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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 22 — Oct. 24, 2011
  • pp: 22219–22226
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Nanodiamond induced high-Q resonances in defect-free photonic crystal slabs

Snjezana Tomljenovic-Hanic, Andrew D. Greentree, Brant C. Gibson, Timothy J. Karle, and Steven Prawer  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 22, pp. 22219-22226 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.022219


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Abstract

We demonstrate that a high-Q photonic crystal cavity can be induced by the presence of a nanodiamond (ND) on the air-hole side wall in an otherwise defect-free photonic crystal. The ND itself acts as the perturbation, increasing the average refractive index, necessary to define the cavity; therefore self-aligned with the cavity. Such cavities are potentially useful for exploiting cavity quantum electro-dynamic interactions between fluorescent NDs and the cavity. A single ND can induce a cavity with Q~3 × 104 and two or more ND particles can induce a cavity with Q~1.5 × 105. We show numerically that perturbing the position and the size of the NDs has little effect on the cavity properties.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

Despite the progress in quantum information and communication technology (QICT), there is still no clear leading platform, and the variety of applications seems to suggest many niches for the competing platform technologies. However long-range quantum communication seems to require robust stationary to flying qubit conversion, and ideally these flying qubits should be visible or telecom band photons to take advantage of conventional optical infrastructure. Cavity quantum electrodynamic (CQED) approaches to this interconversion seem most natural, and have been widely studied [1

1. H. Mabuchi and A. C. Doherty, “Cavity quantum electrodynamics: coherence in context,” Science 298(5597), 1372–1377 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In general, such schemes require a large dipole moment atomic system, and high quality factor and low mode volume cavities. This regime is to enable strong coherent coupling between the dipole, and especially the ground states of the dipole, and the radiation. The strong coupling regime also enables directed photonic output, which is also necessary for device integration. The difficulty is that systems which host large dipole moment systems are generally different from mainstream, optimized photonic platforms. This platform mismatch creates large difficulties in the design of practical quantum devices and is a key limitation to the development of QICT.

The manipulation of ND has been reported with the primary aim of combining the emission of diamond color centers with conventional optical media. The nano-manipulation of single diamond nano-crystals has been achieved using a tapered optical fibre probe in a standard scanning electron microscope (SEM) with a nano-manipulator [17

17. E. Ampem-Lassen, D. A. Simpson, B. C. Gibson, S. Trpkovski, F. M. Hossain, S. T. Huntington, K. Ganesan, L. C. L. Hollenberg, and S. Prawer, “Nano-manipulation of diamond-based single photon sources,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11287–11293 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], an atomic force microscope (AFM) [18

18. M. Barth, N. Nüsse, B. Löchel, and O. Benson, “Controlled coupling of a single-diamond nanocrystal to a photonic crystal cavity,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 1108–1110 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], a scanning confocal microscope/AFM system [19

19. G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature 455(7213), 648–651 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and scanning near field optical microscopes (SNOMs) whereby the nano-particle is attached to a tapered optical probe containing a thin layer of PMMA [8

8. S. Kühn, C. Hettich, C. Schmitt, J.-Ph. Poizat, and V. Sandoghdar, “Diamond colour centres as a nanoscopic light source for scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Microsc. 202(Pt 1), 2–6 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] or by scanning the probe close to the substrate to attract the particle to the tip [20

20. A. Cuche, Y. Sonnefraud, O. Faklaris, D. Garrot, J. P. Boudou, T. Sauvage, J. F. Roch, F. Treussart, and S. Huant, “Diamond nanoparticles as photoluminescent nanoprobes for biology and near-field optics,” J. Lumin. 129(12), 1475–1477 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. Each technique allows the specific placement of diamond nanocrystals on the surface of the structure but only the SEM with a nano-manipulator can inspect and manipulate individual nanodiamonds in real-time onto a range of substrates (transparent and opaque) and waveguiding devices with nano-scale precision. In general, nano-scale precision is required to ensure that the dipole is within the evanescent field of the mode, and in practice such location is a time consuming task. Hence methods that can increase the potential yield of fluorescent nanodiamond-cavity devices are sought after.

