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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 22 — Oct. 24, 2011
  • pp: 21652–21657
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Highly-dispersive transparency at optical frequencies in planar metamaterials based on two-bright-mode coupling

Xing-Ri Jin, Jinwoo Park, Haiyu Zheng, Seongjae Lee, YoungPak Lee, Joo Yull Rhee, Ki Won Kim, H. S. Cheong, and Won Ho Jang  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 22, pp. 21652-21657 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.021652


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Abstract

Using a planar metamaterial, which consists of two silver strips, we theoretically demonstrate the plasmonic electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT)-like spectral response at optical frequencies. The two silver strips serve as the bright modes, and are excited strongly by the incident wave. Based on the weak hybridization between the two bright modes, a highly-dispersive plasmonic EIT-like spectral response appears in our scheme. Moreover, the group index is higher than that of another scheme which utilizes the strong coupling between the bright and dark modes.

© 2011 OSA

Metamaterial is a kind of artificially-fabricated materials, which has been studied by many researchers recently owing to its well-controlled properties of incident electromagnetic waves, such as negative index materials [1

1. R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292, 77 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], extraordinary optical transmission [ 2

2. T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature (London) 391, 667 (1998). [CrossRef]

5

5. H. T. Liu and P. Lalanne, “Microscopic theory of the extraordinary optical transmission,” Nature (London) 452, 728 (2008). [CrossRef]

], classical analogue of electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT) [6

6. V. Yannopapas, E. Paspalakis, and N. V. Vitanov, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light in an array of metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 035104 (2009). [CrossRef]

27

27. R. D. Kekatpure, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, and M. I. Brongersma, “Phase-coupled plasmon-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 243902 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and so on. Realization of the EIT-like effect was usually achieved by using two kinds of schemes: the bright-dark mode [7

7. N. Liu, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Magnetoinductive and electroinductive coupling in plasmonic metamaterial molecules,” Adv. Mater. 20, 4521 (2008). [CrossRef]

20

20. X. -R. Jin, Y. Lu, H. Zheng, Y. P. Lee, J. Y. Rhee, K. W. Kim, and W. H. Jang, “Plasmonic electromagnetically-induced transparency in metamaterial based on second-order plasmonic resonance,” Opt. Commun. 284, 4766 (2011). [CrossRef]

] coupling and the bright-bright mode [21

21. V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Sharp trapped-mode resonances in planar metamaterials with a broken structural symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 147401 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27

27. R. D. Kekatpure, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, and M. I. Brongersma, “Phase-coupled plasmon-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 243902 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] coupling. Zhang et al. [10

10. S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 047401 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] firstly proposed a plasmonic EIT in planar metamaterial based on the near-field coupling between bright and dark modes. Subsequently, using a stacked optical metamaterial consisting of the bright-dark modes separated by a dielectric spacer, Liu et al. [11

11. N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8, 758 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] experimentally demonstrated the plasmonic EIT at the Drude-damping limit. The scheme of stacked optical metamaterial somewhat overcomes the requirement of a precise lithographic control, but it is still not easy to fabricate compared to the planar metamaterial. Based on the phase coupling between two bright modes, Kekatpure et al. [27

27. R. D. Kekatpure, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, and M. I. Brongersma, “Phase-coupled plasmon-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 243902 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] proposed the analogue of plasmonic EIT at optical frequency in a system of nanoscale plasmonic-resonator antennas coupled by means of a single-mode silicon waveguide. Recently, using two split-ring resonators, serving as the bright modes, several schemes of the analogue of EIT were proposed in the microwave [21

21. V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Sharp trapped-mode resonances in planar metamaterials with a broken structural symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 147401 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,23

23. N. Papasimakis, Y. H. Fu, V. A. Fedotov, S. L. Prosvirnin, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with polarization and direction insensitive resonant transmission response mimicking electromagnetically induced transparency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 211902 (2009). [CrossRef]

], the THz [24

24. S.-Y. Chiam, R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F Lederer, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in a terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 153103 (2009). [CrossRef]

] and the optical ranges [25

25. C.-Y. Chen, I.-W. Un, N.-H. Tai, and T.-J. Yen, “Asymmetric coupling between subradiant and superradiant plasmonic resonances and its enhanced sensing performance,” Opt. Express 17, 15372 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

In this work, based on the weak hybridization between two bright modes, we propose a new scheme for the generation of plasmonic EIT-like spectral response at optical frequency in planar metamaterial which consists of two silver strips (see Fig. 1). Because the weak coupling between two silver strips induces a highly-dispersive transparency peak, a large group index is obtained, based on the trapped mode in our scheme.

