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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 22 — Oct. 24, 2011
  • pp: 21680–21691
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Dual-core photonic crystal fibers for tunable polarization mode dispersion compensation

D. C. Zografopoulos, C. Vázquez, E. E. Kriezis, and T. V. Yioultsis  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 22, pp. 21680-21691 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.021680


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Abstract

A novel type of dual concentric core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) is proposed and theoretically analyzed, aiming at the design of tunable dispersive fiber elements for polarization-mode-dispersion (PMD) compensation. The adjustment of the fiber’s geometrical birefringence through the proper selection of structural parameters leads to very high values of differential group-delay (DGD). Moreover, the value of DGD can be dynamically tuned by infiltrating the outer core capillaries of the PCF with an optical liquid, which allows for the thermal control of its refractive index. Such fibers are envisaged as tunable dispersive fiber elements for PMD compensation or emulation modules.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

Photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) constitute a special class of optical fibers, which are characterized by a cladding of air capillaries most commonly arranged in a triangular lattice. The form of the central defect core is associated with the PCF’s light guiding mechanism: index-guiding in the case of a solid core, or bandgap-guiding when low-index or hollow cores are used. PCFs have been thoroughly investigated in the last years, since they offer extensive design capabilities, which allow for the tailoring of key-optical fiber properties, such as dispersion, non-linearity and birefringence [1

1. P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic-crystal fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4729–4749 (2006). [CrossRef]

].

Among these possibilities, efficient dispersion management has been shown by proper design of index-guiding silica PCFs. Control of the zero-dispersion wavelength, ultra-flattened dispersion, and chromatic dispersion optimized fiber structures have been widely studied and demonstrated [2

2. P. J. Roberts, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Control of dispersion in photonic crystal fibers,” J. Opt. Fiber Commun. Rep. 2, 435–461 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. In particular, dual-concentric-core PCFs, formed by raising the refractive index of one of the cladding’s rings, are characterized by very high absolute values of the chromatic dispersion (CD) coefficient D [3

3. X. Zhao, G. Zhou, S. Li, Z. Liu, D. Wei, Z. Hou, and L. Hou, “Photonic crystal fiber for dispersion compensation,” Appl. Opt. 47, 5190–5196 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. As in the case of their conventional counterparts [4

4. K. Thyagarajan, R. K. Varshney, P. Palai, A. K. Ghatak, and I. C. Goyal, “A novel design of a dispersion compensating fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1510–1512 (1996). [CrossRef]

, 5

5. F. Gérôme, J.-L. Auguste, J. Maury, J.-M. Blondy, and J. Marcou, “Theoretical and experimental analysis of a chromatic dispersion compensating module using a dual concentric core fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 442–448 (2006). [CrossRef]

], dual-core PCFs support two supermodes whose anti-crossing at a specific wavelength may readily provide values of D in the range of thousands of ps/nm·km, allowing for efficient chromatic dispersion compensation [6

6. A. Huttunen and P. Törmä, “Optimization of dual-core and microstructure fiber geometries for dispersion compensation and large mode area,” Opt. Express 13, 627–635 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The refractive index profile in the cladding of dual-core PCFs can be controlled by suitable selection of the air-capillaries dimensions, avoiding the need for doping, while permitting at the same time optimized slope-matching for CD compensation [7

7. T. Fujisawa, K. Saitoh, K. Wada, and M. Koshiba, “Chromatic dispersion profile optimization of dual-concentric-core photonic crystal fibers for broadband dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express 14, 893–900 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Moreover, PCFs offer the possibility of designing in-fiber elements with thermally tunable dispersive properties, by infiltrating all or some of its capillaries with an optical liquid [8

8. D. C. Zografopoulos and E. E. Kriezis, “Tunable optical fiber polarization elements based on long-period gratings inscribed in birefringent microstructured fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 111–118 (2008). [CrossRef]

, 9

9. C.-P. Yu, J.-H. Liou, S.-S. Huang, and H.-C. Chang, “Tunable dual-core liquid-filled photonic crystal fibers for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express 16, 4443–4451 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

2. Tunable differential-group-delay in birefringent dual-core PCFs

2.1. Structural parameters

The layout of the proposed PCF is shown in Fig. 1(a). The fiberglass material is silica and the lattice of air-capillaries is characterized by a pitch Λ and a hole radius r. The air-hole radius rd of one ring is reduced and its capillaries are infiltrated with a liquid of index nd, so that the outer high-index core of the dual-core PCF is formed. The progressive coupling of optical power between the inner and the outer core leads to a notch in the dispersion curve of the supermodes supported by the fiber, which is responsible for the exceptionally high absolute values of D and, as it will be shown, those of DGD in the case of highly-birefringent PCFs. Selective infiltration of either the smaller or larger air-holes of a PCF’s cladding can be readily achieved, for instance by exploiting the difference in the infusion length among capillaries of different radii [17

17. Y. Huang, Y. Xu, and A. Yariv, “Fabrication of functional microstructured optical fibers through a selective-filling technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5182–5184 (2004). [CrossRef]

, 18

18. K. Nielsen, D. Noordegraaf, T. Sörensen, A. Bjarklev, and T. P. Hansen, “Selective filling of photonic crystal fibres,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, L13–L20 (2005). [CrossRef]

, 19

19. J. Du, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, Q. Shi, Z. Liu, Q. Fang, J. Li, G. Kai, and X. Dong, “Two accesses to achieve air-core’s selective filling of a photonic bandgap fiber,” Proc. SPIE 6781, 678111 (2007). [CrossRef]

, 20

20. J. Ju, H. F. Xuan, W. Jin, S. Liu, and H. L. Ho, “Selective opening of airholes in photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3886–3888 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The radius r1 of two air-holes adjacent to the fiber’s inner core is modified, in order to induce geometrical birefringence. In addition, the radius r6 of the last ring may be modified so as to control the level of confinement losses. The index of the infiltrated liquid can be thermally tuned, providing a means of dynamic control of the PCF’s dispersive properties and, most important, the value of the induced DGD. As the key-element of a PMD-compensation module, the proposed dual-core PCF can provide the necessary compensating values of DGD, which in real long-haul systems are time-variant and follow a Maxwellian distribution [12

12. H. Bülow and S. Lanne, “PMD compensation techniques,” J. Opt. Fiber Commun. Rep. 1, 283–303 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. Figure 1(b) shows the basic scheme and the components of an all-fiber PMD-compensation module, where the signal quality control feedback circuit drives a polarization controller, also possibly PCF-based [16

16. A. Pitilakis, D. C. Zografopoulos, and E. E. Kriezis, “In-line polarization controller based on liquid-crystal photonic crystal fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 2560–2569 (2011). [CrossRef]

], and the proposed tunable-DGD dual-core PCF.

Fig. 1 (a) Layout of the proposed birefringent dual-core PCF. The lattice pitch equals Λ and the air-hole radius is r. The hole radius rd of one ring is reduced in order to form the outer high-index fiber core. To induce birefringence, the radius r1 of two air-holes adjacent to the fiber core is modified, as well as that of the last ring r6 in order to control the level of confinement losses. The high-index ring capillaries are infiltrated with a liquid with refractive index nd. (b) Basic scheme of a PMD compensation module composed of a polarization controller, the proposed PCF and a signal quality control feedback circuit.

2.2. Dispersion properties of dual-concentric-core PCFs

Fig. 2 Chromatic dispersion coefficient D of the dual-core PCF under study for Λ = 2.3μm, r = r1 = r6 = 0.65μm, rd = 0.45μm, for three values of the infiltrated liquid’s index. A tuning efficiency of the notch wavelength equal to 0.64nm/104 RIU is demonstrated. Inset shows the modal intensity profile of the fundamental supermode for nd = 1.33 at 1.5μm (left) and 1.6μm (right).

2.3. Differential group delay in highly-birefringent dual-concentric PCFs

Geometrical birefringence can be induced in the PCF structure by modifying the radius of the two air-holes adjacent to the fiber’s core. Since this modification affects the geometry mostly of the central core, the fiber’s polarization-dependent dispersive properties are expected to be altered mainly in the wavelength window where the fundamental supermode is confined in the inner core. Contrarily, the impact on the birefringence of the infiltrated outer core should be minimal.