2. Model and method

To illustrate our concept for a self-aligned ND cavity, for concreteness, we consider a photonic crystal slab, and the inclusion of 60nm and 100 nm ND particles placed on the side-walls of holes depending on the exact implementation, as shown in Fig. 1(a)
Fig. 1 (a) SEM image showing a defect-free photonic crystal slab with one ~50 nm ND inside the hole and (b) the principle of confining the photonic band gap edge modes by shifting the air band-edge, ΔλPBG, inside the photonic band gap (PBG). ΔλPBG = 10 nm, with all holes containing 60 nm large NDs and ΔλPBG = 46 nm with 100 nm large NDs. m = 0 denotes the fundamental and m = 1 denotes the first order mode.
. GaP is chosen as it is a high refractive index material (n = 3.4) that is transparent in the red to near infra-red, and therefore suitable for operation at the typical wavelengths of ND colour centres, especially the negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centre. Typical sizes of the ND of 60-100 nm are chosen, as this gives a significant yield of ND containing one and only NV centre [23

23. J. R. Rabeau, A. Stacey, A. Rabeau, S. Prawer, F. Jelezko, I. Mirza, and J. Wrachtrup, “Single nitrogen vacancy centers in chemical vapor deposited diamond nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3433–3437 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. As stated above, SEM-based manipulation can be used to locate ND on the side walls of the PCS, and this is shown in Fig. 1(a) where an ND has been placed on the side wall of a milled hole in silicon using the method of Ref [17

17. E. Ampem-Lassen, D. A. Simpson, B. C. Gibson, S. Trpkovski, F. M. Hossain, S. T. Huntington, K. Ganesan, L. C. L. Hollenberg, and S. Prawer, “Nano-manipulation of diamond-based single photon sources,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11287–11293 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

The refractive index of diamond is n = 2.4, which is significantly larger than the refractive index of air, n = 1. Therefore the average refractive index in a finite region is increased by presence of ND. When the refractive index is increased, the bands of PCS shift to the lower frequencies, see Fig. 1 (b). The mode forming at the top of the band gap (the air band-edge mode) enters the photonic band gap (PBG) of the unaffected structure surrounding this region [22

22. S. Tomljenovic-Hanic and C. M. de Sterke, “Design of ultrahigh-Q photoinduced cavities in defect-free photonic crystal slabs,” Opt. Express 18(20), 21397–21403 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,24

24. F. Bordas, M. J. Steel, C. Seassal, and A. Rahmani, “Confinement of band-edge modes in a photonic crystal slab,” Opt. Express 15(17), 10890–10902 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. If all holes are populated with NDs this shift is ΔλPBG = 10 nm for 60 nm large NDs and ΔλPBG = 46 nm for the 100 nm large ND. This also results in a mode being localized to the region with the induced refractive index change—this region thus forms a cavity. When an ND is placed on the top of the PCS the air-band edge shift is significantly smaller. For example, it is less than 4 nm for the 60 nm large ND and less than 8 nm for the 100 nm large ND. Diamond is transparent throughout the visible spectrum and therefore provides no additional material losses to our structure. Here we turn the refractive index perturbation to our advantage.

We consider a photonic crystal slab with a hexagonal array of cylindrical air holes, see Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic showing a defect-free photonic crystal slab with (a) one ND inside the hole, (b) two NDs inside one hole, (c) eleven NDs inside nine holes and (d) alternate configuration of eleven NDs in nine holes. The period is a, the radius of the holes is R = 0.29*a.
. The structure has 51 periods both in the x- and y-directions. The period is a, the radius of the holes is R = 0.29*a, and the thickness of the slab is h = 0.6*a. The structure can be scaled to the emission wavelength for any diamond optical centre. If the wavelength of interest is λ = 637 nm, the Zero Phonon Line (ZPL) transition of NV, the parameters are: a = 208 (207) nm, R = 60 nm and h = 125 nm. Periodicity is chosen according to the condition of aligning a particular high-Q cavity mode to the ZPL.The schematic of three main configurations considered in this paper are shown in Fig. 2 (a)-(c). In all configurations the shape of NDs is approximated as a cylinder with a height hd = 50 nm. The radius of cylinder is Rd = 30 nm or Rd = 50 nm. Note that hole size limits the size of ND. Other ND shapes were modeled (sphere and cube), but the cavity properties are insignificantly affected by the geometry. Similarly we modeled variations in the positions of the ND within the air holes and found negligible variation in the cavity properties as the NDs were moved around the circumference of the hole.

We investigate several geometries of ND in holes to highlight different cavity designs. First, we investigate a PCS with a single ND positioned in any of air-holes as shown in Fig. 2(a). Second, we investigate a configuration with two NDs positioned in one hole, as shown in Fig. 2(b). Third, we investigate a PCS with eleven NDs of different sizes placed in nine air-holes, as shown in Fig. 2(c). The last configuration shown in Fig. 2(d) is an alternate structure with eleven NDs in nine holes, with different properties from the structure in Fig. 2(c).

The three-dimensional Plane Wave Expansion Method is used for photonic band gap calculations of a defect-free structure. The three-dimensional Finite-Difference Time-Domain on a cluster of machines is used for the cavity resonances calculations: quality factor, frequency and mode profiles. The computational window is reduced eight times using the field symmetry properties but a ND in the central air-hole in Fig. 2 is placed in non-physical position, in the centre of the air-hole. The exact location of any ND within a single air-hole does not affect quality factor. Satisfactory convergence is obtained by using 32 points per period. The perfectly-matched layer width and the height of the computational window are chosen to be 2a and 4h. The modal volume and partial quality factors, Qx, Qy and Qz, are obtained in post-processing. The modal volume is calculated using: UdV/max(U) where U=ε|E|2/2 is the electric energy density.

3. Results

In Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Major electric field components, (a) Ex and (b) Ey, in the plane and their Fourier transform (c)-(d) for the first-order mode. There is one ND with radius Rd = 50 nm and height hd = 50 nm. The circle in (b) and (d) indicates the light-line.
we show the major field components and their FTs for the first order mode. The symmetries are now reversed for the Ex and the Ey component. Comparing FTs in Figs. 3 (b) and 3 (d) with FT shown in Figs. 4 (b) and 4 (d) it is obvious why these modes have similar Qs. The total quality factor, for both modes, is limited by out-of-plane losses.

4. Conclusions

We have presented a new hybrid PCS design that allows us to take full advantage of existing photonic crystal device structures. There is no pre-defined defect and therefore a cavity can be induced in any desired location. Our approach does not require any local perturbations to the periodic photonic crystal spacing, with the perturbation required to define the cavity being provided by the inclusion of the ND itself. Releasing the scheme from defined local variations in hole periodicity is important as uniform hole arrays can be defined to far greater accuracy than local shifts. As the ND itself defines the cavity, in our simplest design of a single ND intrusion on a hole side wall, the cavity and dipole are self-aligned. The main advantage of this approach in comparison to the other hybrid approaches is that the ND is located in the maximum of the electric field and therefore has better prospect for the strong coupling regime. Further advantage of this scheme over more traditional cavities is the relative robustness of the design to fabrication variations. This feature is especially important for cavity-QED experiments. Precise tuning of the cavity resonance to the fluorescence line of the dipole under consideration is still necessary in our design, as it is with most cavity designs, although the SEM nanomanipulation approach provides an interesting possibility for tuning the cavity. After the initial ND has been introduced, it is possible to use nanomanipulation to insert additional (non-fluorescent) ND around the first ND, to extend from the single ND case to that of many ND as seen in Fig. 2. Even though we considered a ND in high refractive index photonic crystal implementation, it should be clear that our approach is equally valid for other implementations, for example quantum dot based approaches.

