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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 22 — Oct. 24, 2011
  • pp: 21211–21215
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Electrical control of terahertz nano antennas on VO2 thin film

Young-Gyun Jeong, Hannes Bernien, Ji-Soo Kyoung, Hyeong-Ryeol Park, Hyun-Sun Kim, Jae-Wook Choi, Bong-Jun Kim, Hyun-Tak Kim, Kwang Jun Ahn, and Dai-Sik Kim  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 22, pp. 21211-21215 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.021211


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Abstract

We demonstrate an active metamaterial device that allows to electrically control terahertz transmission over more than one order of magnitude. Our device consists of a lithographically defined gold nano antenna array fabricated on a thin film of vanadium dioxide (VO2), a material that possesses an insulator to metal transition. The nano antennas let terahertz (THz) radiation funnel through when the VO2 film is in the insulating state. By applying a dc-bias voltage through our device, the VO2 becomes metallic. This electrically shorts the antennas and therefore switches off the transmission in two distinct regimes: reversible and irreversible switching.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

Vanadium dioxide (VO2) has been widely investigated due to its insulator-metal phase transition (IMT) near room temperature [1

1. F. J. Morin, “Oxides Which Show a Metal-to-Insulator Transition at the Neel Temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 3(1), 34–36 (1959). [CrossRef]

]. This transition can be controlled by thermal [2

2. R. Lopez, T. E. Haynes, L. A. Boatner, L. C. Feldman, and R. F. Haglund Jr., “Temperature-controlled surface plasmon resonance in VO2 nanorods,” Opt. Lett. 27(15), 1327–1329 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4

4. M. Nakajima, N. Takubo, Z. Hiroi, Y. Ueda, and T. Suemoto, “Photoinduced metallic state in VO2 proved by the terahertz pump-probe spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011907 (2008). [CrossRef]

], optical [5

5. A. Cavalleri, T. Dekorsy, H. H. W. Chong, J. C. Kieffer, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Evidence for a structurally-driven insulator-to-metal transition in VO2: A view from the ultrafast timescale,” Phys. Rev. B 70(16), 161102 (2004). [CrossRef]

, 6

6. A. Cavalleri, M. Rini, H. H. W. Chong, S. Fourmaux, T. E. Glover, P. A. Heimann, J. C. Kieffer, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Band-selective measurements of electron dynamics in VO2 using femtosecond near-edge x-ray absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(6), 067405 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and electrical [7

7. H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, D. H. Youn, S. L. Maeng, G. Kim, K. Y. Kang, and Y. S. Lim, “Mechanism and observation of Mott transition in VO2-based two- and three-terminal devices,” New J. Phys. 6, 52 (2004). [CrossRef]

, 8

8. J. S. Lee, M. Ortolani, U. Schade, Y. J. Chang, and T. W. Noh, “Microspectroscopic detection of local conducting areas generated by electric-pulse-induced phase transition in VO2 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 133509 (2007). [CrossRef]

] means. In the terahertz frequency region, the dielectric constant of VO2 varies by several orders of magnitude when the film undergoes phase transition, which can in turn be used to control terahertz radiation transmitted through the VO2 film [3

3. D. J. Hilton, R. P. Prasankumar, S. Fourmaux, A. Cavalleri, D. Brassard, M. A. El Khakani, J. C. Kieffer, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Enhanced photosusceptibility near Tc for the light-induced insulator-to-metal phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(22), 226401 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Advances in thin film fabrication have made it possible to grow very high quality layers of VO2 either by pulsed laser deposition [9

9. D. H. Kim and H. S. Kwok, “Pulsed-Laser Deposition of VO2 Thin-Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(25), 3188–3190 (1994). [CrossRef]

], sol-gel method [10

10. D. P. Partlow, S. R. Gurkovich, K. C. Radford, and L. J. Denes, “Switchable Vanadium-Oxide Films by a Sol-Gel Process,” J. Appl. Phys. 70(1), 443–452 (1991). [CrossRef]

] or rf-magnetron sputtering technique [11

11. S. J. Yun, J. W. Lim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, and H. T. Kim, “Characteristics of vanadium dioxide films deposited by RF-magnetron sputter deposition technique using V-metal target,” Physica B 403, 1381–1383 (2008).