Fig. 1 Top views of the unit cell.

Figure 1 presents the schematic of the plasmonic EIT-like structure we have investigated. The unit cell consists of two silver strips serving as the bright modes. The geometric parameters are w = 65, d = 70, and l1 = 150 nm. Displacement s and length l are variable. The thickness t of each strip is 20 nm. The periodicity L are 520 nm in both x and y directions. The incident plane waves are irradiated along the z direction, and its electric component, E, is parallel to the x direction. In our structure, the two silver strips are strongly excited by the incident plane wave. The permittivity of silver is described by the Drude model, with a plasmon frequency ωp of 1.366 × 1016 rad/s and a collision frequency νc of 3.07 × 1013 Hz [10

10. S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 047401 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 28

28. M. A. Ordal, L. L. Long, R. J. Bell, S. E. Bell, R. R. Bell, R. W. Alexander, and C. A. Ward Jr., “Optical properties of the metals Al, Co, Cu, Au, Fe, Pb, Ni, Pd, Pt, Ag, Ti, and W in the infrared and far infrared,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1099 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The numerical calculations are carried out by using a finite-integration package (CST Microwave Studio).

The two silver strips serve as optical dipole antennas that can be excited by the incident plane wave, and strongly induce the localized electric and magnetic fields in our scheme. The excited optical dipole antennas interact with each other, and the strength of the interaction between the two silver strips can be controlled by parameter s. It should be noted that the parameter s is enough to characterize the dipolar coupling strength. In the dipolar-coupling mode [30

30. P. K. Jain, S. Eustis, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Plasmon coupling in nanorod assemblies: optical absorption, discrete dipole approximation simulation, and exciton-coupling model,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 18243 (2006).

, 31

31. A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Directional double Fano resonances in plasmonic hetero-oligomers,” Nano Lett. 11, 3694 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], the dipolar-coupling strength, which determines the splitting of resonance mode, can be characterized by the displacement vector R⃗ and the angle θ between the direction of dipole and R⃗. In our case, the distance between two strips is fixed, the single parameter s is enough to determine R⃗ and θ. This interaction results in the splitting of a plasmon resonance into two new resonances (the bonding and the antibonding modes). This plasmon-resonance-hybridization scheme [29

29. E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science 302, 419 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] gives intuitively an electromagnetic analog of molecular-orbital theory.

Figure 2(a) presents the simulated transmission spectra at optical frequencies according to displacement s. The black dotted and dashed lines show the simulated transmission spectra of single silver strip only with l = 135 nm and l1 = 150 nm, respectively. The green dot-dashed, the red dashed, the pink dotted and the black solid lines indicate the simulation transmission spectra for various s from 142.5 nm to 0 with an decrement of 47.5 nm, when lengths l and l1 are 135 and 150 nm, respectively. From Fig. 2(a), we can see that two new resonance modes at 403.04 and 455.71 THz are obtained when s = 142.5 nm, which are shifted from the initial resonance frequencies of 419.37 and 442.83 THz, based on the plasmon hybridization. With decreasing s, the low-energy peak is broadened, while the high-energy one becomes narrower, and the width of transparency peak becomes smaller. This is because the displacement s comes to be smaller, so the two resonance modes are weakly hybridized. When s decreases to be zero, two resonance modes (412.7 and 441.22 THz) approach the respective resonance frequencies when there only a single silver strip exists. Figure 2(b) shows the simulated transmission spectra according to length l of the left strip when s = 0. The green dot-dashed, the red dashed, the pink dotted and the black solid lines present the simulation transmission spectra for various lengths l of the strip from 150 to 135 nm with an decrement of 5 nm. When lengths l = l1 = 150 nm, only one resonance peak appears because two silver strips have the same phase and resonance mode. With decreasing length l, the transparency peak widens and its strength enhances at the same time.

Fig. 2 (color online) (a) Dependence of simulated transmission spectra on displacement s with l = 135 and l1 = 150 nm. (b) Dependence of simulated transmission spectra on length l when s = 0.

To further support the above assertion, the distribution of z-component of electric field is shown in Figs. 3 and 4 for normal-incident plane wave. The distributions of z-component of electric field are shown in Figs. 3(a) and 3(b) for a phase of 315° at a frequency of 403.04 and 455.71 THz, when s = 142.5 nm, respectively. From Figs. 3(a) and 3(b), we can see that the excited two silver strips are coupled strongly with each other, leading to two new resonance modes deviated from the initial frequencies (419.37 and 442.83 THz), according to the plasmon-resonance hybridization [29

29. E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science 302, 419 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The low-energy (403.04 THz) and the high-energy (455.71 THz) modes exhibit the induced-current in opposite directions and the same induced-current directions in the two silver strips, analogous to the bonding and the antibonding modes in a hybridized-molecular system [29

29. E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science 302, 419 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], respectively. Since the induced-current directions of two silver strips are opposite, the bonding mode is similar to the quadrupole mode and hence is narrow, as shown Figs. 2(a). On the contrary, since the induced-current direction in two silver strips are the same, the antibonding mode is broad. The coupling between the two silver strips is weak with decreasing s. When s = 0, the excited two silver strips are very weakly hybridized, and two resonance modes (412.7 and 441.22 THz) are close to their initial frequencies as shown in Figs. 4(a) and 4(b). Figure 4 displays the distributions of z-component of electric field for a phase of 315° at two resonance peaks and one transparency peak, when s = 0. When frequency is 412.7 THz, only the right silver strip is excited strongly by incident light, and the left silver strip is excited very weakly, as shown in Fig. 4(a). On the contrary, only the left strip is excited by incident light strongly, and the right strip is excited very weakly when frequency is 441.22 THz, as shown in Fig. 4(b). At 426.96 THz, both silver strips are excited simultaneously owing to the resonance detuning, and the induced currents of two strips are out of phase by 180°, which is the characteristics of electromagnetically-trapped mode, as shown in Fig. 4(c). Because of the opposite current oscillations of two strips, the electric dipole moments of both elements can be canceled with each other, so that the scattered fields produced by these opposite currents are very weak. Therefore, the high transparency peak appears at 426.96 THz in our scheme. For example, in Fig. 4(c) the oscillation of the induced current and the near field of right strip excited by incident plane wave are opposite to those of the left strip. Therefore, the electric dipole moment of left strip is negligible. The same argument can be applied for the dipole moment of right strip. Moreover, because of the detuning of resonance frequency, the strength of induced electric field of two strips at the transparency peak 426.96 THz is very weakly smaller than that of the dipole-moment resonances at 412.7 THz and 441.22 THz, as shown in Fig. 4. This nearly unnoticeable difference is due to the small difference between the absorption at 426.96 THz and those at two transmission dips. Our simulated absorption spectrum (not shown) exhibits a small difference between the absorption at 426.96 THz and the other two. The relatively significant absorption at 426.96 THz is ascribed to a very weak scattered field, resulting in a low reflection and, in turn, a significant absorption.

Fig. 3 (color online) z-component distribution of electric fields at resonance frequencies (a) 403.04 and (b) 455.71 THz when s = 142.5 nm.
Fig. 4 (color online) z-component distribution of electric field at frequencies of (a) 412.7, (b) 441.22 and (c) 426.96 THz when s = 0.

Dependence of the group index and the maximum transmission at the transparency peak on length l is shown in Fig. 5. The maximum transmission at the transparency peak decreases evidently with increasing l. On the contrary, the group index at the transparency peak increases with increasing l up to l = 146 nm, where the maximum group index of 97 is observed, and then decreases. The group index ng is estimated according to formula ng = n + ω(dn/), where n is the effective refractive index [32

32. D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 036617 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. In our scheme, using the weak coupling between two bright modes, we obtain the group index twice larger than that obtained by using the coupling between bright and dark modes [10

10. S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 047401 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] with the same transmission. For example, when the transmission is −3.3 dB ≈ 0.47, the group index is less than 20 in Ref. [10

10. S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 047401 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], however, in our scheme, the group index is ∼ 50 for nearly the same transmission.

Fig. 5 Dependence of both group index and maximum transmission on length l.

In conclusion, using the planar metamaterial, which consists of two silver strips, we propose a new scheme for the plasmonic EIT-like spectral response at optical frequencies. Because the coupling between two bright modes induces highly-dispersive transparency, the higher group index can be achieved in our scheme than the coupling between bright and dark modes [10

10. S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 047401 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Acknowledgments

J. Y. Rhee was supported by Priority Research Centers Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology ( 2010-0029760). This research was also supported by the ICT Standardization program of Korea Communications commission.

References and links

1.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292, 77 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature (London) 391, 667 (1998). [CrossRef]

3.

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon polaritons and their role in the enhanced transmission of light through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes in a metal film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107401 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

H. W. Gao, J. Henzie, and T. W. Odom, “Direct evidence for surface plasmon-mediated enhanced light transmission through metallic nanohole arrays,” Nano Lett. 6, 2104 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

H. T. Liu and P. Lalanne, “Microscopic theory of the extraordinary optical transmission,” Nature (London) 452, 728 (2008). [CrossRef]

6.

V. Yannopapas, E. Paspalakis, and N. V. Vitanov, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light in an array of metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 035104 (2009). [CrossRef]

7.

N. Liu, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Magnetoinductive and electroinductive coupling in plasmonic metamaterial molecules,” Adv. Mater. 20, 4521 (2008). [CrossRef]

8.

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Low-loss metamaterials based on classical electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 053901 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and W. Zhang, “Coupling between a dark and a bright eigenmode in a terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 085111 (2009). [CrossRef]

10.

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 047401 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8, 758 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

X. R. Jin, Y. Lu, H. Zheng, Y. P. Lee, J. Y. Rhee, and W. H. Jang, “Plasmonic electromagnetically-induced transparency in symmetric structures,” Opt. Express 18, 13396 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

Y. Lu, J. Y. Rhee, W. H. Jang, and Y. P. Lee, “Active manipulation of plasmonic electromagnetically-induced transparency based on magnetic plasmon resonance,” Opt. Express 18, 20912 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Planar designs for electromagnetically induced transparency in metamaterials,” Opt. Express 17, 5595 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

Q. Bai, C. Liu, J. Chen, C. Cheng, M. Kang, and H.-T. Wang, “Tunable slow light in semiconductor metamaterial in a broad terahertz regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 093104 (2010). [CrossRef]

16.

J. Zhang, S. Xiao, C. Jeppesen, A. Kristensen, and N. A. Mortensen, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in metamaterials at near-infrared frequency,” Opt. Express 18, 17187 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

Z. -G. Dong, H. Liu, J. X. Cao, T. Li, S. -M. Wang, S. -N Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Enhanced sensing performance by the plasmonic analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in active metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 114101 (2010). [CrossRef]

18.

Z. -G. Dong, H. Liu, M. -X. Xu, T. Li, S. -M. Wang, S. -N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonically induced transparent magnetic resonance in a metallic metamaterial composed of asymmetric double bars,” Opt. Express 18, 18229 (2010).

19.

J. Chen, P. Wang, C. Chen, Y. Lu, H. Ming, and Q. Zhan, “Plasmonic EIT-like switching in bright-dark-bright plasmon resonators,” Opt. Express 19, 5970 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

X. -R. Jin, Y. Lu, H. Zheng, Y. P. Lee, J. Y. Rhee, K. W. Kim, and W. H. Jang, “Plasmonic electromagnetically-induced transparency in metamaterial based on second-order plasmonic resonance,” Opt. Commun. 284, 4766 (2011). [CrossRef]

21.