Fig. 3 Dispersion curves of the fundamental x- and y-polarized PCF supermode for a set of indicative cases (Λ = 2.3μm, r = 0.65μm, and rd = 0.45μm) where (a) r1 < r and (b) r1 > r and for the outer core formed either in the third (PCF A) or the fourth (PCF B) ring of air-holes. Insets show the corresponding modal birefringence, which drops to zero when both polarizations are coupled in the outer ring. The transition is abrupt and linear in the case of the fourth-ring core, while it exhibits a more gradual profile when the third core is selected as the outer fiber core. (c) Dispersion curves and modal birefringence of both the fundamental and the second-order supermode for the example studied in (b), with the outer core formed in the third ring. (d) Modal intensity profiles for both supermodes and polarizations, calculated at 1.55μm. In the long wavelength window, the fundamental supermode (FSM) is confined in the outer ring-core, while the second order one (SOSM) in the inner core, exhibiting high values of birefringence.

It should be mentioned here that in all cases studied, when the fourth air-ring core is selected as the outer core r6 is set equal to 0.95μm in order to reduce confinement losses, which are kept below 0.05dB/m for both polarizations in the entire wavelength window under study, and can be further reduced by adding more air-hole rings in the PCF’s cladding. The maximum value reported corresponds to the long wavelength extreme of 1.7μm. Moreover, unless otherwise stated, the cladding hole radius is equal to r = 0.65μm, the outer core ring radius rd is equal to 0.45μm and the pitch Λ is set to 2.3μm.

Fig. 4 Differential-group-delay of the proposed dual-core PCF for Λ = 2.3μm, rd = 0.45μm and (a) r1 = 0.65r, nd = 1.36 and (b) r1 = 1.15r, nd = 1.32 (third-ring outer core), and r1 = 1.25r, nd = 1.31 (fourth-ring outer core). In the case of the fourth-ring DGD(λ) is almost piecewise-constant, obtaining high values in the window between the wavelength notches corresponding to the anti-crossing of the two polarizations of the fundamental mode, while in that of the third-ring DGD(λ) exhibits a Gaussian-like profile.

2.4. Effect of the PCF structural and material parameters on the values of DGD

Fig. 5 (a) Wavelength of maximum calculated DGD and (inset) refractive index values of the infiltrated liquid used in the simulations. (b) DGD spectral profile for two indicative cases where the third ring is infiltrated for varying values of nd. An increase of the liquid’s refractive index leads to a blue-shift of DGD(λ), without affecting its other spectral characteristics.

Figure 6(a) shows the dependence of the maximum value of DGD on the radius r1, while the inset shows the corresponding peak value of B. The calculated values refer directly to the results presented in Fig. 5(a), where the corresponding structural and material parameters, as well as the wavelengths where DGD is maximized are quoted. In the case of PCF A, the curve of B = B(λ) shows a more gradual variation compared to that of PCF B, as the inner and outer core are less isolated, which facilitates optical power coupling between them. This leads to a less steep slope of B and, as a consequence, the maximum absolute value of DGD rises smoothly as r1 deviates from r. On the other hand, in the case of PCF B, where the outer core is formed in the fourth ring, the transition between maximum and zero birefringence is abrupt and almost linear, which implies a constant value of dB/. Thus, even for small deviations of r1 almost the same maximum value of DGD is predicted as demonstrated in Figure 6(b), which shows the wavelength dependence of birefringence and the DGD profile for r1 = 1.05r and r1 = 1.3r. It can be noticed that as the slope of B(λ) is almost identical in both cases, the same also holds for the maximum DGD value. Nevertheless, as the transition window between λx and λy is larger in the case of larger r1 the high-DGD window is also extended, up to more than 50nm for r1 = 1.3r.

Fig. 6 (a) Maximum DGD and birefringence values for the dual-core PCF under study obtained for various values of r1, with reference to the results shown in Fig. 5(a). DGD raises gradually with birefringence when the third ring is selected as the outer core. DGD values of up to 70 and 60 ps/m can be readily achieved for the outer core placed in the fourth and the third ring, respectively. (b) Modal birefringence and DGD profile when the fourth-ring is infiltrated for r1 = 1.3r, nd = 1.3 and r1 = 1.05r, nd = 1.33. As the slope of B(λ) is almost equal in the two cases, the maximum DGD value is not significantly affected by the fiber birefringence maximum value.

Fig. 7 Spectral extent (FWHM) of the high-DGD window and (inset) wavelength increment Δλrise, defined as the distance between wavelengths at which DGD obtains 10% and 90% of its maximum value, for the PCF under study. Very abrupt transitions are predicted when the outer core is placed in the fourth ring of the PCF’s cladding.

Since the outer core is essentially composed of two materials, silica and the infiltrated liquid in the capillaries, its effective index depends both on the radius rd and the refractive index nd of the optical liquid. Figure 8 studies the impact of the geometry and the material infiltrated in the outer core, for sets of parameters that maintain the high-DGD spectral profile within the C-band. It is shown that the increase of rd and nd leads to higher values of DGD, although in that case FWHM and Δλrise decrease, indicating a more abrupt transition. Apart from providing higher DGD-values, larger radii rd may also facilitate the infiltration process. For rd = 0.8μm and nd = 1.404 the maximum value of DGD exceeds 100ps/m at 1.54μm.

Fig. 8 DGD profiles for different values of the outer core radius and the index of the infiltrated liquid for r1 = 1.3r. Higher values of DGD can be obtained by simultaneously raising rd and nd, for the same wavelength window. Inset shows the maximum obtainable values of DGD with respect to the infiltrated capillary radius rd, for the set of cases studied.

Fig. 9 DGD profiles for different values of the lattice pitch Λ, with relative structural parameters r/Λ and rd /Λ kept the same. Smaller values of Λ blue-shift DGD(λ) and lead to higher DGD. The spectral position of DGD(λ) can be controlled by adjusting the liquid’s index nd. The inset shows the maximum DGD value obtained in the cases studied, for Λ ranging from 1.9 to 2.5μm.

2.5. Thermal tuning of DGD in dual-core PCFs

Fig. 10 DGD-tuning characteristics for two indicative cases of the proposed dual-core birefringent PCF. DGD curves with respect to the index nd of the liquid infiltrating the third core for (a) r1 = 1.3r, rd = 0.75μm and (b) r1 = 1.3r, rd = 0.5μm. (c) The correspoding value of DGD at 1.55μm with respect to nd or, equivalently, a temperature variation ΔT, assuming a thermo-optic coefficient of −3.34 × 104RIU/°C. (d) A proposed layout for the efficient tuning of DGD in the proposed PCF: light is in- and out-coupled at ambient temperature where both polarizations are confined in the same core and it is gradually heated in order to induce the desired value of DGD.

In a more elaborate configuration, various pieces of the proposed PCF may be combined in a more efficient multi-stage layout, which allows for the compensation of higher-order PMD as well [28

28. Q. Yu and A. W. Willner, “Performance limits of first-order PMD compensators using fixed and variable DGD elements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 304–306 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. Finally, PCFs of this type might also be exploited in applications where variable birefringence is required, such as in tunable Sagnac optical filters [29

29. J. Du, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, B. Zou, B. Liu, and X. Dong, “Electrically tunable Sagnac filter based on a photonic bandgap fiber with liquid crystal infused,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2215–2217 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

3. Conclusions

Acknowledgments

This work has been partially supported by the Research Committee of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, by the UC3M Talent Human Resources Contract, and by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation within project TEC2009-14718-C03-03.

References and links

1.

P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic-crystal fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4729–4749 (2006). [CrossRef]

2.

P. J. Roberts, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Control of dispersion in photonic crystal fibers,” J. Opt. Fiber Commun. Rep. 2, 435–461 (2005). [CrossRef]

3.

X. Zhao, G. Zhou, S. Li, Z. Liu, D. Wei, Z. Hou, and L. Hou, “Photonic crystal fiber for dispersion compensation,” Appl. Opt. 47, 5190–5196 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

K. Thyagarajan, R. K. Varshney, P. Palai, A. K. Ghatak, and I. C. Goyal, “A novel design of a dispersion compensating fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1510–1512 (1996). [CrossRef]

5.

F. Gérôme, J.-L. Auguste, J. Maury, J.-M. Blondy, and J. Marcou, “Theoretical and experimental analysis of a chromatic dispersion compensating module using a dual concentric core fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 442–448 (2006). [CrossRef]

6.

A. Huttunen and P. Törmä, “Optimization of dual-core and microstructure fiber geometries for dispersion compensation and large mode area,” Opt. Express 13, 627–635 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

T. Fujisawa, K. Saitoh, K. Wada, and M. Koshiba, “Chromatic dispersion profile optimization of dual-concentric-core photonic crystal fibers for broadband dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express 14, 893–900 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

D. C. Zografopoulos and E. E. Kriezis, “Tunable optical fiber polarization elements based on long-period gratings inscribed in birefringent microstructured fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 111–118 (2008). [CrossRef]

9.

C.-P. Yu, J.-H. Liou, S.-S. Huang, and H.-C. Chang, “Tunable dual-core liquid-filled photonic crystal fibers for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express 16, 4443–4451 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

R. DeSalvo, A. G. Wilson, J. Rollman, D. F. Schneider, L. M. Lunardi, S. Lumish, N. Agrawal, A. H. Steinbach, W. Baun, T. Wall, R. Ben-Michael, M. A. Itzler, A. Fejzuli, R. A. Chipman, G. T. Kiehne, and K. M. Kissa, “Advanced components and sub-system solutions for 40Gb/s transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 2154–2181 (2002). [CrossRef]

11.

A. Teixeira, L. Costa, G. Franzl, S. Azodolmolky, I. Tomkos, K. Vlachos, S. Zsigmond, T. Cinkler, G. Tosi-Beleffi, P. Gravey, T. Loukina, J. A. Lázaro, C. Vazquez, J. Montalvo, and E. Le Rouzic, “An integrated view on monitoring and compensation for dynamic optical networks: from management to physical layer,” Photon. Netw. Commun. 18, 191–210 (2009). [CrossRef]

12.

H. Bülow and S. Lanne, “PMD compensation techniques,” J. Opt. Fiber Commun. Rep. 1, 283–303 (2004). [CrossRef]

13.

X. Zhang, Y. Xia, Y. Huang, and X. Ren, “A novel tunable PMD compensation using linearly chirped fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Commun. 214, 123–127 (2002). [CrossRef]

14.

L. Yan, M. C. Hauer, Y. Shi, X. S. Yao, P. Ebrahimi, Y. Wang, A. E. Willner, and W. L. Kath, “Polarization-mode-dispersion emulator using variable differential-group-delay (DGD) elements and its use for experimental importance sampling,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 1051–1058 (2004). [CrossRef]

15.

N. M. Litchinitser, M. Sumetsky, and P. S. Westbrook, “Fiber-based tunable dispersion compensation,” J. Opt. Fiber Commun. Rep. 4, 41–85 (2007). [CrossRef]

16.

A. Pitilakis, D. C. Zografopoulos, and E. E. Kriezis, “In-line polarization controller based on liquid-crystal photonic crystal fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 2560–2569 (2011). [CrossRef]

17.

Y. Huang, Y. Xu, and A. Yariv, “Fabrication of functional microstructured optical fibers through a selective-filling technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5182–5184 (2004). [CrossRef]

18.

K. Nielsen, D. Noordegraaf, T. Sörensen, A. Bjarklev, and T. P. Hansen, “Selective filling of photonic crystal fibres,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, L13–L20 (2005). [CrossRef]

19.

J. Du, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, Q. Shi, Z. Liu, Q. Fang, J. Li, G. Kai, and X. Dong, “Two accesses to achieve air-core’s selective filling of a photonic bandgap fiber,” Proc. SPIE 6781, 678111 (2007). [CrossRef]

20.

J. Ju, H. F. Xuan, W. Jin, S. Liu, and H. L. Ho, “Selective opening of airholes in photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3886–3888 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

T. P. White, B. T. Kuhlmey, R. C. McPhedran, D. Maystre, G. Renversez, C. Martijn de Sterke, and L. C. Botten, “Multipole method for microstructured optical fibers. I. Formulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2322–2330 (2002). [CrossRef]

22.

B. T. Kuhlmey, T. P. White, G. Renversez, D. Maystre, L. C. Botten, C. Martijn de Sterke, and R. C. McPhedran, “Multipole method for microstructured optical fibers. II. Implementation and results,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2331–2340 (2002). [CrossRef]

23.

Cargille Labs, AAA series of refractive index liquids, http://www.cargille.com.

24.

T. R. Woliński, P. Lesiak, K. Szaniawska, A. W. Domański, and J. Wójcik, “Polarization mode dispersion in birefringent microstructured fibers,” Opt. Appl. 34, 541–549 (2004).

25.

W. Wadsworth, A. Witkowska, S. Leon-Saval, and T. Birks, “Hole inflation and tapering of stock photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 13, 6541–6549 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

Fibercore Ltd., FiberCore SM600 & SM1500, http://www.fibercore.com.

