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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 21 — Oct. 10, 2011
  • pp: 20799–20807
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Ultrabroad NIR luminescence and energy transfer in Bi and Er/Bi co-doped germanate glasses

Mingying Peng, Na Zhang, Lothar Wondraczek, Jianrong Qiu, Zhongmin Yang, and Qinyuan Zhang  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 21, pp. 20799-20807 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.020799


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Abstract

The effects of temperature, pump power and excitation wavelength on near-infrared photoluminescence from Bi-doped multi-component germanate glasses are presented. Compared to conventional silica/silicate matrices, the examined material exhibits superior resistance to thermal quenching and less pronounced excited state absorption for pumping at 808 nm. It is shown that by selecting the optimal excitation wavelength, photoemission can be initiated from multiple active centers in parallel, resulting in an emission bandwidth (full width at half maximum) of more than 370 nm. Er3+/Bi co-doping is presented as an effective means to significantly enhance emission intensity around 1.5 μm by suppressing the typical Er3+-related red-to-green upconversion. Besides its relevance for Bi-doped materials, this also indicates a new route towards improving the performance of Er-based optical devices. The mechanism of Er3+→Bi energy transfer is examined in detail. Adjusting the molar ratio between both species provides an effective tool for tuning the emission scheme and further increasing emission bandwidth.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

New concepts and technologies for digital data acquisition, processing and transportation have strongly accelerated the information age. As a consequence, we have seen an explosive increase in information transfer capacity, i.e. an average growth of 58% per year [1

1. M. Hilbert and P. López, “The world’s technological capacity to store, communicate, and compute information,” Science 332(6025), 60–65 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In this regard, the development of materials for optical data transmission and amplification has been of continuous urgency. Traditional rare earth doped devices such as erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) will not, on the long run, suffice to satisfy the demand because of inherent limitations in gain bandwidth, typically to not more than 100 nm [2

2. M. Hughes, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Advanced bismuth-doped lead-germanate glass for broadband optical gain devices,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(8), 1380–1386 (2008). [CrossRef]

,3

3. M. Peng, J. Qiu, D. Chen, X. Meng, I. Yang, X. Jiang, and C. Zhu, “Bismuth- and aluminum-codoped germanium oxide glasses for super-broadband optical amplification,” Opt. Lett. 29(17), 1998–2000 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. This has provoked intense research on novel types of amplifier materials with broader emission bandwidth, at best covering the complete telecom window of about 1200-1600 nm (ultra-dry optical fiber). Various types of transition and post-transition metal doped materials have been studied for this purpose [2

2. M. Hughes, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Advanced bismuth-doped lead-germanate glass for broadband optical gain devices,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(8), 1380–1386 (2008). [CrossRef]

6

6. I. Bufetov and E. Dianov, “Bi-doped fiber lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(7), 487–504 (2009). [CrossRef]

].

Among these, NIR emitting bismuth-doped glasses are presently considered as one of the most promising candidates. For their intriguing spectral properties, within only two years, research on Bi-doped devices has rapidly progressed from the first demonstration of lasing to efficient all-fiber optical amplifiers and lasers [6

6. I. Bufetov and E. Dianov, “Bi-doped fiber lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(7), 487–504 (2009). [CrossRef]

9

9. S. Zhou, H. Dong, H. Zeng, G. Feng, H. Yang, B. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Broadband optical amplification in Bi-doped germanium silicate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061919 (2007). [CrossRef]

].

