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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 22 — Oct. 24, 2011
  • pp: 21760–21767
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Transient radiation-induced effects on solid core microstructured optical fibers

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, M. Bouazaoui, C. Marcandella, A. Boukenter, L. Bigot, and A. Kudlinski  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 22, pp. 21760-21767 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.021760


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Abstract

We report transient radiation-induced effects on solid core microstructured optical fibers (MOFs). The kinetics and levels of radiation-induced attenuation (RIA) in the visible and near-infrared part of the spectrum (600 nm-2000 nm) were characterized. It is found that the two tested MOFs, fabricated by the stack-and-draw technique, present a good radiation tolerance. Both have similar geometry but one has been made with pure-silica tubes and the other one with Fluorine-doped silica tubes. We compared their pulsed X-ray radiation sensitivities to those of different classes of conventional optical fibers with pure-silica-cores or cores doped with Phosphorus or Germanium. The pulsed radiation sensitivity of MOFs seems to be mainly governed by the glass composition whereas their particular structure does not contribute significantly. Similarly for doped silica fibers, the measured spectral dependence of RIA for the MOFs cannot be correctly reproduced with the various absorption bands associated with the Si-related defects identified in the literature. However, our analysis confirms the preponderant role of self-trapped holes with their visible and infrared absorption bands in the transient behaviors of pure-silica of F-doped fibers. The results of this study showed that pure-silica or fluorine-doped MOFs, which offers specific advantages compared to conventional fibers, are promising for use in harsh environments due to their radiation tolerance.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

The development of microstructured optical fibers (MOFs) is one of the most recent innovative progresses in the field of optical waveguides. These fibers present wavelength-scale structures (presence of tiny air holes in their cladding for example, see Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Structure and spectral attenuation before irradiation of microstructured optical fibers studied in this work (results illustrated for MOF1).
) with high refractive index contrast providing them unusual properties [8

8. P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic-crystal fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4729–4749 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. Two types of MOFs are usually distinguished [8

8. P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic-crystal fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4729–4749 (2006). [CrossRef]

]: photonic band gap (PBG) MOFs in which the light remains confined in a low index core thanks to a PBG cladding and high index core fibers in which light is guided via modified total internal reflection (MTIR). We previously discussed the transient radiation response of hollow core PBG fibers in [9

9. S. Girard, J. Baggio, and J.-L. Leray, “Radiation-induced effects in a new class of optical waveguides: the air-guiding photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 52(6), 2683–2688 (2005). [CrossRef]

] whereas their steady state radiation responses have been presented by other authors in [10

10. G. Cheymol, H. Long, J. F. Villard, and B. Brichard, “High level gamma and neutron irradiation of silica optical fibers in CEA OSIRIS nuclear reactor,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(4), 2252–2258 (2008). [CrossRef]

,11

11. H. Henschel, J. Kuhnhenn, and U. Weinand, “High radiation hardness of a hollow core photonic bandgap fiber,” in 8th European Conference on Radiation and Its Effects on Components and Systems, RADECS 2005, paper LN4 (2005).

]. From these studies, it appears that if hollow core PBG fibers are very promising for integration in steady state radiative environments where they show a very low RIA compared to other fiber types, the results are more complex for transient - or pulsed -irradiation. We previously reported RIA levels quite comparable to classical SMF28 fiber from Corning at 1550 nm for a hollow core PBG fiber after 1 MeV X-ray pulse [9

9. S. Girard, J. Baggio, and J.-L. Leray, “Radiation-induced effects in a new class of optical waveguides: the air-guiding photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 52(6), 2683–2688 (2005). [CrossRef]

] whereas Fraunhofer Institute researchers presented promising results on a 19 cells hollow core PBG fiber from the same manufacturer under pulsed electron irradiation [11

11. H. Henschel, J. Kuhnhenn, and U. Weinand, “High radiation hardness of a hollow core photonic bandgap fiber,” in 8th European Conference on Radiation and Its Effects on Components and Systems, RADECS 2005, paper LN4 (2005).