27.

B. J. Eggleton, A. Ahuja, P. S. Westbrook, J. A. Rogers, P. Kuo, T. N. Nielsen, and B. Mikkelsen, “Integrated tunable fiber gratings for dispersion management in high-bit rate systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1418–1420 (2000). [CrossRef]

28.

Q. Yu and A. W. Willner, “Performance limits of first-order PMD compensators using fixed and variable DGD elements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 304–306 (2002). [CrossRef]

29.

J. Du, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, B. Zou, B. Liu, and X. Dong, “Electrically tunable Sagnac filter based on a photonic bandgap fiber with liquid crystal infused,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2215–2217 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(060.2340) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics components
(060.2420) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fibers, polarization-maintaining
(230.2035) Optical devices : Dispersion compensation devices
(060.5295) Fiber optics and optical communications : Photonic crystal fibers

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: June 20, 2011
Revised Manuscript: September 16, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: September 19, 2011
Published: October 19, 2011

Citation
D. C. Zografopoulos, C. Vázquez, E. E. Kriezis, and T. V. Yioultsis, "Dual-core photonic crystal fibers for tunable polarization mode dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 19, 21680-21691 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-22-21680


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References

  1. P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic-crystal fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.24, 4729–4749 (2006). [CrossRef]
  2. P. J. Roberts, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Control of dispersion in photonic crystal fibers,” J. Opt. Fiber Commun. Rep.2, 435–461 (2005). [CrossRef]
  3. X. Zhao, G. Zhou, S. Li, Z. Liu, D. Wei, Z. Hou, and L. Hou, “Photonic crystal fiber for dispersion compensation,” Appl. Opt.47, 5190–5196 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. Thyagarajan, R. K. Varshney, P. Palai, A. K. Ghatak, and I. C. Goyal, “A novel design of a dispersion compensating fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.8, 1510–1512 (1996). [CrossRef]
  5. F. Gérôme, J.-L. Auguste, J. Maury, J.-M. Blondy, and J. Marcou, “Theoretical and experimental analysis of a chromatic dispersion compensating module using a dual concentric core fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol.24, 442–448 (2006). [CrossRef]
  6. A. Huttunen and P. Törmä, “Optimization of dual-core and microstructure fiber geometries for dispersion compensation and large mode area,” Opt. Express13, 627–635 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. Fujisawa, K. Saitoh, K. Wada, and M. Koshiba, “Chromatic dispersion profile optimization of dual-concentric-core photonic crystal fibers for broadband dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express14, 893–900 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. C. Zografopoulos and E. E. Kriezis, “Tunable optical fiber polarization elements based on long-period gratings inscribed in birefringent microstructured fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B25, 111–118 (2008). [CrossRef]
  9. C.-P. Yu, J.-H. Liou, S.-S. Huang, and H.-C. Chang, “Tunable dual-core liquid-filled photonic crystal fibers for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express16, 4443–4451 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. DeSalvo, A. G. Wilson, J. Rollman, D. F. Schneider, L. M. Lunardi, S. Lumish, N. Agrawal, A. H. Steinbach, W. Baun, T. Wall, R. Ben-Michael, M. A. Itzler, A. Fejzuli, R. A. Chipman, G. T. Kiehne, and K. M. Kissa, “Advanced components and sub-system solutions for 40Gb/s transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol.20, 2154–2181 (2002). [CrossRef]
  11. A. Teixeira, L. Costa, G. Franzl, S. Azodolmolky, I. Tomkos, K. Vlachos, S. Zsigmond, T. Cinkler, G. Tosi-Beleffi, P. Gravey, T. Loukina, J. A. Lázaro, C. Vazquez, J. Montalvo, and E. Le Rouzic, “An integrated view on monitoring and compensation for dynamic optical networks: from management to physical layer,” Photon. Netw. Commun.18, 191–210 (2009). [CrossRef]
  12. H. Bülow and S. Lanne, “PMD compensation techniques,” J. Opt. Fiber Commun. Rep.1, 283–303 (2004). [CrossRef]
  13. X. Zhang, Y. Xia, Y. Huang, and X. Ren, “A novel tunable PMD compensation using linearly chirped fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Commun.214, 123–127 (2002). [CrossRef]
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