V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Sharp trapped-mode resonances in planar metamaterials with a broken structural symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 147401 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, “Metamaterial analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253903 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

N. Papasimakis, Y. H. Fu, V. A. Fedotov, S. L. Prosvirnin, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with polarization and direction insensitive resonant transmission response mimicking electromagnetically induced transparency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 211902 (2009). [CrossRef]

24.

S.-Y. Chiam, R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F Lederer, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in a terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 153103 (2009). [CrossRef]

25.

C.-Y. Chen, I.-W. Un, N.-H. Tai, and T.-J. Yen, “Asymmetric coupling between subradiant and superradiant plasmonic resonances and its enhanced sensing performance,” Opt. Express 17, 15372 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

Z. Li, Y. Ma, R. Huang, R. Singh, J. Gu, Z. Tian, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Manipulating the plasmon-induced transparency in terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 19, 8912 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27.

R. D. Kekatpure, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, and M. I. Brongersma, “Phase-coupled plasmon-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 243902 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

28.

M. A. Ordal, L. L. Long, R. J. Bell, S. E. Bell, R. R. Bell, R. W. Alexander, and C. A. Ward Jr., “Optical properties of the metals Al, Co, Cu, Au, Fe, Pb, Ni, Pd, Pt, Ag, Ti, and W in the infrared and far infrared,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1099 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

29.

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science 302, 419 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

30.

P. K. Jain, S. Eustis, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Plasmon coupling in nanorod assemblies: optical absorption, discrete dipole approximation simulation, and exciton-coupling model,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 18243 (2006).

31.

A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Directional double Fano resonances in plasmonic hetero-oligomers,” Nano Lett. 11, 3694 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

32.

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 036617 (2005). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(260.2110) Physical optics : Electromagnetic optics
(260.5740) Physical optics : Resonance
(160.3918) Materials : Metamaterials

ToC Category:
Metamaterials

History
Original Manuscript: July 27, 2011
Revised Manuscript: September 19, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: October 5, 2011
Published: October 19, 2011

Citation
Xing-Ri Jin, Jinwoo Park, Haiyu Zheng, Seongjae Lee, YoungPak Lee, Joo Yull Rhee, Ki Won Kim, H. S. Cheong, and Won Ho Jang, "Highly-dispersive transparency at optical frequencies in planar metamaterials based on two-bright-mode coupling," Opt. Express 19, 21652-21657 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-22-21652


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References

  1. R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science292, 77 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature (London)391, 667 (1998). [CrossRef]
  3. W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon polaritons and their role in the enhanced transmission of light through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes in a metal film,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 107401 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. W. Gao, J. Henzie, and T. W. Odom, “Direct evidence for surface plasmon-mediated enhanced light transmission through metallic nanohole arrays,” Nano Lett.6, 2104 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. T. Liu and P. Lalanne, “Microscopic theory of the extraordinary optical transmission,” Nature (London)452, 728 (2008). [CrossRef]
  6. V. Yannopapas, E. Paspalakis, and N. V. Vitanov, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light in an array of metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B80, 035104 (2009). [CrossRef]
  7. N. Liu, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Magnetoinductive and electroinductive coupling in plasmonic metamaterial molecules,” Adv. Mater.20, 4521 (2008). [CrossRef]
  8. P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Low-loss metamaterials based on classical electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 053901 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and W. Zhang, “Coupling between a dark and a bright eigenmode in a terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B79, 085111 (2009). [CrossRef]
  10. S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 047401 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater.8, 758 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. X. R. Jin, Y. Lu, H. Zheng, Y. P. Lee, J. Y. Rhee, and W. H. Jang, “Plasmonic electromagnetically-induced transparency in symmetric structures,” Opt. Express18, 13396 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Y. Lu, J. Y. Rhee, W. H. Jang, and Y. P. Lee, “Active manipulation of plasmonic electromagnetically-induced transparency based on magnetic plasmon resonance,” Opt. Express18, 20912 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Planar designs for electromagnetically induced transparency in metamaterials,” Opt. Express17, 5595 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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