]. These films have typical thicknesses around a few hundreds of nanometer which is much smaller than the effective THz frequency skin depth [3

3. D. J. Hilton, R. P. Prasankumar, S. Fourmaux, A. Cavalleri, D. Brassard, M. A. El Khakani, J. C. Kieffer, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Enhanced photosusceptibility near Tc for the light-induced insulator-to-metal phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(22), 226401 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 12

12. P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund Jr., “Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74(20), 205103 (2006). [CrossRef]

14

14. M. M. Qazilbash, K. S. Burch, D. Whisler, D. Shrekenhamer, B. G. Chae, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Correlated metallic state of vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. B 74(20), 205118 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. Therefore, even as the VO2 film turns metallic, it still stays largely transparent at these wavelengths where the skin depth exceeds the film thickness [15

15. M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H. T. Kim, N. Park, Q. H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active Terahertz Nanoantennas Based on VO2 Phase Transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Combining VO2 thin film with plasmonic nanostructures helps to overcome this limitation imposed on the THz wave switching capability [16

16. H. R. Park, Y. M. Park, H. S. Kim, J. S. Kyoung, M. A. Seo, D. J. Park, Y. H. Ahn, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz nanoresonators: Giant field enhancement and ultrabroadband performance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121106 (2010). [CrossRef]

18

18. H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, O. K. Suwal, Y. M. Park, J. S. Kyoung, M. A. Seo, S. S. Choi, N. K. Park, D. S. Kim, and K. J. Ahn, “Resonance behavior of single ultrathin slot antennas on finite dielectric substrates in terahertz regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 211109 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. We adopt a lithographically defined gold nano antenna array on top of the VO2 thin film [19

19. M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009). [CrossRef]

21

21. A. Novitsky, M. Zalkovskij, R. Malureanu, and A. Lavrinenko, “Microscopic model of the THz field enhancement in a metal nanoslit,” Opt. Commun. (to be published).

]. The antenna structure acts as nanogap-capacitor where the incident THz waves induces the strongly localized near field which makes the THz waves funnel through while the film is in the insulating state. As the film undergoes a phase transition and becomes metallic, these antennas are electrically shorted. This switches the THz transmission off. This modulation of the transmissivity has been demonstrated by thermal [15

15. M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H. T. Kim, N. Park, Q. H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active Terahertz Nanoantennas Based on VO2 Phase Transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and optical [4

4. M. Nakajima, N. Takubo, Z. Hiroi, Y. Ueda, and T. Suemoto, “Photoinduced metallic state in VO2 proved by the terahertz pump-probe spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011907 (2008). [CrossRef]

, 22

22. J. Kyoung, M. Seo, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, Y. Park, B. J. Kim, K. Ahn, N. Park, H. T. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “Giant nonlinear response of terahertz nanoresonators on VO2 thin film,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16452–16459 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] control of the VO2 phase transition. Electrical control is also desired for active THz devices and applications [23

23. H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25

25. W. L. Chan, H. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213511 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. In this research we establish control of THz transmission through nano antennas on VO2 thin film with an electric bias.

2. Experimental results and discussions

VO2 films of 100 nm thickness are created by pulsed laser deposition onto a 430-μm-thick c-plane sapphire substrate. In order to apply electric voltages to the film, 1 mm wide gold electrodes separated by 1 mm from each other are fabricated on the surface. We include a 25 kΩ resistance in the voltage applying circuit in series to prevent over-current flow after the phase transition that would harm the source. Figure 1 (a)
Fig. 1 (a) External voltage driven insulator-metal transition in VO2 thin film. The two electrodes are 1 mm apart from each other. (b) When a pulsed voltage is applied, the transition happens on a microsecond time-scale. (c) Schematic of the THz transmission measurement stage. (d) Relative transmission of THz radiation through bare VO2 in dependence of an external bias from 0 V to 500 V at 333 K. The film is largely transparent irrespective of the temperature and the intensity of the voltage bias.
shows a typical current to voltage measurement of this device. As the voltage is increased at a rate of 1 V/s the phase transition is clearly visible around 400 V. This switching is hysteretic and when ramping down the voltage the transition occurs at around 270 V. We observe that the exact transition voltage vary between different voltage sweeps. They generally start at lower values and stabilize at values between 400 and 500 V after repeated sweeps. We account this behavior to the formation of current channels [26

26. J. S. Lee, M. Ortolani, A. Ginolas, Y. J. Chang, T. W. Noh, and U. Schade, “Transport and microscopic investigations on the electric-pulse-induced phase transition of VO2 films,” Physica C 460-462, 549–550 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. These channels tend to slightly vary in position and size when we apply voltage to the sample many times [27