Acknowledgment

This work was produced with the assistance of the Australian Research Council (ARC) under the Discovery project scheme (project number DP1096288) and by an award under the Merit Allocation Scheme on the National Facility of the Australian Partnership for Advanced Computing. S.T-H. is supported by the ARC Australian Research Fellowship (project number DP1096288). A.D.G. acknowledges the support of an ARC QEII Fellowship (project number DP0880466).

References and links

1.

H. Mabuchi and A. C. Doherty, “Cavity quantum electrodynamics: coherence in context,” Science 298(5597), 1372–1377 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, D. A. Simpson, C.-H. Su, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, “Diamond-based single-photon emitters,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 74(7), 076501 (2011). [CrossRef]

3.

S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. J. Steel, C. M. de Sterke, and J. Salzman, “Diamond based photonic crystal microcavities,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3556–3562 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

B. A. Fairchild, P. Olivero, S. Rubanov, A. D. Greentree, F. Waldermann, R. A. Taylor, I. Walmsley, J. M. Smith, S. Huntington, B. C. Gibson, D. N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, “Fabrication of ultra-thin single crystal diamond membranes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(24), 4793–4798 (2008). [CrossRef]

5.

T. M. Babinec, B. J. M. Hausmann, M. Khan, Y. A. Zhang, J. R. Maze, P. R. Hemmer, and M. Loncar, “A diamond nanowire single-photon source,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(3), 195–199 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

A. Faraon, P. E. Barclay, C. Santori, K.-M. C. Fu, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Resonant enhancement of the zero-phonon emission from a colour centre in a diamond cavity,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 301–305 (2011). [CrossRef]

7.

I. Bayn, B. Meyler, A. Lahav, J. Salzman, R. Kalish, B. A. Fairchild, S. Prawer, M. Barth, O. Benson, T. Wolf, P. Siyushev, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Processing of photonic crystal nanocavity for quantum information in diamond,” Diamond Related Materials 20(7), 937–943 (2011). [CrossRef]

8.

S. Kühn, C. Hettich, C. Schmitt, J.-Ph. Poizat, and V. Sandoghdar, “Diamond colour centres as a nanoscopic light source for scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Microsc. 202(Pt 1), 2–6 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

J. R. Rabeau, S. T. Huntington, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, “Diamond chemical vapour deposition on optical fibres for fluorescence waveguiding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(13), 134104 (2005). [CrossRef]

10.

T. Schröder, A. W. Schell, G. Kewes, T. Aichele, and O. Benson, “Fiber-integrated diamond-based single photon source,” Nano Lett. 11(1), 198–202 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

M. R. Henderson, B. C. Gibson, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Kuan, S. Afshar V, J. O. Orwa, I. Aharonovich, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, A. D. Greentree, S. Prawer, and T. M. Monro, “Diamond in tellurite glass: a new medium for quantum information,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(25), 2806–2810 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

S. Schietinger, M. Barth, T. Aichele, and O. Benson, “Plasmon-enhanced single photon emission from a nanoassembled metal-diamond hybrid structure at room temperature,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1694–1698 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

R. Kolesov, B. Grotz, G. Balasubramanian, R. J. Stohr, A. A. L. Nicolet, P. R. Hemmer, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Wave–particle duality of single surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Phys. 5(7), 470–474 (2009). [CrossRef]

14.