While numerous glasses have now been studied as matrix material for Bi-doping, the most relevant work is still focusing on silica fiber [6

6. I. Bufetov and E. Dianov, “Bi-doped fiber lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(7), 487–504 (2009). [CrossRef]

8

8. V. Dvoyrin, V. Mashinsky, and E. Dianov, “Efficient Bismuth-Doped Fiber Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(9), 834–840 (2008). [CrossRef]

,10

10. V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, L. I. Bulatov, I. A. Bufetov, A. V. Shubin, M. A. Melkumov, E. F. Kustov, E. M. Dianov, A. A. Umnikov, V. F. Khopin, M. V. Yashkov, and A. N. Guryanov, “Bismuth-doped-glass optical fibers--a new active medium for lasers and amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 31(20), 2966–2968 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,11

11. I. Razdobreev and L. Bigot, “On the multiplicity of Bismuth active centres in germano - aluminosilicate preform,” Opt. Mater. 33(6), 973–977 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. Preforms are typically fabricated by MOCVD and subsequently drawn into fiber at above 2000°C. This fabrication temperature is much higher than the boiling point of either pure bismuth (1564°C) or bismuth oxide (1890°C) and unavoidably leads to depletion of Bi-species from the fiber, resulting in lower residual dopant concentration and a concentration gradient across the fiber diameter [6

6. I. Bufetov and E. Dianov, “Bi-doped fiber lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(7), 487–504 (2009). [CrossRef]

,10

10. V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, L. I. Bulatov, I. A. Bufetov, A. V. Shubin, M. A. Melkumov, E. F. Kustov, E. M. Dianov, A. A. Umnikov, V. F. Khopin, M. V. Yashkov, and A. N. Guryanov, “Bismuth-doped-glass optical fibers--a new active medium for lasers and amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 31(20), 2966–2968 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. For example, Razdobreev and Bigot reported a residual concentration of only ~50 ppm of Bi in doped silica fiber [11

11. I. Razdobreev and L. Bigot, “On the multiplicity of Bismuth active centres in germano - aluminosilicate preform,” Opt. Mater. 33(6), 973–977 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. Hence, several tens or even hundreds of meters of bismuth fiber are required to realize lasing. The inhomogeneous distribution of bismuth along the fiber core will deteriorate the quality of the final output beam. It appears that these two intrinsic problems can only be overcome by abandoning the principle fabrication process. This requires matrix glasses with acceptable optical performance which can be processed at significantly lower temperature, e.g. lead germanate glasses [12

12. M. Hughes, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Compositional dependence of the optical properties of bismuth doped lead - aluminum - germanate glass,” Opt. Mater. 32(9), 1028–1034 (2010). [CrossRef]

] or lithium zinc aluminosilicate glasses, which may accommodate several mol-% of Bi-species [13

13. M. Peng, J. Qiu, D. Chen, X. Meng, and C. Zhu, “Broadband infrared luminescence from Li2O-Al2O3-ZnO-SiO2 glasses doped with Bi2O3.,” Opt. Express 13(18), 6892–6898 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Optical amplification in Bi-doped germanate glasses was observed by Zhou et al. [9

9. S. Zhou, H. Dong, H. Zeng, G. Feng, H. Yang, B. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Broadband optical amplification in Bi-doped germanium silicate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061919 (2007). [CrossRef]

], following the first principle demonstration of NIR-photoluminescence from that materials class by Peng et al. [3

3. M. Peng, J. Qiu, D. Chen, X. Meng, I. Yang, X. Jiang, and C. Zhu, “Bismuth- and aluminum-codoped germanium oxide glasses for super-broadband optical amplification,” Opt. Lett. 29(17), 1998–2000 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. While the presence of Al3+ was first thought to be required for NIR emission, it was later found that also introducing Pb2+, Ga3+, B3+, or Ta5+ leads to similar luminescence behaviour [2

2. M. Hughes, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Advanced bismuth-doped lead-germanate glass for broadband optical gain devices,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(8), 1380–1386 (2008). [CrossRef]

,14

14. M. Peng, X. Meng, J. Qiu, Q. Zhao, and C. Zhu, “GeO2: Bi, M (M = Ga, B) glasses with super-wide infrared luminescence,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 403(4-6), 410–414 (2005). [CrossRef]

,15

15. M. Peng, J. Qiu, D. Chen, X. Meng, and C. Zhu, “Superbroadband 1310 nm emission from bismuth and tantalum codoped germanium oxide glasses,” Opt. Lett. 30(18), 2433–2435 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. It is now understood that these “codopants” are hence not direct contributors to NIR emission in Bi-doped glasses [14

14. M. Peng, X. Meng, J. Qiu, Q. Zhao, and C. Zhu, “GeO2: Bi, M (M = Ga, B) glasses with super-wide infrared luminescence,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 403(4-6), 410–414 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. Nevertheless, introducing these species typically enhances NIR emission intensity, partly due to their role in providing the redox environment for stabilizing active Bi centers [2

2. M. Hughes, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Advanced bismuth-doped lead-germanate glass for broadband optical gain devices,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(8), 1380–1386 (2008). [CrossRef]

,12

12. M. Hughes, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Compositional dependence of the optical properties of bismuth doped lead - aluminum - germanate glass,” Opt. Mater. 32(9), 1028–1034 (2010). [CrossRef]

,16

16. M. Peng, C. Wang, D. Chen, J. Qiu, X. Jiang, and C. Zhu, “Investigations on bismuth and aluminum co-doped germanium oxide glasses for ultra-broadband optical amplification,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351(30-32), 2388–2393 (2005). [CrossRef]

19

19. M. Peng, G. Dong, L. Wondraczek, L. Zhang, N. Zhang, and J. Qiu, “Discussion on the origin of NIR emission from Bi-doped materials,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11-13), 2241–2245 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. Noteworthy, while NIR emission typically requires red/IR excitation, UV-VIS to NIR conversion was reported for Bi-doped germanate glasses [20

20. M. Peng and L. Wondraczek, “Bismuth-doped oxide glasses as potential solar spectral converters and concentrators,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(5), 627–630 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. Jiang et al. investigated the influence of melting temperature and atmosphere in lithium gallium germanate glass [21

21. X. Jiang and A. Jha, “An investigation on the dependence of photoluminescence in Bi2O3-doped GeO2 glasses on controlled atmospheres during melting,” Opt. Mater. 33(1), 14–18 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. Beyond matrix composition and processing conditions, co-doping with secondary optically active species provides a third means to improve emission efficiency and/or to adjust excitation and emission schemes. For this reason, co-doping of Bi-doped NIR emitting glasses has received some attention. E.g., the effect of Yb3+ and Tm3+ co-dopants has recently been studied in Bi-containing phosphate and silicate glasses, and energy transfer was reported from Yb3+ to Bi and Bi to Tm3+ [22

22. J. Ruan, E. Wu, H. P. Zeng, S. F. Zhou, G. Lakshminarayana, and J. R. Qiu, “Enhanced broadband near-infrared luminescence and optical amplification in Yb-Bi codoped phosphate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101121 (2008). [CrossRef]

25

25. B. Zhou, H. Lin, B. Chen, and E. Y. Pun, “Superbroadband near-infrared emission in Tm-Bi codoped sodium-germanium-gallate glasses,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6514–6523 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Kuwada et al. reported on Er3+-co-doping which lead to NIR fluorescence with FWHM of 420 nm upon 800 nm excitation [26

26. Y. Kuwada, Y. Fujimoto, and M. Nakatsuka, “Ultrawideband light emission from bismuth and erbium doped silica,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(4A), 1531–1532 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. The latter appears indeed a very promising result, but the underlying interaction mechanism remains unclear.

2. Experimental

Glasses with molar compositions of (95-x-y)GeO2·5Al2O3·xBi2O3·yEr2O3 (x=0, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0; y=0, 0.5) were prepared by conventional melting and quenching. The content of alumina was fixed at 5 mol.% since this value was previously identified as optimum for the formation of stable glasses [16

16. M. Peng, C. Wang, D. Chen, J. Qiu, X. Jiang, and C. Zhu, “Investigations on bismuth and aluminum co-doped germanium oxide glasses for ultra-broadband optical amplification,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351(30-32), 2388–2393 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. In the following, sample nomenclature is GAxByE. E.g., GA0.5B0.5E for x=0.5 and y=0.5. High purity GeO2 (99.999%), Er2O3 (99.99%), analytic reagent Al2O3 and Bi2O3 were selected as raw materials. Batches of 20 g for each sample were weighed and thoroughly mixed in an agate mortar. Each batch was melted at 1540°C in a high-purity alumina crucible for 20 min in air, subsequently cast onto a stainless steel plate and finally annealed at 600 °C for 2h. All obtained samples were visually transparent and bubble free. From the glass slabs, individual specimens were cut and polished for optical analyses.

Absorption spectra were recorded with a JASCO V-570 spectrophotometer. NIR emission and lifetime at room temperature were obtained with the same setup as reported in Ref. 20

20. M. Peng and L. Wondraczek, “Bismuth-doped oxide glasses as potential solar spectral converters and concentrators,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(5), 627–630 (2009). [CrossRef]

. A Xe short-arc lamp (150W) was employed as excitation source (760 to 980 nm). The fluorescence signal was detected with an InGaAs detector. A modulated 808 nm laser and a Tektronix TDS 3052 oscilloscope were used to obtain temporal decay curves. Low temperature NIR emission spectra and lifetime were measured on an Edingburgh FLS 920 fluorospectrometer between 10 and 300 K. At each temperature, three measurements were done to obtain the mean lifetime of the excited states.

Upconverted emission from Er3+ was measured with a Horiba Jobin Yvon Triax 320 fluorometer, using a 1 W 808 nm laser diode as pump source at room temperature. Raman spectra were measured on a Spex 1877 spectrometer equipped with an Ar ion laser (514.5 nm). Refractive indices were measured with an Abbé refractometer and density was obtained by the traditional Archimedes method.

3. Results and discussion

Usually, with increasing temperature, also network vibrations become stronger, enhancing the interaction between dopants and the local crystal field. Such stronger interaction leads to increasing probability of nonradiative energy transfer, what reflects in a broader luminescence spectrum, a lower level of the lowest excited state (increase of splitting gaps between excited states) and, hence, thermal quenching, reduced excited-state lifetime and red-shifting emission peak. The picture, however, appears more complicated for Bi-doped germanate glasses (Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (A) Emission spectra of GA1.0B0E glass upon 500 nm excitation at different temperatures; (B) Fluorescence intensity and mean lifetime of GA1.0B0E as a function of temperature. Dynamic data were obtained for excitation at 500 nm, recording emission at 1200 nm.
).

Previously, we have shown that within the spectral range of 200-760 nm, varying the excitation wavelength has no significant effect on the position of the NIR emission peak (i.e., 1070-1180nm [20

20. M. Peng and L. Wondraczek, “Bismuth-doped oxide glasses as potential solar spectral converters and concentrators,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(5), 627–630 (2009). [CrossRef]

], ). In contrast, further decreasing the excitation energy (i.e., 760 nm to 980 nm) reveals a very different picture where the position of the emission peak now clearly depends on excitation wavelength (Fig. 2A
Fig. 2 (A) Emission spectra of GA0.5B0E for different excitation wavelengths (760-980 nm, labels). Artifact peaks marked with “*” result from scattered excitation light. (B) Dependence of integrated emission intensity of GA0.5B0E on excitation power density (W/cm2), using a 808 nm diode laser.
). That is, starting with an emission peak at 1170 nm (760 nm excitation), a red-shift to 1215 nm is observed when the excitation wavelength is increased to 780 nm. This shift continues to 1240 nm when further increasing excitation wavelength to 800 nm. For excitation at 800-840 nm, the emission peak remains unchanged. When, however, increasing excitation wavelength yet further to 860 nm and beyond, an emission shoulder first appears at around 1090 nm which subsequently grows into a full emission peak, seemingly at the expense of the 1240 nm peak. When exciting at 930 nm, the 1240 nm emission fully disappears, leaving only the peak at 1090 nm for excitation of up to 980 nm. In accordance with the observed multi-exponential decay, this complex behaviour implies that there are several active emission centers present in the glass. Raman spectroscopic analyses of GA0.5B0E reveal the presence of multiple structural units, particularly tetrahedral [GeO4] (resonance frequency at ~415 cm−1), and octahedral [GeO6] (343, 540 and 600 cm−1) with bridging and non-bridging oxygen species (see also, e.g., [30

30. C. Xin, K. Lu, and Z. Yagin, “Short-range structure of Na2O-Al2O3-GeO2 glasses by EXAFS analysis,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 112(1-3), 96–100 (1989). [CrossRef]

]). This structural setting provides a variety of ligand configurations to the optically active Bi-species. In a first consideration, the following conclusions can be drawn: (1) photoemission at 1090 nm is associated with absorption at 250-350nm, 550-640nm, ~720nm, and 930-980nm, respectively; (2) photoemission at 1140 nm follows absorption at ~220 nm, 500 nm and 740 nm, respectively; (3) photoemission at 1170 nm results from absorption at 400-450 nm and 750-760 nm, respectively, and (4) photoemission at 1240 nm results from absorption at 800-840 nm. Exciting at a wavelength where different emission centers absorb light consequently leads to ultrabroad luminescence. For example, excitation at 870 nm produces emission with FWHM of up to 377 nm. This is similar to results obtained by Hughes et al. for Bi-doped lead germanate glasses [12

12. M. Hughes, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Compositional dependence of the optical properties of bismuth doped lead - aluminum - germanate glass,” Opt. Mater. 32(9), 1028–1034 (2010). [CrossRef]

].

Bi-codoping leads to a decrease in τEr from 5.05 ms to 3.17 ms, and an increase in τBi from 410 μs to 421 μs (Table 1). Noteworthy, 4I11/2 and 4I13/2 of Er3+ are partially overlapping ES1 of Bi (Fig. 4). This provides two principle paths for depopulating 4I13/2 and simultaneously populating ES1 of Bi: (1) energy exchange between 4I11/2 and ES1 by cross relaxation CR1, and (2) energy exchange between 4I13/2 and ES1 by cross relaxation CR2 (Fig. 4). Decreasing τEr results in decreasing probability of excited state absorption on 4I13/2, and, consequently, suppresses upconverted emission from Er3+. The latter is supported by the experiment as shown in Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Upconverted green emission from Er3+ in (95-x-y)GeO2·5Al2O3·xBi2O3·yEr2O3 (x=0, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0; y=0, 0.5) glasses under 808 nm 1W laser pumping.
.

Judd-Ofelt analyses were conducted on the basis of the absorption spectrum of GA0B0.5E. They indicate that the probability of spontaneous electric dipole relaxation is 54.5 and 553.8 s−1 for the transitions of 4I13/24I15/2 and 4S3/24I15/2, respectively. The latter is about 10 times larger than the former, implying that the upconversion process is dominant in the singly-doped sample. Emission bands are consequently detected at 543 nm and 521 nm (curve 1 in Fig. 5, assigned to transitions from 4S3/2 and 2H11/2 to 4I15/2 [34

34. Y. Tian, R. Xu, L. Zhang, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Observation of 2.7 μm emission from diode-pumped Er3+/Pr3+-codoped fluorophosphate glass,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 109–111 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]). Co-doping with Bi leads to a sixfold decrease in the intensity of these bands, tunable via the amount of Bi. Addition of Bi further leads to a predominance of the emission peak at 521 nm at the expense of the 543 nm transition. This adds further complexity to the assumed mechanism of interaction between Er3+ and Bi: both transitions fall within the 500 nm absorption band of Bi (ES4), giving rise to two more non-radiative decay paths, CR3 and CR4 (Fig. 4).

An important parameter for a potential laser gain medium is the product of stimulated emission cross section and emission lifetime, σem × τBi, being inversely proportional to the laser threshold. σem was therefore estimated from the Füchtbauer - Landenburg formula, and σem×τBi was calculated. σem and σem×τ are about 0.65 × 10−20cm2 and 2.74×10−24cm2s, respectively, for sample GA0.5B0.5E. This value is comparable to that of lead germanate glass [2

2. M. Hughes, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Advanced bismuth-doped lead-germanate glass for broadband optical gain devices,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(8), 1380–1386 (2008). [CrossRef]

], and larger than 1.4×10−24cm2s as found in Ti3+-doped sapphire. The examined glass might hence provide an interesting material for broadband optical amplification or as a widely tunable laser source.

