31(9), 1319–1321 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. V. Zamora, A. Díez, M. V. Andrés, and B. Gimeno, “Refractometric sensor based on whispering-gallery modes of thin capillarie,” Opt. Express15(19), 12011–12016 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. M. Sumetsky, R. S. Windeler, Y. Dulashko, and X. Fan, “Optical liquid ring resonator sensor,” Opt. Express15(22), 14376–14381 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. X. Fan, I. W. White, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and H. Oveys, “Overview of novel integrated optical ring resonator bio/chemical sensors”, Proc. SPIE vol. 6452, 64520M (2007).
  25. V. Zamora, A. Díez, M. V. Andrés, and B. Gimeno, “Interrogation of whispering-gallery modes resonances in cylindrical microcavities by backreflection detection,” Opt. Lett.34(7), 1039–1041 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. D. Gloge, “Weakly guiding fibers,” Appl. Opt.10(10), 2252–2258 (1971). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. S. Schiller and R. L. Byer, “High-resolution spectroscopy of whispering gallery modes in large dielectric spheres,” Opt. Lett.16(15), 1138–1140 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. C. C. Lam, P. T. Leung, and K. Young, “Explicit asymptotic formulas for the positions, widths, and strengths of resonances in Mie scattering,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B9(9), 1585 (1992). [CrossRef]
  29. Y. Panitchob, G. S. Murugan, M. N. Zervas, P. Horak, S. Berneschi, S. Pelli, G. Nunzi Conti, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Whispering gallery mode spectra of channel waveguide coupled microspheres,” Opt. Express16(15), 11066–11076 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited