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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 22 — Oct. 24, 2011
  • pp: 21842–21848
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Reflection of nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses in ablation of metals

O. Benavides, O. Lebedeva, and V. Golikov  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 22, pp. 21842-21848 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.021842


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Abstract

Hemispherical total reflectivity of copper, nickel, and tungsten in ablation by nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses in air of atmospheric pressure is experimentally studied as a function of laser fluence in the range of 0.1–100 J/cm2. Our experiment shows that at laser fluences below the plasma formation threshold the reflectivity of mechanically polished metals remains virtually equal to the table room-temperature reflectivity values. The hemispherical total reflectivity of the studied metals begins to drop at a laser fluence of the plasma formation threshold. With increasing laser fluence above the plasma formation threshold the reflectivity sharply decreases to a low value and then remains unchanged with further increasing laser fluence. Computation of the surface temperature at the plasma formation threshold fluence reveals that its value is substantially below the melting point that indicates an important role of the surface nanostructural defects in the plasma formation on a real sample due to their enhanced heating caused by both plasmonic absorption and plasmonic nanofocusing.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

In this work, we investigate the hemispherical total reflection of the nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses in ablation of Cu, Ni, and W into air of the atmospheric pressure. The hemispherical total reflection is studied as a function of laser fluence in a range of 0.1–100 J/cm2. In our study, we use the samples with the surfaces that are not ideal and have initial surface defects, impurities, oxides, and adsorbates (as in many practical cases of materials processing). The obtained experimental results show that the reflectivity of metals begins to drop at a laser fluence of the plasma formation threshold. With increasing laser fluence above the plasma formation threshold, the reflectivity of the studied metals drops rapidly to a low value of about 0.10–0.15 that remains unchanged with further increasing laser fluence. The computation of the surface temperature at the plasma formation threshold shows that its value is below the melting point that indicates an important role of the surface imperfections in the plasma formation on the real samples.

2. Experimental

3. Results and discussion

The plasma formation thresholds averaged over ten measurements were measured to be 2.05, 0.9, and 0.95 J/cm2 for Cu, Ni, and W, respectively. The values of the damage threshold were found to be only slightly lower than those for the plasma formation threshold. Similar relation between the damage and plasma formation thresholds was previously observed in ablation of Al [27

27. A. Y. Vorobyev, V. M. Kuzmichev, N. G. Kokody, P. Kohns, J. Dai, and C. Guo, “Residual thermal effects in Al following single ns- and fs-laser pulse ablation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 82(2), 357–362 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. The reflectivity as a function of laser fluence in ablation of Cu, Ni, and W in air of the atmospheric pressure is shown in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Hemispherical total reflectivity of Cu, Ni, and W as function of laser fluence for ablation in 1-atm air.
. It is seen that the reflectivity of the studied metals remains constant at low laser fluences. At these low fluences, the irradiated surface does not undergo any surface damage and the reflectivity values are 0.9, 0.72, and 0.6 for Cu, Ni, and W, respectively. These reflectivity values agree with available table values of the room-temperature reflectivity for mechanically polished surfaces [28

28. G. W. C. Kaye and T. H. Laby, Tables of Physical and Chemical Constants 11th ed. (Longmans, 1956).

,29

29. B. T. Barnes, “Optical constants of incandescent refractory metals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56(11), 1546–1550 (1966). [CrossRef]

]. The plots of R(F) in Fig. 2 show that the reflectivity begins to decrease rapidly at a threshold fluence of 2.0, 0.9, and 0.9 for Cu, Ni, and W, respectively. These threshold fluences of a sharp reflectance drop coincide with the measured plasma formation thresholds within the experimental uncertainty. As can be seen in Fig. 2, as the laser fluence increases further, the reflectivity drops (to about 0.19, 0.14, and 0.11 for Cu, Ni, and W, respectively) and then remains unchanged with further increasing fluence.

The above observations indicate the correlation between the reflectivity drop and plasma formation. In general, the reflectivity reduction can be caused by Drude’s temperature dependence of the optical constants and absorption of laser light in a laser-induced plasma. In order to ascertain the role of Drude’s temperature dependence of the optical constants on the reflectivity, we computed the surface temperature, Tsurf, of the samples at the plasma formation threshold fluences using the following formula [30

30. J. F. Ready, Effects of High-Power Laser Radiation (Academic Press, 1971).

]
Tsurf(t)=(1R)akπ0tI(tτ)τdτ+T0
(1)
where a is the thermal diffusivity, k is the thermal conductivity, I is the intensity of the incident laser light, t is the time, T0 is the initial temperature, and τ is the integration variable. The computed dependencies Tsurf(t) are shown in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Surface temperature of Cu, Ni, and W as function of time at the plasma formation threshold laser fluence.
, where it is seen that the maximum surface temperature is about 210, 500, and 700 °C for Cu, Ni, and W, respectively. These surface temperature values are significantly smaller than the melting points of studied metals (1083, 1453, and 3410 °C for Cu, Ni, and W, respectively). An experimental study [31

31. S. D. Pudkov, “Change in the reflection coefficients of copper and aluminum at high temperatures,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 22(3), 389–391 (1977).

] showsthat the reflectivity of a polished Cu sample smoothly decreases by about 2% in a temperature range of 20–400 °C. Experimental data on the absorptivity of tungsten [29

29. B. T. Barnes, “Optical constants of incandescent refractory metals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56(11), 1546–1550 (1966). [CrossRef]

] show an increase of the absorptivity from 0.38 to 042 in the temperature range between 20 and 2100 °C; and this absorptivity increase is smooth (without any significant change at the temperature of about 700 °C). The reflectivity of liquid nickel is 0.68 [32

32. S. Krishnan, K. J. Yugawa, and P. C. Nordine, “Optical properties of liquid nickel and iron,” Phys. Rev. B 55(13), 8201–8206 (1997). [CrossRef]

] that is slightly smaller the table value of the room-temperature reflectivity (0.72) [28

28. G. W. C. Kaye and T. H. Laby, Tables of Physical and Chemical Constants 11th ed. (Longmans, 1956).

]. Hence, the reflectivity drop occurring in our experiment at 210, 500, and 700°C on Cu, Ni, and W surfaces cannot be explained by Drude’s temperature dependence and is indeed caused by the plasma effect. The plasma formation observed in our experiment at low surface temperature indicates that the imperfections on the sample surface play an important role in inducing an optical breakdown. For example, such surface structural defects as nanoscratches, nanoprotrusions, and nanopits commonly present on the mechanically polished surfaces can be locally heated to a high temperature due to plasmonic absorption [33

33. A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Enhanced absorptance of gold following multi-pulse femtosecond laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. B 72(19), 195422 (2005). [CrossRef]

35

35. D. Eversole, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. Ben-Yakar, “Plasmonic laser nanoablation of silicon by the scattering of femtosecond pulses near gold nanospheres,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 89(2), 283–291 (2007). [CrossRef]

] and plasmonic nanofocusing [36

36. S. J. Tan and D. K. Gramotnev, “Heating effects in nanofocusing metal wedges,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(3), 034310 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. These “hot nanospots” on cold (on average) surface can be sources of both thermally ionized species and thermionically emitted electrons, which due acceleration through inverse-bremsstrahlung mechanism can trigger an avalanche air optical breakdown. When the plasma forms in front of the irradiated sample, the reflection and absorption of laser light by the sample dramatically changes due to absorption of the laser light in the plasma. For ablation into the background gas, the reflection/absorption of laser energy by the sample is more complicated than in the vacuum due to generation of laser-supported absorption waves (laser-supported combustion wave and laser-supported detonation wave) [37

37. L. J. Radziemski and D. A. Cremers, eds., Laser-Induced Plasmas and Applications (Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1989).