]. From these studies, it seemed that the structure of the PBGs can affect their radiation responses. In this paper, we focused our work on the other class of MOFs, namely MTIR MOFs.

MTIR MOFs present several advantages that can be used to design new laser or plasma diagnostics. Depending on their geometry, such fibers can be endlessly single-mode, present low bending loss, possibility of dispersion tailoring, large mode field diameters… Another possible advantage, under irradiation, consists in their homogeneity in terms of glass properties. Such fibers can be made with a unique glass composition and this particularity may appear very useful to distinguish between the relative influences of the various dopants or impurities on the fiber responses [1

1. S. Girard, J. Keurinck, Y. Ouerdane, J.-P. Meunier, and A. Boukenter, “Gamma-rays and pulsed X-ray radiation responses of germanosilicate single-mode optical fibers: influence of cladding codopants,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(8), 1915–1922 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. Only few studies have been devoted to the study of the radiation response of this class of waveguides [12

12. S. Girard, A. Yahya, A. Boukenter, Y. Ouerdane, J.-P. Meunier, R. E. Kristiansen, and G. Vienne, “Gamma-radiation-induced attenuation in photonic crystal fibre,” IEE Electron. Lett. 38(20), 1169–1171 (2002). [CrossRef]

,13

13. A. F. Kosolapov, I. V. Nikolin, A. L. Tomashuk, S. L. Semjonov, and M. O. Zabezhailov, “Optical losses in as-prepared and gamma-irradiated microstructured silica-core optical fibers,” Inorg. Mater. 40(11), 1229–1232 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. In [12

12. S. Girard, A. Yahya, A. Boukenter, Y. Ouerdane, J.-P. Meunier, R. E. Kristiansen, and G. Vienne, “Gamma-radiation-induced attenuation in photonic crystal fibre,” IEE Electron. Lett. 38(20), 1169–1171 (2002). [CrossRef]

], a prototype MOF was tested and its high radiation sensitivity was attributed to the silica glass tubes used to design the fiber (Heraeus F300). A more complete comparative study [13

13. A. F. Kosolapov, I. V. Nikolin, A. L. Tomashuk, S. L. Semjonov, and M. O. Zabezhailov, “Optical losses in as-prepared and gamma-irradiated microstructured silica-core optical fibers,” Inorg. Mater. 40(11), 1229–1232 (2004). [CrossRef]

] between MOFs and conventional fibers made with the same silica glass reveal that MOFs present radiation responses comparable to their standard counterparts.

In this paper, we focused our work on the behaviors of solid core MTIR MOFS after transient irradiation to evaluate the vulnerability of this fiber type to these specific harsh environments. We characterized, for the first time to our knowledge, the pulsed (35 ns) X-ray radiation-induced attenuation of silica-based MOFs in the visible and near-infrared range (600 nm – 2000 nm). Such environment is representative for example, of the radiations associated with the future megajoule class laser facilities devoted to the study of the fusion by inertial confinement (LMJ, NIF) [14

14. S. Girard, J. Baggio, J.-L. Leray, J.-P. Meunier, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “Vulnerability analysis of optical fibers for Laser Megajoule facility: preliminary studies,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 52(5), 1497–1503 (2005). [CrossRef]

,15

15. C. Lion, “The LMJ program: an overview,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 244(1), 012003 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. We also investigated the nature and properties of the radiation-induced defects that govern the fiber radiation responses.

2. Experimental procedure

Tested optical fibers

Irradiation Procedure

Pulsed X(1 MeV)-ray irradiation tests have been performed using the X-ray generator ASTERIX from CEA, Gramat [16

16. A. Johan, B. Azaïs, C. Malaval, G. Raboisson, and M. Roche, “ASTERIX, un nouveau moyen pour la simulation des effets de débit de dose sur l’électronique,” Ann. Phys. 14, 379–393 (1989).

]. The incident photons have energy of about 1 MeV; the dose rate exceeds 1 MGy/s and typical deposited dose per 35 ns pulse remains below one kGy. All experiments have been made at room temperature.