D. Englund, B. Shields, K. Rivoire, F. Hatami, J. Vučković, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Deterministic coupling of a single nitrogen vacancy center to a photonic crystal cavity,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 3922–3926 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

P. E. Barclay, C. Santori, K. M. Fu, R. G. Beausoleil, and O. Painter, “Coherent interference effects in a nano-assembled diamond NV center cavity-QED system,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8081–8097 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

Y. S. Park, A. K. Cook, and H. L. Wang, “Cavity QED with diamond nanocrystals and silica microspheres,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 2075–2079 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

E. Ampem-Lassen, D. A. Simpson, B. C. Gibson, S. Trpkovski, F. M. Hossain, S. T. Huntington, K. Ganesan, L. C. L. Hollenberg, and S. Prawer, “Nano-manipulation of diamond-based single photon sources,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11287–11293 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

M. Barth, N. Nüsse, B. Löchel, and O. Benson, “Controlled coupling of a single-diamond nanocrystal to a photonic crystal cavity,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 1108–1110 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature 455(7213), 648–651 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

A. Cuche, Y. Sonnefraud, O. Faklaris, D. Garrot, J. P. Boudou, T. Sauvage, J. F. Roch, F. Treussart, and S. Huant, “Diamond nanoparticles as photoluminescent nanoprobes for biology and near-field optics,” J. Lumin. 129(12), 1475–1477 (2009). [CrossRef]

21.

J.-Y. Kim, M.-K. Kim, M.-K. Seo, S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Shin, and Y.-H. Lee, “Two-dimensionally relocatable microfiber-coupled photonic crystal resonator,” Opt. Express 17(15), 13009–13016 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

S. Tomljenovic-Hanic and C. M. de Sterke, “Design of ultrahigh-Q photoinduced cavities in defect-free photonic crystal slabs,” Opt. Express 18(20), 21397–21403 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

J. R. Rabeau, A. Stacey, A. Rabeau, S. Prawer, F. Jelezko, I. Mirza, and J. Wrachtrup, “Single nitrogen vacancy centers in chemical vapor deposited diamond nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3433–3437 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

F. Bordas, M. J. Steel, C. Seassal, and A. Rahmani, “Confinement of band-edge modes in a photonic crystal slab,” Opt. Express 15(17), 10890–10902 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, A. Rahmani, M. J. Steel, and C. M. de Sterke, “Comparison of the sensitivity of air and dielectric modes in photonic crystal slab sensors,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14552–14557 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

D. Englund, I. Fushman, and J. Vucković, “General recipe for designing photonic crystal cavities,” Opt. Express 13(16), 5961–5975 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27.

M. W. McCutcheon and M. Loncar, “Design of a silicon nitride photonic crystal nanocavity with a Quality factor of one million for coupling to a diamond nanocrystal,” Opt. Express 16(23), 19136–19145 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(230.0230) Optical devices : Optical devices
(130.3990) Integrated optics : Micro-optical devices

ToC Category:
Photonic Crystals

History
Original Manuscript: July 21, 2011
Revised Manuscript: August 22, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: August 22, 2011
Published: October 24, 2011

Virtual Issues
Collective Phenomena (2011) Optics Express

Citation
Snjezana Tomljenovic-Hanic, Andrew D. Greentree, Brant C. Gibson, Timothy J. Karle, and Steven Prawer, "Nanodiamond induced high-Q resonances in defect-free photonic crystal slabs," Opt. Express 19, 22219-22226 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-22-22219