,38

38. S.-B. Wen, X. Mao, R. Greif, and R. E. Russo, “Laser ablation induced vapor plume expansion into a background gas. II. Experimental analysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(2), 023115 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. Under these conditions, the reflection of the laser beam occurs from a sample-plasma system [25

25. A. Ya. Vorob’ev, “Reflection of the pulsed ruby laser radiation by a copper target in air and in vacuum,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 490–493 (1985). [CrossRef]

]. Assuming negligible laser light scattering from particulates ejected from the sample and negligible reflections at both air/air-plasma and air-plasma/vapor-plasma boundaries, the laser beam reflection will occur as schematically shown in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Reflection of the laser pulse from the sample-plasma system: I(t) is the incident laser pulse intensity; I(t)exp[(t)] is the laser pulse intensity that arrives at the sample surface, here θ(t) is the total optical thickness of the plasma; I(t)R(t))exp[(t)] is the laser pulse intensity reflected from the sample surface; I(t)R(t))exp[-2θ(t)] is the laser pulse intensity that comes out from the sample-plasma system.
. Although the plasma reduces the laser energy that arrives at the sample surface, it can contribute to energy deposition into the sample through the transfer of a fraction of its stored thermal energy to the sample [25

25. A. Ya. Vorob’ev, “Reflection of the pulsed ruby laser radiation by a copper target in air and in vacuum,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 490–493 (1985). [CrossRef]

,27

27. A. Y. Vorobyev, V. M. Kuzmichev, N. G. Kokody, P. Kohns, J. Dai, and C. Guo, “Residual thermal effects in Al following single ns- and fs-laser pulse ablation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 82(2), 357–362 (2006). [CrossRef]

,39

39. N. M. Bulgakova, V. P. Zhukov, A. Y. Vorobyev, and C. Guo, “Modeling of residual thermal effect in femtosecond laser ablation of metals. Role of gas environment,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 92(4), 883–889 (2008). [CrossRef]

].

Previously, a number of theoretical models that include the absorption of laser radiation in the plasma produced by ablation into vacuum and background gas [40

40. R. K. Singh and J. Narayan, “Pulsed-laser evaporation technique for deposition of thin films: physics and theoretical model,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 41(13), 8843–8859 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

50

50. M. Aghaei, S. Mehrabian, and S. H. Tavassoli, “Simulation of nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of copper samples: a focus on laser induced plasma radiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(5), 053303 (2008). [CrossRef]

] have been developed. However, satisfactory understanding of reflection/absorption of the laser energy is still lacking and the value of the laser energy absorbed by the sample actually remains a parameter of intuitive choice. We believe that our experimental data can be useful for further advancing theoretical models of the nanosecond laser ablation.

4. Conclusions

In this work, the total reflectivity of the mechanically polished Cu, Ni, and W samples in ablation by nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses in air of the atmospheric pressure is experimentally studied as a function of laser fluence in the range of 0.1–100 J/cm2. Our experiment shows that at laser fluences below the plasma formation thresholds the reflectivity of the studied metals remains virtually equal to the table room-temperature reflectivity values for mechanically polished surfaces. The total reflectivity of the studied metals begins to drop at the laser fluence of the plasma formation threshold. With increasing laser fluence above the plasma formation threshold, the reflectivity drops sharply to a low value (to about 0.19, 0.14, and 0.11 for Cu, Ni, and W, respectively) and then remains unchanged with further increasing laser fluence. The computation of temperature of the irradiated surface at the plasma formation threshold fluence shows that the surface temperature is substantially below the melting point that indicates an important role of the surface nanostructural defects in the plasma formation on the real sample due to their enhanced heating caused by both plasmonic absorption and plasmonic nanofocusing.

References and links

1.

D. Bäuerle, Laser Processing and Chemistry (Springer, 2000).

2.

D. B. Chrisey and G. K. Hubler, eds., Pulsed Laser Deposition of Thin Films (Wiley, 1994).

3.

D. Marla, U. V. Bhandarkar, and S. S. Joshi, “Critical assessment of the issues in the modeling of ablation and plasma expansion processes in the pulsed laser deposition of metals,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(2), 021101 (2011). [CrossRef]

4.

L. Li, M. Hong, M. Schmidt, M. Zhong, A. Malshe, B. H. In’tveld, and V. Kovalenko, “Laser nano-manufacturing—State of the art and challenges,” CIRP. Annals.—Manufacturing,” Technology 60(2), 735–755 (2011).

5.

R. Kelly and J. E. Rothenberg, “Laser sputtering. Part III. The mechanism of the sputtering of metals low energy densities,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 7–8, 755–763 (1985). [CrossRef]

6.

Z. B. Wang, M. H. Hong, B. S. Luk’yanchuk, S. M. Huang, Q. F. Wang, L. P. Shi, and T. C. Chong, “Parallel nanostructuring of GeSbTe film with particle mask,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 79(4–6), 1603–1606 (2004). [CrossRef]

7.

V. N. Tokarev, “Viscous liquid expulsion in nanosecond UV laser ablation: From “clean” ablation to nanostructures,” Laser Phys. 16(9), 1291–1307 (2006). [CrossRef]

8.

V. Zorba, N. Boukos, I. Zergioti, and C. Fotakis, “Ultraviolet femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser microstructuring of silicon: structural and optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 47(11), 1846–1850 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

S. Camacho-Lopez, R. Evans, L. Escobar-Alarcon, M. A. Camacho-Lopez, and M. A. Camacho-Lopez, “Polarization-dependent single-beam laser-induced grating-like effects on titanium films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(5), 3028–3032 (2008). [CrossRef]

10.

S. I. Dolgaev, J. M. Fernandez-Pradas, J. L. Morenza, P. Serra, and G. A. Shafeev, “Growth of large microcones in steel under multipulsed Nd:YAG laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 83(3), 417–420 (2006). [CrossRef]

11.

S. T. Hendow and S. A. Shakir, “Structuring materials with nanosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10188–10199 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

A. Abdolvand, R. W. Lloyd, M. J. J. Schmidt, D. J. Whitehead, Z. Liu, and L. Li, “Formation of highly organized, periodic microstructures on steel surfaces upon pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(2), 447–452 (2009). [CrossRef]

13.

N. M. Bulgakova, A. N. Panchenko, A. E. Tel’minov, and M. A. Shulepov, “Formation of microtower structures in nanosecond laser ablation of liquid metals,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 98(2), 393–400 (2010). [CrossRef]

14.

A. J. Pedraza, J. D. Fowlkes, and Y.-F. Guan, “Surface nanostructuring of silicon,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 77(2), 277–284 (2003).

15.

D. A. Cremers and R. C. Chinni, “Laser-induced spectroscopy—capabilities and limitations,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 44(6), 457–506 (2009). [CrossRef]

16.

J. L. Gottfried, F. C. De Lucia Jr, C. A. Munson, and A. W. Miziolek, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection of explosives residues: a review of recent advances, challenges, and future prospects,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 395(2), 283–300 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

A. A. Puretzky, D. B. Geohegan, G. E. Jellison Jr, and M. M. McGibbon, “Comparative diagnostics of ArF- and KrF-laser generated carbon plumes used for amorphous diamond-like carbon film deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 96–98, 859–865 (1996). [CrossRef]

18.

J. Haverkamp, R. M. Mayo, M. A. Bourham, J. Narayan, C. Jin, and G. Duscher, “Plasma plume characteristics and properties of pulsed laser deposited diamond-like carbon films,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(6), 3627–3634 (2003). [CrossRef]

19.

A. Kurella and N. B. Dahotre, “Review paper: surface modification for bioimplants: the role of laser surface engineering,” J. Biomater. Appl. 20(1), 5–50 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

A. M. Bonch-Bruevich, Y. A. Imas, G. S. Romanov, M. N. Libenson, and L. N. Mal’tsev, “Effect of a laser pulse on the reflecting power of a metal,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 13(5), 640–643 (1968).

21.

N. G. Basov, V. A. Boiko, O. N. Krokhin, O. G. Semenov, and G. V. Sklizkov, “Reduction of reflection coefficient for intense laser radiation on solid surfaces,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 13(1), 1581–1582 (1969).

22.

J. F. Ready, “Change of reflectivity of metallic surfaces during irradiation by CO2-TEA laser pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12(2), 137–142 (1976). [CrossRef]

23.

T. E. Zavecz, M. A. Saifi, and M. Notis, “Metal reflectivity under high-intensity optical radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26(4), 165–168 (1975). [CrossRef]

24.

Yu. I. Dymshits, “Reflection of intense radiation from a thin metal film,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 22(7), 901–902 (1977).

25.