27. K. Okimura, N. Ezreena, Y. Sasakawa, and J. Sakai, “Electric-Field-Induced Multistep Resistance Switching in Planar VO2/c-Al2O3 Structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(6), 065003 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. We observe that by applying once a high voltage (~1000 V), the experimental results are repeatable. When a high voltage is applied, oxygen depletion happens along the current channel so that this one can be the preferred channel because the depleted area becomes less insulating when the oxygen deficiency increases [8

8. J. S. Lee, M. Ortolani, U. Schade, Y. J. Chang, and T. W. Noh, “Microspectroscopic detection of local conducting areas generated by electric-pulse-induced phase transition in VO2 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 133509 (2007). [CrossRef]

, 28

28. M. Nagashima, H. Wada, K. Tanikawa, and H. Shirahata, “The electronic behaviors of oxygen-deficient VO2 thin films in low temperature region,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 1, No. 8), 4433–4438 (1998). [CrossRef]

].

In order to determine the switching speed a voltage pulse is applied to the film [29

29. B. G. Chae, H. T. Kim, D. H. Youn, and K. Y. Kang, “Abrupt metal-insulator transition observed in VO2 thin films induced by a switching voltage pulse,” Physica B 369(1-4), 76–80 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. The current response (Fig. 1 (b)) shows a double step. During the first plateau the film is still in its insulating state and the second step marks the phase transition. The whole switching occurs in less than 10 microseconds. This timescale is in good agreement with the predicted switching speed for Joule heating induced transitions [30

30. G. Gopalakrishnan, D. Ruzmetov, and S. Ramanathan, “On the triggering mechanism for the metal-insulator transition in thin film VO2 devices: electric field versus thermal effects,” J. Mater. Sci. 44(19), 5345–5353 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. Also, we use a typical THz time-domain spectroscopy system to analyze the film’s transmissivity in the THz regime in dependence of voltage bias [31

31. Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X. C. Zhang, “Two-dimensional electro-optic imaging of THz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(8), 1026–1028 (1996). [CrossRef]

]. As illustrated in Fig. 1(c), the samples are mounted on temperature stabilized thermostage and a thermistor (SEMITEC 104JT-015) is used to record the temperature. When applying a voltage to the VO2 film from 0 V to 500 V at room temperature, there is no clear difference in THz transmission level. This is very likely due to the fact that the current channel, along which the transition to the metallic state occurs, is confined to a much smaller area than the incident THz beam cross section. To enlarge the metallic area of VO2, we raise the temperature of the thermostage close to the transition temperature (Tc ~340 K). The additional current flow can then raise the temperature of a larger area above the transition. Indeed, in Fig. 1(d) the THz transmissivity through our device, which is heated to 333 K, decreases by the current induce IMT at 500 V. However the switching capability is limited to about 10% which can be attributed to the film thickness which is much smaller than the effective THz skin depth and to the limited area over which the switching occurs.

To enable enhanced electrical THz wave modulation through nanoscale VO2 thin films, we introduce a nano antenna array pattern on top of the film. We use e-beam lithography to fabricate our device. The detailed procedure is described in Fig. 2(a)
Fig. 2 (a) Schematic of the sample fabrication procedure. The nano antenna pattern and gold electrodes are deposited on a 100-nm-thick VO2 thin film by e-beam lithography. (b) SEM image of the nano antenna pattern. (c) Schematic of the nano antenna array (width w = 600 nm, length l = 140 μm, parallel period p// = 10 μm, perpendicular period p = 30 μm, distance between the electrodes d = 1 mm, gap between the electrode and nano antenna pattern g = 10 μm).
. The size of each antenna is 140 μm by 600 nm and the periods of the antenna array are 10 μm (parallel with antenna array direction) and 30 μm (perpendicular to antenna array direction). This pattern is placed between the gold electrodes and the total pattern size is 1 mm by 1 mm. There is a 10 μm wide gap between each electrode and the pattern in order to prevent current flowing solely through the gold film and not the VO2 (Fig. 2(b) and (c)).

Figure 3
Fig. 3 (a) Nanopatterned VO2 sample shows on-off (at 333 K) and (b) memory (at 335 K) switching behavior of THz transmission. Each transmission spectrum is normalized by the maximum THz transmission intensity at each resonance frequency.
shows the THz transmissivity of the nanopatterned device in dependence of voltage bias at two different temperature of the thermostage. The transmission shows a broad resonance at 0.52 THz given by the geometry of the antennas. At 333 K, the relative transmission of THz waves at the resonance frequency decreases significantly by applying a voltage of 500 V (Fig. 3(a)). We find that 98% of the THz transmission can be actively controlled by the electric bias. This is a 10 fold enhancement compared to the unpatterned VO2 film. When we remove the bias, the transmission signal is recovered to its original level.

By increasing the temperature of the thermostage to 335 K, another interesting switching behavior is observed. After the electric bias returns to 0 V, the THz transmission signal still stays in the off-state (Fig. 3(b)). This effect is due to the hysteretic switching of VO2 and has been used to form a memory metamaterial [32

32. T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

34

34. M. D. Goldflam, T. Driscoll, B. Chapler, O. Khatib, N. Marie Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, B. Kim, G. Seo, H. Kim, M. D. Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Reconfigurable gradient index using VO2 memory metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 044103 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. Here we demonstrate an electrically triggered memory effect which has much potential for practical applications.

3. Conclusion

THz radiation through a VO2 thin film can be actively modulated by an electric bias. For a bare film switching capabilities of 10% are observed. We significantly enhance this control range by fabricating a nano antenna array on top of the 100-nm-thick VO2 film. In this geometry, a change of 98% of the THz transmissivity is observed. By operating the device at different temperature biases, two distinct switching behaviors are demonstrated: reversible and irreversible switching. This provides the potential of active metamaterial device development in the THz regime.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Government of the Republic of Korea (MEST) (SRC, No:R11-2008-095-01000-0) (No:2010-0029648), KICOS (GRL, K20815000003), the creative research project of ETRI and Hi Seoul Science / Humanities Fellowship from Seoul Scholarship Foundation. The authors acknowledge SEMITEC for providing thermistors.

References and links

1.

F. J. Morin, “Oxides Which Show a Metal-to-Insulator Transition at the Neel Temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 3(1), 34–36 (1959). [CrossRef]

2.

R. Lopez, T. E. Haynes, L. A. Boatner, L. C. Feldman, and R. F. Haglund Jr., “Temperature-controlled surface plasmon resonance in VO2 nanorods,” Opt. Lett. 27(15), 1327–1329 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

D. J. Hilton, R. P. Prasankumar, S. Fourmaux, A. Cavalleri, D. Brassard, M. A. El Khakani, J. C. Kieffer, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Enhanced photosusceptibility near Tc for the light-induced insulator-to-metal phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(22), 226401 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

M. Nakajima, N. Takubo, Z. Hiroi, Y. Ueda, and T. Suemoto, “Photoinduced metallic state in VO2 proved by the terahertz pump-probe spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011907 (2008). [CrossRef]

5.

A. Cavalleri, T. Dekorsy, H. H. W. Chong, J. C. Kieffer, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Evidence for a structurally-driven insulator-to-metal transition in VO2: A view from the ultrafast timescale,” Phys. Rev. B 70(16), 161102 (2004). [CrossRef]

6.

A. Cavalleri, M. Rini, H. H. W. Chong, S. Fourmaux, T. E. Glover, P. A. Heimann, J. C. Kieffer, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Band-selective measurements of electron dynamics in VO2 using femtosecond near-edge x-ray absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(6), 067405 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, D. H. Youn, S. L. Maeng, G. Kim, K. Y. Kang, and Y. S. Lim, “Mechanism and observation of Mott transition in VO2-based two- and three-terminal devices,” New J. Phys. 6, 52 (2004). [CrossRef]

8.

J. S. Lee, M. Ortolani, U. Schade, Y. J. Chang, and T. W. Noh, “Microspectroscopic detection of local conducting areas generated by electric-pulse-induced phase transition in VO2 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 133509 (2007). [CrossRef]

9.

D. H. Kim and H. S. Kwok, “Pulsed-Laser Deposition of VO2 Thin-Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(25), 3188–3190 (1994). [CrossRef]

10.

D. P. Partlow, S. R. Gurkovich, K. C. Radford, and L. J. Denes, “Switchable Vanadium-Oxide Films by a Sol-Gel Process,” J. Appl. Phys. 70(1), 443–452 (1991). [CrossRef]

11.

S. J. Yun, J. W. Lim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, and H. T. Kim, “Characteristics of vanadium dioxide films deposited by RF-magnetron sputter deposition technique using V-metal target,” Physica B 403, 1381–1383 (2008).

12.

P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund Jr., “Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74(20), 205103 (2006). [CrossRef]

13.

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B. G. Chae, P. C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B. J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott transition in VO2 revealed by infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. M. Qazilbash, K. S. Burch, D. Whisler, D. Shrekenhamer, B. G. Chae, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Correlated metallic state of vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. B 74(20), 205118 (2006). [CrossRef]

15.