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References

  1. H. Mabuchi and A. C. Doherty, “Cavity quantum electrodynamics: coherence in context,” Science298(5597), 1372–1377 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, D. A. Simpson, C.-H. Su, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, “Diamond-based single-photon emitters,” Rep. Prog. Phys.74(7), 076501 (2011). [CrossRef]
  3. S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. J. Steel, C. M. de Sterke, and J. Salzman, “Diamond based photonic crystal microcavities,” Opt. Express14(8), 3556–3562 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. B. A. Fairchild, P. Olivero, S. Rubanov, A. D. Greentree, F. Waldermann, R. A. Taylor, I. Walmsley, J. M. Smith, S. Huntington, B. C. Gibson, D. N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, “Fabrication of ultra-thin single crystal diamond membranes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(24), 4793–4798 (2008). [CrossRef]
  5. T. M. Babinec, B. J. M. Hausmann, M. Khan, Y. A. Zhang, J. R. Maze, P. R. Hemmer, and M. Loncar, “A diamond nanowire single-photon source,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(3), 195–199 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Faraon, P. E. Barclay, C. Santori, K.-M. C. Fu, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Resonant enhancement of the zero-phonon emission from a colour centre in a diamond cavity,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 301–305 (2011). [CrossRef]
  7. I. Bayn, B. Meyler, A. Lahav, J. Salzman, R. Kalish, B. A. Fairchild, S. Prawer, M. Barth, O. Benson, T. Wolf, P. Siyushev, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Processing of photonic crystal nanocavity for quantum information in diamond,” Diamond Related Materials20(7), 937–943 (2011). [CrossRef]
  8. S. Kühn, C. Hettich, C. Schmitt, J.-Ph. Poizat, and V. Sandoghdar, “Diamond colour centres as a nanoscopic light source for scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Microsc.202(Pt 1), 2–6 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. R. Rabeau, S. T. Huntington, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, “Diamond chemical vapour deposition on optical fibres for fluorescence waveguiding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(13), 134104 (2005). [CrossRef]
  10. T. Schröder, A. W. Schell, G. Kewes, T. Aichele, and O. Benson, “Fiber-integrated diamond-based single photon source,” Nano Lett.11(1), 198–202 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. R. Henderson, B. C. Gibson, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Kuan, S. Afshar V, J. O. Orwa, I. Aharonovich, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, A. D. Greentree, S. Prawer, and T. M. Monro, “Diamond in tellurite glass: a new medium for quantum information,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(25), 2806–2810 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. Schietinger, M. Barth, T. Aichele, and O. Benson, “Plasmon-enhanced single photon emission from a nanoassembled metal-diamond hybrid structure at room temperature,” Nano Lett.9(4), 1694–1698 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. Kolesov, B. Grotz, G. Balasubramanian, R. J. Stohr, A. A. L. Nicolet, P. R. Hemmer, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Wave–particle duality of single surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Phys.5(7), 470–474 (2009). [CrossRef]
  14. D. Englund, B. Shields, K. Rivoire, F. Hatami, J. Vučković, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Deterministic coupling of a single nitrogen vacancy center to a photonic crystal cavity,” Nano Lett.10(10), 3922–3926 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. P. E. Barclay, C. Santori, K. M. Fu, R. G. Beausoleil, and O. Painter, “Coherent interference effects in a nano-assembled diamond NV center cavity-QED system,” Opt. Express17(10), 8081–8097 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Y. S. Park, A. K. Cook, and H. L. Wang, “Cavity QED with diamond nanocrystals and silica microspheres,” Nano Lett.6(9), 2075–2079 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. E. Ampem-Lassen, D. A. Simpson, B. C. Gibson, S. Trpkovski, F. M. Hossain, S. T. Huntington, K. Ganesan, L. C. L. Hollenberg, and S. Prawer, “Nano-manipulation of diamond-based single photon sources,” Opt. Express17(14), 11287–11293 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. M. Barth, N. Nüsse, B. Löchel, and O. Benson, “Controlled coupling of a single-diamond nanocrystal to a photonic crystal cavity,” Opt. Lett.34(7), 1108–1110 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature455(7213), 648–651 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. A. Cuche, Y. Sonnefraud, O. Faklaris, D. Garrot, J. P. Boudou, T. Sauvage, J. F. Roch, F. Treussart, and S. Huant, “Diamond nanoparticles as photoluminescent nanoprobes for biology and near-field optics,” J. Lumin.129(12), 1475–1477 (2009). [CrossRef]
  21. J.-Y. Kim, M.-K. Kim, M.-K. Seo, S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Shin, and Y.-H. Lee, “Two-dimensionally relocatable microfiber-coupled photonic crystal resonator,” Opt. Express17(15), 13009–13016 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. S. Tomljenovic-Hanic and C. M. de Sterke, “Design of ultrahigh-Q photoinduced cavities in defect-free photonic crystal slabs,” Opt. Express18(20), 21397–21403 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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