4. Conclusions

In summary, the effects of temperature, pump power and excitation wavelength on near-infrared photoluminescence from Bi singly-doped and Er3+/Bi co-doped aluminogermanate glasses were presented. It was shown that in comparison to conventional silica or silicate matrices, the examined material exhibits superior resistance to thermal quenching and significantly less pronounced excited state absorption for pumping at 808 nm, suggesting improved suitability as matrix material for Er3+/Bi optical amplifiers and fiber lasers. By selecting the optimal excitation wavelength, photoemission can be initiated from multiple active centers in parallel. This results in an emission bandwidth FWHM of more than 370 nm. Er3+/Bi co-doping is further presented as an effective means to significantly enhance emission intensity from Er3+ centers by suppressing red-to-green upconversion. This indicates a new route towards improving the performance of Er-based optical devices (EDFAs and fiber lasers). The mechanism of Er3+↔ Bi energy transfer was examined in detail. Adjusting the molar ratio between both species provides an effective tool for tuning the emission scheme and further increasing emission bandwidth.

Acknowledgments

Financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant no. 51072060 and U0934001), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (grant no. 2011ZZ0001) and the German Science Foundation (grant no. WO 1220/2-1) is gratefully acknowledged.

References and links

1.

M. Hilbert and P. López, “The world’s technological capacity to store, communicate, and compute information,” Science 332(6025), 60–65 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

M. Hughes, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Advanced bismuth-doped lead-germanate glass for broadband optical gain devices,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(8), 1380–1386 (2008). [CrossRef]

3.

M. Peng, J. Qiu, D. Chen, X. Meng, I. Yang, X. Jiang, and C. Zhu, “Bismuth- and aluminum-codoped germanium oxide glasses for super-broadband optical amplification,” Opt. Lett. 29(17), 1998–2000 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

S. Zhou, H. Dong, G. Feng, B. Wu, H. Zeng, and J. Qiu, “Broadband optical amplification in silicate glass-ceramic containing beta-Ga2O3:Ni2+ nanocrystals,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5477–5481 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

M. A. Hughes, T. Akada, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, and D. W. Hewak, “Ultrabroad emission from a bismuth doped chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19345–19355 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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I. Bufetov and E. Dianov, “Bi-doped fiber lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(7), 487–504 (2009). [CrossRef]

7.

E. Dianov, V. Dvoyrin, V. Mashinsky, A. Umnikov, M. Yashkov, and A. Gur'yanov, “CW bismuth fibre laser,” Quantum Electron. 35(12), 1083–1084 (2005). [CrossRef]

8.

V. Dvoyrin, V. Mashinsky, and E. Dianov, “Efficient Bismuth-Doped Fiber Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(9), 834–840 (2008). [CrossRef]

9.

S. Zhou, H. Dong, H. Zeng, G. Feng, H. Yang, B. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Broadband optical amplification in Bi-doped germanium silicate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061919 (2007). [CrossRef]

10.

V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, L. I. Bulatov, I. A. Bufetov, A. V. Shubin, M. A. Melkumov, E. F. Kustov, E. M. Dianov, A. A. Umnikov, V. F. Khopin, M. V. Yashkov, and A. N. Guryanov, “Bismuth-doped-glass optical fibers--a new active medium for lasers and amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 31(20), 2966–2968 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

I. Razdobreev and L. Bigot, “On the multiplicity of Bismuth active centres in germano - aluminosilicate preform,” Opt. Mater. 33(6), 973–977 (2011). [CrossRef]

12.

