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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 23 — Nov. 7, 2011
  • pp: 22637–22642
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Two-color deep-ultraviolet 40-fs pulses based on parametric amplification at 100 kHz

Huan Shen, Shunsuke Adachi, Takuya Horio, and Toshinori Suzuki  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 23, pp. 22637-22642 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.022637


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Abstract

We present a 100-kHz deep-ultraviolet (DUV) laser system that generates 40-fs pulses. A 520-nm pulse generated by a noncollinear optical parametric amplifier pumped by the second harmonic of a Ti:sapphire laser is converted into 226- and 260-nm DUV pulses simultaneously with pulse energies of 250 and 130 nJ (average powers: 25 and 13 mW), respectively. The DUV pulses were estimated to have durations of ca. 40 fs by cross-correlation measurements based on (1 + 1′) two-color ionization of gaseous nitric oxide.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

High-repetition-rate lasers are essential for obtaining high signal-to-noise ratios in ultrafast spectroscopy while minimizing undesirable multiphoton effects such as sample damage. Such lasers are particularly important for time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (TRPES) in which pulse energies must be minimized to suppress the space charge effect on electron kinetic energies [1

1. S. Passlack, S. Mathias, O. Andreyev, D. Mittnacht, M. Aeschlimann, and M. Bauer, “Space charge effects in Photoemission with a low repetition, high intensity femtosecond laser source,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024912 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. TRPES requires deep ultraviolet (DUV) pulses with wavelengths in the range 200–300 nm. Ultrashort DUV pulses with a repetition rate of 1 kHz have been generated by four-wave mixing through filamentation [2

2. T. Fuji, T. Horio, and T. Suzuki, “Generation of 12 fs deep-ultraviolet pulses by four-wave mixing through filamentation in neon gas,” Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2481–2483 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and harmonic generation [3

3. U. Graf, M. Fieβ, M. Schultze, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Intense few-cycle light pulses in the deep ultraviolet,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18956–18963 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. However, it is difficult to apply these methods to lasers with higher repetition rates [4

4. L. Gundlach, R. Ernstorfer, E. Riedle, R. Eichberger, and F. Willig, “Femtosecond two-photon photoemission at 150 kHz utilizing two noncollinear optical parametric amplifiers for measuring ultrafast electron dynamics,” Appl. Phys. B 80(6), 727–731 (2005). [CrossRef]

12

12. S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, J. Rothhardt, C. Jocher, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High-repetition-rate sub-5-fs pulses with 12 GW peak power from fiber-amplifier-pumped optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification,” Opt. Lett. 36(3), 313–315 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Piel et al. generated sub-20-fs visible pulses at a repetition rate of 100 kHz using a noncollinear optical parametric amplifier (NOPA) [5

5. J. Piel, E. Riedle, L. Gundlach, R. Ernstorfer, and R. Eichberger, “Sub-20 fs visible pulses with 750 nJ energy from a 100 kHz noncollinear optical parametric amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1289–1291 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Visible/near-IR lasers that employ parametric amplification have been used to generate even shorter pulses [6

6. J. Rothhardt, S. Hädrich, D. N. Schimpf, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High repetition rate fiber amplifier pumped sub-20 fs optical parametric amplifier,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16729–16736 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,8

8. F. Tavella, A. Willner, J. Rothhardt, S. Hädrich, E. Seise, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, H. Schlarb, J. Feldhaus, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, and J. Rossbach, “Fiber-amplifier pumped high average power few-cycle pulse non-collinear OPCPA,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4689–4694 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,12

12. S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, J. Rothhardt, C. Jocher, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High-repetition-rate sub-5-fs pulses with 12 GW peak power from fiber-amplifier-pumped optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification,” Opt. Lett. 36(3), 313–315 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. However, only a few high-repetition-rate lasers have been demonstrated at shorter wavelengths (< 400 nm): Gundlach et al. have generated sub-30-fs 280-nm pulses at 150 kHz [4

4. L. Gundlach, R. Ernstorfer, E. Riedle, R. Eichberger, and F. Willig, “Femtosecond two-photon photoemission at 150 kHz utilizing two noncollinear optical parametric amplifiers for measuring ultrafast electron dynamics,” Appl. Phys. B 80(6), 727–731 (2005). [CrossRef]

], while Schriever et al. have generated ultraviolet pulses down to 280 nm at an even higher repetition rate of 2 MHz with a pulse energy of a few nJ [7

7. C. Schriever, S. Lochbrunner, P. Krok, and E. Riedle, “Tunable pulses from below 300 to 970 nm with durations down to 14 fs based on a 2 MHz ytterbium-doped fiber system,” Opt. Lett. 33(2), 192–194 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

In this study, we present a two-color (226 and 260 nm) DUV femtosecond laser system that generates pulses with energies over 100 nJ at a repetition rate of 100 kHz. Although these two specific wavelengths were selected for TRPES of an aqueous NaI solution [13

13. Y. Tang, Y. Suzuki, H. Shen, K. Sekiguchi, N. Kurahashi, K. Nishizawa, P. Zuo, and T. Suzuki, “Time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of bulk liquids at ultra-low kinetic energy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 494(1-3), 111–116 (2010). [CrossRef]

,14

14. Y. Suzuki, H. Shen, Y. Tang, N. Kurahashi, K. Sekiguchi, T. Mizuno, and T. Suzuki, “Isotope effect on ultrafast charge-transfer-to-solvent reaction from I- to water in aqueous NaI solution,” Chem. Sci. 2(6), 1094–1102 (2011). [CrossRef]

], the DUV wavelengths are tunable as they are generated from NOPA output.

2. Experiment and results

Figure 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setup of high-repetition-rate DUV system. The inset shows the measured WLC spectrum.
shows the experimental setup used. The pump source for the NOPA is a cryogenically cooled Ti:sapphire amplifier (Wyvern, KMLabs) that delivers 80-fs pulses with a wavelength of 800 nm and a pulse energy of 72 μJ at a repetition rate of 100 kHz. A portion of the fundamental beam was separated by a beam splitter (BS1) and focused onto a 3-mm-thick sapphire plate to generate a white light continuum (WLC). To obtain a stable WLC from a single filament [15

15. H. A. Haus and E. P. Ippen, “Group velocity of solitons,” Opt. Lett. 26(21), 1654–1656 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], the pulse energy (~0.7 μJ) and the focal spot size (full width at half maximum: ~30 μm) of the fundamental were carefully adjusted. The inset of Fig. 1 shows the WLC spectrum in the range 400–650 nm. The white light was recollimated by a concave mirror and sent to a stretcher. The main (95%) fundamental beam was gently focused onto a 0.5-mm-thick type-I β-barium borate (BBO) crystal to generate the second harmonic. The best compromise between a high conversion efficiency and a high spatial beam quality was obtained when the BBO crystal was placed slightly behind the focus of the fundamental beam; the energy conversion efficiency for frequency doubling was 48% at this location. The minor (~15%, 5 μJ) portion of the 400 nm beam was reflected by a beam splitter (BS2) and sent to a DUV frequency-conversion system, while the transmitted portion (~85%, 28 μJ) was used to pump the NOPA.

NOPAs are generally capable of generating pulses as short as 5 fs [12

12. S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, J. Rothhardt, C. Jocher, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High-repetition-rate sub-5-fs pulses with 12 GW peak power from fiber-amplifier-pumped optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification,” Opt. Lett. 36(3), 313–315 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. However, an extremely thin BBO crystal (~10 μm) is required to convert a 5-fs NOPA output pulse into a DUV pulse while maintaining the pulse width. Such a thin BBO crystal has to be in optical contact with a silica substrate. However, a crystal in optical contact with a substrate generally has a lower damage threshold than a free-standing crystal. In our experiment, we found that a thin BBO crystal on a silica substrate could not withstand the power involved in high-average-power DUV frequency conversion. On the other hand, the thickness of commercially available free-standing BBO crystals is limited to ~100 μm, which only support phase-matching bandwidths corresponding to pulse widths of ~40 fs in second harmonic generation (SHG) and sum-frequency mixing (SFM). In addition, it is better not to use an extremely thin BBO crystal to achieve a high conversion efficiency. For these reasons, we designed our NOPA system to generate sub-40-fs pulses and realized almost perfectly phase-matched conversion to DUV wavelengths with a relatively high efficiency (~15% in energy).