A. Ya. Vorob’ev, “Reflection of the pulsed ruby laser radiation by a copper target in air and in vacuum,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 490–493 (1985). [CrossRef]

26.

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Reflection of femtosecond laser light in multipulse ablation of metals,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(4), 043102 (2011). [CrossRef]

27.

A. Y. Vorobyev, V. M. Kuzmichev, N. G. Kokody, P. Kohns, J. Dai, and C. Guo, “Residual thermal effects in Al following single ns- and fs-laser pulse ablation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 82(2), 357–362 (2006). [CrossRef]

28.

G. W. C. Kaye and T. H. Laby, Tables of Physical and Chemical Constants 11th ed. (Longmans, 1956).

29.

B. T. Barnes, “Optical constants of incandescent refractory metals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56(11), 1546–1550 (1966). [CrossRef]

30.

J. F. Ready, Effects of High-Power Laser Radiation (Academic Press, 1971).

31.

S. D. Pudkov, “Change in the reflection coefficients of copper and aluminum at high temperatures,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 22(3), 389–391 (1977).

32.

S. Krishnan, K. J. Yugawa, and P. C. Nordine, “Optical properties of liquid nickel and iron,” Phys. Rev. B 55(13), 8201–8206 (1997). [CrossRef]

33.

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Enhanced absorptance of gold following multi-pulse femtosecond laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. B 72(19), 195422 (2005). [CrossRef]

34.

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Femtosecond laser blackening of platinum,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(5), 053516 (2008). [CrossRef]

35.

D. Eversole, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. Ben-Yakar, “Plasmonic laser nanoablation of silicon by the scattering of femtosecond pulses near gold nanospheres,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 89(2), 283–291 (2007). [CrossRef]

36.

S. J. Tan and D. K. Gramotnev, “Heating effects in nanofocusing metal wedges,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(3), 034310 (2011). [CrossRef]

37.

L. J. Radziemski and D. A. Cremers, eds., Laser-Induced Plasmas and Applications (Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1989).

38.

S.-B. Wen, X. Mao, R. Greif, and R. E. Russo, “Laser ablation induced vapor plume expansion into a background gas. II. Experimental analysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(2), 023115 (2007). [CrossRef]

39.

N. M. Bulgakova, V. P. Zhukov, A. Y. Vorobyev, and C. Guo, “Modeling of residual thermal effect in femtosecond laser ablation of metals. Role of gas environment,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 92(4), 883–889 (2008). [CrossRef]

40.

R. K. Singh and J. Narayan, “Pulsed-laser evaporation technique for deposition of thin films: physics and theoretical model,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 41(13), 8843–8859 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

41.

A. Peterlongo, A. Miotello, and R. Kelly, “Laser-pulse sputtering of aluminum: vaporization, boiling, superheating, and gas-dynamic effects,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 50(6), 4716–4727 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

42.

J. R. Ho, C. P. Grigoropoulos, and J. A. C. Humphrey, “Computational study of heat transfer and gas dynamics in the pulsed laser evaporation of metals,” J. Appl. Phys. 78(7), 4696–4709 (1995). [CrossRef]

43.

S. Amoruso, “Modeling of UV pulsed-laser ablation of metallic targets,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(3), 323–332 (1999). [CrossRef]

44.

A. V. Bulgakov and N. M. Bulgakova, “Thermal model of pulsed laser ablation under the conditions of formation and heating of a radiation-absorbing plasma,” Quantum Electron. 29(5), 433–437 (1999). [CrossRef]

45.

N. M. Bulgakova and A. V. Bulgakov; “Pulsed laser ablation of solids: transition from normal vaporization to phase explosion,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 73(2), 199–208 (2001). [CrossRef]

46.

N. M. Bulgakova, A. V. Bulgakov, and L. P. Babich, “Energy balance of pulsed laser ablation: thermal model revised,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 79(4–6), 1323–1326 (2004).

47.

Z. Chen and A. Bogaerts, “Laser ablation of Cu and plume expansion into 1 atm ambient gas,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(6), 063305 (2005). [CrossRef]

48.

D. Marla, U. V. Bhandarkar, and S. S. Joshi, “Critical assessment of the issues in the modeling of ablation and plasma expansion processes in the pulsed laser deposition of metals,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(2), 021101 (2011). [CrossRef]

49.