M. Hughes, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Compositional dependence of the optical properties of bismuth doped lead - aluminum - germanate glass,” Opt. Mater. 32(9), 1028–1034 (2010). [CrossRef]

13.

M. Peng, J. Qiu, D. Chen, X. Meng, and C. Zhu, “Broadband infrared luminescence from Li2O-Al2O3-ZnO-SiO2 glasses doped with Bi2O3.,” Opt. Express 13(18), 6892–6898 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

M. Peng, X. Meng, J. Qiu, Q. Zhao, and C. Zhu, “GeO2: Bi, M (M = Ga, B) glasses with super-wide infrared luminescence,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 403(4-6), 410–414 (2005). [CrossRef]

15.

M. Peng, J. Qiu, D. Chen, X. Meng, and C. Zhu, “Superbroadband 1310 nm emission from bismuth and tantalum codoped germanium oxide glasses,” Opt. Lett. 30(18), 2433–2435 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

M. Peng, C. Wang, D. Chen, J. Qiu, X. Jiang, and C. Zhu, “Investigations on bismuth and aluminum co-doped germanium oxide glasses for ultra-broadband optical amplification,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351(30-32), 2388–2393 (2005). [CrossRef]

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M. Peng, G. Dong, L. Wondraczek, L. Zhang, N. Zhang, and J. Qiu, “Discussion on the origin of NIR emission from Bi-doped materials,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11-13), 2241–2245 (2011). [CrossRef]

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M. Peng and L. Wondraczek, “Bismuth-doped oxide glasses as potential solar spectral converters and concentrators,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(5), 627–630 (2009). [CrossRef]

21.

X. Jiang and A. Jha, “An investigation on the dependence of photoluminescence in Bi2O3-doped GeO2 glasses on controlled atmospheres during melting,” Opt. Mater. 33(1), 14–18 (2010). [CrossRef]

22.

J. Ruan, E. Wu, H. P. Zeng, S. F. Zhou, G. Lakshminarayana, and J. R. Qiu, “Enhanced broadband near-infrared luminescence and optical amplification in Yb-Bi codoped phosphate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101121 (2008). [CrossRef]

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N. Dai, B. Xu, Z. Jiang, J. Peng, H. Li, H. Luan, L. Yang, and J. Li, “Effect of Yb3+ concentration on the broadband emission intensity and peak wavelength shift in Yb/Bi ions co-doped silica-based glasses,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18642–18648 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. Ruan, G. Dong, X. Liu, Q. Zhang, D. Chen, and J. Qiu, “Enhanced broadband near-infrared emission and energy transfer in Bi-Tm-codoped germanate glasses for broadband optical amplification,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2486–2488 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

B. Zhou, H. Lin, B. Chen, and E. Y. Pun, “Superbroadband near-infrared emission in Tm-Bi codoped sodium-germanium-gallate glasses,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6514–6523 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

Y. Kuwada, Y. Fujimoto, and M. Nakatsuka, “Ultrawideband light emission from bismuth and erbium doped silica,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(4A), 1531–1532 (2007). [CrossRef]

27.

T. Suzuki and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband near-infrared emission from Bi-doped Li2O-Al2O3-SiO2 glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(19), 191912 (2006). [CrossRef]

28.

M. Peng, C. Zollfrank, and L. Wondraczek, “Origin of broad NIR photoluminescence in bismuthate glass and Bi-doped glasses at room temperature,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(28), 285106 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

29.

M. Peng, B. Sprenger, M. A. Schmidt, H. G. Schwefel, and L. Wondraczek, “Broadband NIR photoluminescence from Bi-doped Ba2P2O7 crystals: insights into the nature of NIR-emitting Bismuth centers,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12852–12863 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

30.

C. Xin, K. Lu, and Z. Yagin, “Short-range structure of Na2O-Al2O3-GeO2 glasses by EXAFS analysis,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 112(1-3), 96–100 (1989). [CrossRef]

31.

M. P. Kalita, S. Yoo, and J. Sahu, “Bismuth doped fiber laser and study of unsaturable loss and pump induced absorption in laser performance,” Opt. Express 16(25), 21032–21038 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

32.