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H. T. Kim, N. Park, Q. H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active Terahertz Nanoantennas Based on VO2 Phase Transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

H. R. Park, Y. M. Park, H. S. Kim, J. S. Kyoung, M. A. Seo, D. J. Park, Y. H. Ahn, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz nanoresonators: Giant field enhancement and ultrabroadband performance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121106 (2010). [CrossRef]

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18.

H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, O. K. Suwal, Y. M. Park, J. S. Kyoung, M. A. Seo, S. S. Choi, N. K. Park, D. S. Kim, and K. J. Ahn, “Resonance behavior of single ultrathin slot antennas on finite dielectric substrates in terahertz regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 211109 (2010). [CrossRef]

19.

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009). [CrossRef]

20.

M. Shalaby, H. Merbold, M. Peccianti, L. Razzari, G. Sharma, T. Ozaki, R. Morandotti, T. Feurer, A. Weber, L. Heyderman, B. Patterson, and H. Sigg, “Concurrent field enhancement and high transmission of THz radiation in nanoslit arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041110 (2011). [CrossRef]

21.

A. Novitsky, M. Zalkovskij, R. Malureanu, and A. Lavrinenko, “Microscopic model of the THz field enhancement in a metal nanoslit,” Opt. Commun. (to be published).

22.

J. Kyoung, M. Seo, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, Y. Park, B. J. Kim, K. Ahn, N. Park, H. T. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “Giant nonlinear response of terahertz nanoresonators on VO2 thin film,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16452–16459 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009). [CrossRef]

25.

W. L. Chan, H. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213511 (2009). [CrossRef]

26.

J. S. Lee, M. Ortolani, A. Ginolas, Y. J. Chang, T. W. Noh, and U. Schade, “Transport and microscopic investigations on the electric-pulse-induced phase transition of VO2 films,” Physica C 460-462, 549–550 (2007). [CrossRef]

27.

K. Okimura, N. Ezreena, Y. Sasakawa, and J. Sakai, “Electric-Field-Induced Multistep Resistance Switching in Planar VO2/c-Al2O3 Structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(6), 065003 (2009). [CrossRef]

28.

M. Nagashima, H. Wada, K. Tanikawa, and H. Shirahata, “The electronic behaviors of oxygen-deficient VO2 thin films in low temperature region,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 1, No. 8), 4433–4438 (1998). [CrossRef]

29.

B. G. Chae, H. T. Kim, D. H. Youn, and K. Y. Kang, “Abrupt metal-insulator transition observed in VO2 thin films induced by a switching voltage pulse,” Physica B 369(1-4), 76–80 (2005). [CrossRef]

30.

G. Gopalakrishnan, D. Ruzmetov, and S. Ramanathan, “On the triggering mechanism for the metal-insulator transition in thin film VO2 devices: electric field versus thermal effects,” J. Mater. Sci. 44(19), 5345–5353 (2009). [CrossRef]

31.

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X. C. Zhang, “Two-dimensional electro-optic imaging of THz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(8), 1026–1028 (1996). [CrossRef]

32.

T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

33.

T. Driscoll, H. Kim, B. Chae, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Phase-transition driven memristive system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 043503 (2009). [CrossRef]

34.

M. D. Goldflam, T. Driscoll, B. Chapler, O. Khatib, N. Marie Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, B. Kim, G. Seo, H. Kim, M. D. Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Reconfigurable gradient index using VO2 memory metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 044103 (2011). [CrossRef]

35.

J. Kim, C. Ko, A. Frenzel, S. Ramanathan, and J. E. Hoffman, “Nanoscale imaging and control of resistance switching in VO2 at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213106 (2010). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(160.3918) Materials : Metamaterials
(300.6495) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, teraherz
(310.6845) Thin films : Thin film devices and applications

ToC Category:
Metamaterials

History
Original Manuscript: July 28, 2011
Revised Manuscript: September 8, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: September 13, 2011
Published: October 10, 2011

Citation
Young-Gyun Jeong, Hannes Bernien, Ji-Soo Kyoung, Hyeong-Ryeol Park, Hyun-Sun Kim, Jae-Wook Choi, Bong-Jun Kim, Hyun-Tak Kim, Kwang Jun Ahn, and Dai-Sik Kim, "Electrical control of terahertz nano antennas on VO2 thin film," Opt. Express 19, 21211-21215 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-22-21211


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