We measured the spectral dependence of the RIA in the visible and near-infrared ranges [600-2000 nm]. Only the tested sample is exposed to the X-rays whereas the other part of our equipment is kept in a shielded room located at around 20 m far away from the irradiation source. Fibers transmission measurements were conducted by using a supercontinuum white light source (Koheras) which is directly injected into a single-mode fiber pigtail of 30 m long that is connected to the sample under test. The investigated samples consist in fiber coils of ~10 cm diameter with lengths varying from 46 m (MOF1) to 100 m (MOF2). The transmitted signal is injected in another 30 m long pigtail connected to a 50/50 fiber coupler. One output is analyzed with a NIR256 spectrometer [800-2000 nm] from Ocean Optics while the other output is connected to a HR4000 spectrometer [600-1100 nm] from the same manufacturer. With this setup, we were able to measure the changes in fiber transmission, over a large spectral domain, during and after the X-ray pulse with a few milliseconds time resolution.

3. Experimental results

Figure 2
Fig. 2 Typical spectral and time dependencies of RIAs observed in (a) MOF1 sample and (b) MOF2 sample after pulsed X-rays irradiation at a dose levels < 150 Gy.
presents typical results obtained under transient irradiation (dose rate > 1 MGy/s, doses < 500 Gy), for MOF1 (Fig. 2(a)) and MOF2 (Fig. 2(b)).

The difference in fiber lengths for MOF1 and MOF2 samples explains the losses that have been more precisely measured for the 100 m-long MOF2 sample. The decay kinetics of the RIA for the two fibers can be analyzed in the 100 ms – 100 s range illustrating the bleaching of the radiation-induced point defects unstable at room temperature in this time range. Another important point is that the RIA does not depend linearly on the deposited dose per pulse in the two fibers, in opposition to what has been observed for Ge- or P-doped samples but in agreement with our results on pure-silica or F-doped silica samples. However, as we were unable to use different samples for the different shots, the exact dose dependence of RIA for these fibers was not unambiguously characterized.

4. Discussion

We first consider the vulnerability of MOFs to transient irradiations. To estimate the relative radiation sensitivity of the tested MOFs, we compared their RIA spectral dependence to those of MCVD fibers. Figure 3
Fig. 3 Comparison of the normalized spectra of induced attenuation 100 ms after pulsed X-rays (dose rate > 1 MGy/s) in five different types of optical fibers.
illustrates the RIA spectra measured 100 ms after an irradiation pulse in these different fibers. All spectra have been normalized by the deposited dose to correct the dose fluctuation between the different pulses. This normalization is correct for the P- and Ge-doped fibers; it remains also pertinent in Fig. 3 as the dose difference between the shots used for MOF1, MOF2 and pure-silica core fiber remains below 15%.

From this figure, it appears that the two MOFs present similar responses and the lower RIA levels for these conditions. At such dose levels (around 250 Gy), RIA remains below 0.1 dB km−1 Gy−1 at 1310 nm and 1550 nm. Induced optical losses are minima in the 1500 - 1800 nm range. Their response is similar to the one measured for the pure-silica-core MCVD fiber. Compared to the two doped fibers, RIA in the MOFs is at least one order of magnitude lower.

The best fit of our experimental data is obtained by a combination of the three OA bands centered at 0.7 eV (Full Width at Half Maximum = 0.3 eV); 1.88 eV (FWHM = 0.6 eV) and 2.6 eV (FWHM = 1.12 eV) all associated with STHs [18

18. J. Bisutti, “Etude de la transmission du signal sous irradiation transitoire dans les fibres optiques,” Thèse de Doctorat (Université de Saint-Etienne, 2010).

23

23. Y. Sasajima and K. Tanimura, “Optical transitions of self-trapped holes in amorphous SiO2,” Phys. Rev. B 68(1), 014204 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. The other OA bands at 1.97 eV (FWHM = 0.2 eV, NBOHC) and 1.63 eV (FWHM, 0.46 eV, STHs) seem to not contribute to the RIA spectrum for these fibers.

From these results, it appears that STHs, that are known to be very unstable at room temperature, have a preponderant influence of the F-doped and pure-silica MOFs. The generation efficiency of these defects is affected by the glass history parameters like impurities contents [18

18. J. Bisutti, “Etude de la transmission du signal sous irradiation transitoire dans les fibres optiques,” Thèse de Doctorat (Université de Saint-Etienne, 2010).

] and fictive temperature [24

24. M. Yamaguchi, K. Saito, and A. J. Ikushima, “Fictive-temperature-dependence of photoinduced self-trapped holes in a-SiO2,” Phys. Rev. B 68(15), 153204 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. More work should be done to adjust such parameters in order to reduce the MOF fiber radiation sensitivity.

5. Conclusion

As a consequence, MOFs with their specific optical features (endlessly single-mode, low bending loss, dispersion tailoring, and large mode field diameter) are good candidates for integration as part of diagnostics in nuclear environments like those associated with megajoule class lasers. Additional work is under progress to enhance the resistance of these fibers to such a harsh environment and to identify the whole set of radiation-induced point defects involved in their radiation responses.

References and links

1.

S. Girard, J. Keurinck, Y. Ouerdane, J.-P. Meunier, and A. Boukenter, “Gamma-rays and pulsed X-ray radiation responses of germanosilicate single-mode optical fibers: influence of cladding codopants,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(8), 1915–1922 (2004). [CrossRef]

2.

E. J. Friebele, P. C. Schultz, and M. E. Gingerich, “Compositional effects on the radiation response of Ge-doped silica-core optical fiber waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 19(17), 2910–2916 (1980). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, and J.-P. Meunier, “Transient radiation responses of silica-based optical fibers: influence of modified chemical vapor deposition process parameters,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(2), 023104 (2006). [CrossRef]

4.

D. L. Griscom, “Radiation hardening of pure-silica-core optical fibers by ultra-high-dose γ-ray pre-irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(10), 5008–5013 (1995). [CrossRef]

5.

E. J. Friebele and M. E. Gingerich, “Photobleaching effects in optical fiber waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 20(19), 3448–3452 (1981). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

H. Henschel, O. Kohn, and H. U. Schmidt, “Radiation hardening of optical fibre links by photobleaching with light of shorter wavelength,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 43(3), 1050–1056 (1996). [CrossRef]

7.

A. T. Ramsey, W. Tighe, J. Bartolick, and P. D. Morgan, “Radiation effects on heated optical fibers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(1), 632–635 (1997). [CrossRef]

8.

P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic-crystal fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4729–4749 (2006). [CrossRef]

9.

S. Girard, J. Baggio, and J.-L. Leray, “Radiation-induced effects in a new class of optical waveguides: the air-guiding photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 52(6), 2683–2688 (2005). [CrossRef]

10.

G. Cheymol, H. Long, J. F. Villard, and B. Brichard, “High level gamma and neutron irradiation of silica optical fibers in CEA OSIRIS nuclear reactor,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(4), 2252–2258 (2008). [CrossRef]

11.

H. Henschel, J. Kuhnhenn, and U. Weinand, “High radiation hardness of a hollow core photonic bandgap fiber,” in 8th European Conference on Radiation and Its Effects on Components and Systems, RADECS 2005, paper LN4 (2005).

12.

S. Girard, A. Yahya, A. Boukenter, Y. Ouerdane, J.-P. Meunier, R. E. Kristiansen, and G. Vienne, “Gamma-radiation-induced attenuation in photonic crystal fibre,” IEE Electron. Lett. 38(20), 1169–1171 (2002). [CrossRef]

13.

A. F. Kosolapov, I. V. Nikolin, A. L. Tomashuk, S. L. Semjonov, and M. O. Zabezhailov, “Optical losses in as-prepared and gamma-irradiated microstructured silica-core optical fibers,” Inorg. Mater. 40(11), 1229–1232 (2004). [CrossRef]

14.

S. Girard, J. Baggio, J.-L. Leray, J.-P. Meunier, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “Vulnerability analysis of optical fibers for Laser Megajoule facility: preliminary studies,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 52(5), 1497–1503 (2005). [CrossRef]

15.

C. Lion, “The LMJ program: an overview,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 244(1), 012003 (2010). [CrossRef]

16.

A. Johan, B. Azaïs, C. Malaval, G. Raboisson, and M. Roche, “ASTERIX, un nouveau moyen pour la simulation des effets de débit de dose sur l’électronique,” Ann. Phys. 14, 379–393 (1989).

17.

D. L. Griscom, E. J. Friebele, K. J. Long, and J. W. Fleming, “Fundamental defect centers in glass: electron spin resonance and optical absorption studies of irradiated phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 54(7), 3743–3762 (1983). [CrossRef]

18.

J. Bisutti, “Etude de la transmission du signal sous irradiation transitoire dans les fibres optiques,” Thèse de Doctorat (Université de Saint-Etienne, 2010).

19.

D. L. Griscom, “Self-trapped holes in pure-silica glass: a history of their discovery and characterization and an example of their critical significance to industry,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(23-25), 2601–2617 (2006). [CrossRef]

20.

S. Girard, D. L. Griscom, J. Baggio, B. Brichard, and F. Berghmans, “Transient optical absorption in pulsed-X-ray-irradiated pure-silica-core optical fibers: influence of self-trapped holes,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(23-25), 2637–2642 (2006). [CrossRef]

21.

P. V. Chernov, E. M. Dianov, V. N. Karpechev, L. S. Kornienko, I. O. Morozova, A. O. Rybaltovskii, V. O. Sokolov, and V. B. Sulimov, “Spectroscopic manifestations of self-trapped holes in silica. Theory and experiment,” Phys. Status Solidi B 115, 663–675 (1989).

22.

E. Régnier, I. Flammer, S. Girard, F. Gooijer, F. Achten, and G. Kuyt, “Low-dose radiation-induced attenuation at InfraRed wavelengths for P-doped, Ge-doped and pure silica-core optical fibres,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(4), 1115–1119 (2007). [CrossRef]

23.

Y. Sasajima and K. Tanimura, “Optical transitions of self-trapped holes in amorphous SiO2,” Phys. Rev. B 68(1), 014204 (2003). [CrossRef]

24.

M. Yamaguchi, K. Saito, and A. J. Ikushima, “Fictive-temperature-dependence of photoinduced self-trapped holes in a-SiO2,” Phys. Rev. B 68(15), 153204 (2003). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.2330) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics communications
(300.1030) Spectroscopy : Absorption

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: June 29, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: August 5, 2011
Published: October 20, 2011

Citation
S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, M. Bouazaoui, C. Marcandella, A. Boukenter, L. Bigot, and A. Kudlinski, "Transient radiation-induced effects on solid core microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Express 19, 21760-21767 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-22-21760


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References

  1. S. Girard, J. Keurinck, Y. Ouerdane, J.-P. Meunier, and A. Boukenter, “Gamma-rays and pulsed X-ray radiation responses of germanosilicate single-mode optical fibers: influence of cladding codopants,” J. Lightwave Technol.22(8), 1915–1922 (2004). [CrossRef]
  2. E. J. Friebele, P. C. Schultz, and M. E. Gingerich, “Compositional effects on the radiation response of Ge-doped silica-core optical fiber waveguides,” Appl. Opt.19(17), 2910–2916 (1980). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, and J.-P. Meunier, “Transient radiation responses of silica-based optical fibers: influence of modified chemical vapor deposition process parameters,” J. Appl. Phys.99(2), 023104 (2006). [CrossRef]
  4. D. L. Griscom, “Radiation hardening of pure-silica-core optical fibers by ultra-high-dose γ-ray pre-irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys.77(10), 5008–5013 (1995). [CrossRef]
  5. E. J. Friebele and M. E. Gingerich, “Photobleaching effects in optical fiber waveguides,” Appl. Opt.20(19), 3448–3452 (1981). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H. Henschel, O. Kohn, and H. U. Schmidt, “Radiation hardening of optical fibre links by photobleaching with light of shorter wavelength,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.43(3), 1050–1056 (1996). [CrossRef]
  7. A. T. Ramsey, W. Tighe, J. Bartolick, and P. D. Morgan, “Radiation effects on heated optical fibers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68(1), 632–635 (1997). [CrossRef]
  8. P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic-crystal fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(12), 4729–4749 (2006). [CrossRef]
  9. S. Girard, J. Baggio, and J.-L. Leray, “Radiation-induced effects in a new class of optical waveguides: the air-guiding photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.52(6), 2683–2688 (2005). [CrossRef]
  10. G. Cheymol, H. Long, J. F. Villard, and B. Brichard, “High level gamma and neutron irradiation of silica optical fibers in CEA OSIRIS nuclear reactor,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.55(4), 2252–2258 (2008). [CrossRef]
  11. H. Henschel, J. Kuhnhenn, and U. Weinand, “High radiation hardness of a hollow core photonic bandgap fiber,” in 8th European Conference on Radiation and Its Effects on Components and Systems, RADECS 2005, paper LN4 (2005).
  12. S. Girard, A. Yahya, A. Boukenter, Y. Ouerdane, J.-P. Meunier, R. E. Kristiansen, and G. Vienne, “Gamma-radiation-induced attenuation in photonic crystal fibre,” IEE Electron. Lett.38(20), 1169–1171 (2002). [CrossRef]
  13. A. F. Kosolapov, I. V. Nikolin, A. L. Tomashuk, S. L. Semjonov, and M. O. Zabezhailov, “Optical losses in as-prepared and gamma-irradiated microstructured silica-core optical fibers,” Inorg. Mater.40(11), 1229–1232 (2004). [CrossRef]
  14. S. Girard, J. Baggio, J.-L. Leray, J.-P. Meunier, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “Vulnerability analysis of optical fibers for Laser Megajoule facility: preliminary studies,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.52(5), 1497–1503 (2005). [CrossRef]
  15. C. Lion, “The LMJ program: an overview,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser.244(1), 012003 (2010). [CrossRef]
  16. A. Johan, B. Azaïs, C. Malaval, G. Raboisson, and M. Roche, “ASTERIX, un nouveau moyen pour la simulation des effets de débit de dose sur l’électronique,” Ann. Phys.14, 379–393 (1989).
  17. D. L. Griscom, E. J. Friebele, K. J. Long, and J. W. Fleming, “Fundamental defect centers in glass: electron spin resonance and optical absorption studies of irradiated phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.54(7), 3743–3762 (1983). [CrossRef]
  18. J. Bisutti, “Etude de la transmission du signal sous irradiation transitoire dans les fibres optiques,” Thèse de Doctorat (Université de Saint-Etienne, 2010).
  19. D. L. Griscom, “Self-trapped holes in pure-silica glass: a history of their discovery and characterization and an example of their critical significance to industry,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(23-25), 2601–2617 (2006). [CrossRef]
  20. S. Girard, D. L. Griscom, J. Baggio, B. Brichard, and F. Berghmans, “Transient optical absorption in pulsed-X-ray-irradiated pure-silica-core optical fibers: influence of self-trapped holes,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(23-25), 2637–2642 (2006). [CrossRef]
  21. P. V. Chernov, E. M. Dianov, V. N. Karpechev, L. S. Kornienko, I. O. Morozova, A. O. Rybaltovskii, V. O. Sokolov, and V. B. Sulimov, “Spectroscopic manifestations of self-trapped holes in silica. Theory and experiment,” Phys. Status Solidi B115, 663–675 (1989).
  22. E. Régnier, I. Flammer, S. Girard, F. Gooijer, F. Achten, and G. Kuyt, “Low-dose radiation-induced attenuation at InfraRed wavelengths for P-doped, Ge-doped and pure silica-core optical fibres,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.54(4), 1115–1119 (2007). [CrossRef]
  23. Y. Sasajima and K. Tanimura, “Optical transitions of self-trapped holes in amorphous SiO2,” Phys. Rev. B68(1), 014204 (2003). [CrossRef]
  24. M. Yamaguchi, K. Saito, and A. J. Ikushima, “Fictive-temperature-dependence of photoinduced self-trapped holes in a-SiO2,” Phys. Rev. B68(15), 153204 (2003). [CrossRef]

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