M. Hughes, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Compositional optimization of bismuth-doped yttria – alumina - silica glass,” Opt. Mater. 32(2), 368–373 (2009). [CrossRef]

33.

I. A. Bufetov, M. A. Melkumov, S. V. Firstov, A. V. Shubin, S. L. Semenov, V. V. Vel’miskin, A. E. Levchenko, E. G. Firstova, and E. M. Dianov, “Optical gain and laser generation in bismuth-doped silica fibers free of other dopants,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 166–168 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

34.

Y. Tian, R. Xu, L. Zhang, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Observation of 2.7 μm emission from diode-pumped Er3+/Pr3+-codoped fluorophosphate glass,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 109–111 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(060.4510) Fiber optics and optical communications : Optical communications
(140.4480) Lasers and laser optics : Optical amplifiers
(160.2540) Materials : Fluorescent and luminescent materials
(160.2750) Materials : Glass and other amorphous materials

ToC Category:
Materials

History
Original Manuscript: July 19, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: August 23, 2011
Published: October 4, 2011

Citation
Mingying Peng, Na Zhang, Lothar Wondraczek, Jianrong Qiu, Zhongmin Yang, and Qinyuan Zhang, "Ultrabroad NIR luminescence and energy transfer in Bi and Er/Bi co-doped germanate glasses," Opt. Express 19, 20799-20807 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-21-20799


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  24. J. Ruan, G. Dong, X. Liu, Q. Zhang, D. Chen, and J. Qiu, “Enhanced broadband near-infrared emission and energy transfer in Bi-Tm-codoped germanate glasses for broadband optical amplification,” Opt. Lett.34(16), 2486–2488 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. B. Zhou, H. Lin, B. Chen, and E. Y. Pun, “Superbroadband near-infrared emission in Tm-Bi codoped sodium-germanium-gallate glasses,” Opt. Express19(7), 6514–6523 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. Y. Kuwada, Y. Fujimoto, and M. Nakatsuka, “Ultrawideband light emission from bismuth and erbium doped silica,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(4A), 1531–1532 (2007). [CrossRef]
  27. T. Suzuki and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband near-infrared emission from Bi-doped Li2O-Al2O3-SiO2 glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(19), 191912 (2006). [CrossRef]
  28. M. Peng, C. Zollfrank, and L. Wondraczek, “Origin of broad NIR photoluminescence in bismuthate glass and Bi-doped glasses at room temperature,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter21(28), 285106 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. M. Peng, B. Sprenger, M. A. Schmidt, H. G. Schwefel, and L. Wondraczek, “Broadband NIR photoluminescence from Bi-doped Ba2P2O7 crystals: insights into the nature of NIR-emitting Bismuth centers,” Opt. Express18(12), 12852–12863 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. C. Xin, K. Lu, and Z. Yagin, “Short-range structure of Na2O-Al2O3-GeO2 glasses by EXAFS analysis,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids112(1-3), 96–100 (1989). [CrossRef]
  31. M. P. Kalita, S. Yoo, and J. Sahu, “Bismuth doped fiber laser and study of unsaturable loss and pump induced absorption in laser performance,” Opt. Express16(25), 21032–21038 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. M. Hughes, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Compositional optimization of bismuth-doped yttria – alumina - silica glass,” Opt. Mater.32(2), 368–373 (2009). [CrossRef]
  33. I. A. Bufetov, M. A. Melkumov, S. V. Firstov, A. V. Shubin, S. L. Semenov, V. V. Vel’miskin, A. E. Levchenko, E. G. Firstova, and E. M. Dianov, “Optical gain and laser generation in bismuth-doped silica fibers free of other dopants,” Opt. Lett.36(2), 166–168 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. Y. Tian, R. Xu, L. Zhang, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Observation of 2.7 μm emission from diode-pumped Er3+/Pr3+-codoped fluorophosphate glass,” Opt. Lett.36(2), 109–111 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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