T. E. Itina, J. Hermann, P. Delaporte, and M. Sentis, “Laser-generated plasma plume expansion: combined continuous-microscopic modeling,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(6), 066406 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

50.

M. Aghaei, S. Mehrabian, and S. H. Tavassoli, “Simulation of nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of copper samples: a focus on laser induced plasma radiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(5), 053303 (2008). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(120.5700) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Reflection
(140.3390) Lasers and laser optics : Laser materials processing
(160.0160) Materials : Materials
(160.3900) Materials : Metals
(240.0240) Optics at surfaces : Optics at surfaces

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: August 31, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: September 20, 2011
Published: October 20, 2011

Citation
O. Benavides, O. Lebedeva, and V. Golikov, "Reflection of nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses in ablation of metals," Opt. Express 19, 21842-21848 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-22-21842


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References

  1. D. Bäuerle, Laser Processing and Chemistry (Springer, 2000).
  2. D. B. Chrisey and G. K. Hubler, eds., Pulsed Laser Deposition of Thin Films (Wiley, 1994).
  3. D. Marla, U. V. Bhandarkar, and S. S. Joshi, “Critical assessment of the issues in the modeling of ablation and plasma expansion processes in the pulsed laser deposition of metals,” J. Appl. Phys.109(2), 021101 (2011). [CrossRef]
  4. L. Li, M. Hong, M. Schmidt, M. Zhong, A. Malshe, B. H. In’tveld, and V. Kovalenko, “Laser nano-manufacturing—State of the art and challenges,” CIRP. Annals.—Manufacturing,” Technology60(2), 735–755 (2011).
  5. R. Kelly and J. E. Rothenberg, “Laser sputtering. Part III. The mechanism of the sputtering of metals low energy densities,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B7–8, 755–763 (1985). [CrossRef]
  6. Z. B. Wang, M. H. Hong, B. S. Luk’yanchuk, S. M. Huang, Q. F. Wang, L. P. Shi, and T. C. Chong, “Parallel nanostructuring of GeSbTe film with particle mask,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.79(4–6), 1603–1606 (2004). [CrossRef]
  7. V. N. Tokarev, “Viscous liquid expulsion in nanosecond UV laser ablation: From “clean” ablation to nanostructures,” Laser Phys.16(9), 1291–1307 (2006). [CrossRef]
  8. V. Zorba, N. Boukos, I. Zergioti, and C. Fotakis, “Ultraviolet femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser microstructuring of silicon: structural and optical properties,” Appl. Opt.47(11), 1846–1850 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Camacho-Lopez, R. Evans, L. Escobar-Alarcon, M. A. Camacho-Lopez, and M. A. Camacho-Lopez, “Polarization-dependent single-beam laser-induced grating-like effects on titanium films,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255(5), 3028–3032 (2008). [CrossRef]
  10. S. I. Dolgaev, J. M. Fernandez-Pradas, J. L. Morenza, P. Serra, and G. A. Shafeev, “Growth of large microcones in steel under multipulsed Nd:YAG laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.83(3), 417–420 (2006). [CrossRef]
  11. S. T. Hendow and S. A. Shakir, “Structuring materials with nanosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express18(10), 10188–10199 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. Abdolvand, R. W. Lloyd, M. J. J. Schmidt, D. J. Whitehead, Z. Liu, and L. Li, “Formation of highly organized, periodic microstructures on steel surfaces upon pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.95(2), 447–452 (2009). [CrossRef]
  13. N. M. Bulgakova, A. N. Panchenko, A. E. Tel’minov, and M. A. Shulepov, “Formation of microtower structures in nanosecond laser ablation of liquid metals,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.98(2), 393–400 (2010). [CrossRef]
  14. A. J. Pedraza, J. D. Fowlkes, and Y.-F. Guan, “Surface nanostructuring of silicon,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.77(2), 277–284 (2003).
  15. D. A. Cremers and R. C. Chinni, “Laser-induced spectroscopy—capabilities and limitations,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev.44(6), 457–506 (2009). [CrossRef]
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