Since the parametric-fluorescence bandwidth corresponded to a Fourier-transform-limited (FTL) pulse width of 12 fs in our NOPA, we restricted the amplification bandwidth by using a pulse stretcher that consisted of fused-silica prisms inserted in the seed path. Figure 2
Fig. 2 Illustration of seed and pump pulses in the time domain and the resultant NOPA output in the wavelength domain.
shows a graphical representation of this procedure. Without stretching, the duration of the seed pulse is almost the same as that (80 fs) of the pump pulse, resulting in a broad NOPA spectrum. However, with stretching, only a portion of the NOPA output temporally overlaps with the pump pulse, allowing the bandwidth and the center wavelength to be selected by fine tuning the chirp and the delay of the seed pulse, respectively. After testing several configurations, we set the distance between the prism apices to 75 cm. By measuring the center wavelength of the NOPA output for different time delays of the seed pulse, we found that the negative chirp of the seed pulse corresponded to a group delay of 130 fs for wavelengths between 510 and 530 nm. Generation of a stable WLC from a single filament was essential for the NOPA to be stable because the intensity-induced phase shift of the WLC [16

16. A. Baltuska, M. Uiberacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovlev, T. Udem, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Phase-Controlled Amplification of Few-Cycle Laser Pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(4), 972–989 (2003). [CrossRef]

] altered the delay of the seed pulse and thus the center wavelength of the NOPA output.

The pump and seed pulses were focused onto a 2-mm-thick type-I BBO crystal. The spot sizes at the foci of the two beams were 400 μm, which resulted in a pump pulse intensity of ~200 GW/cm2. The noncollinear and phase-matching angles for the NOPA were set to 3.3° (internal) and 30.2°, respectively. We confirmed that the angular deviation of the NOPA signal at a center wavelength of 520 nm is minimized at these angles. The seed pulse energy of 1 nJ was amplified to 3.0 μJ, which corresponds to a parametric gain of 3 × 103. A high pump-to-signal conversion efficiency of ≥10% indicates saturated amplification. The intensity drift of the signal pulse was <1% rms. The NOPA spectrum shown in Fig. 3(d)
Fig. 3 (a) Measured and (b) retrieved SHG FROG traces. (c) Retrieved pulse in the time and (d) frequency domains. Grey curve in (d) shows the NOPA spectrum measured with a spectrometer.
supports an FTL pulse duration of 30 fs.

The negative chirp of the signal pulse from the NOPA, initially created by the stretcher, was compensated by a piece of glass. The duration of the compressed signal pulse was measured by a home-built SHG frequency-resolved optical grating (FROG) [17

17. R. Trebino, K. W. Delong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9), 3277–3295 (1997). [CrossRef]

]. A 20-μm-thick BBO crystal on a silica substrate was used to generate the SHG FROG signal, which was detected by a spectrometer (USB2000, Ocean Optics). Figures 3(a) and (b) show the measured and retrieved SHG FROG traces, respectively. The retrieved temporal (Fig. 3(c)) and spectral (Fig. 3(d) phases exhibit almost negligible deviations from a flat phase over the entire pulse duration and spectral range, respectively. The retrieved pulse width was 34 fs.

The NOPA output was divided into two beams by a beam splitter (BS3; R:T = 3:7). The transmitted beam was converted to the second harmonic (260 nm), while the reflected beam was used to generate a 226-nm pulse by SFM with a 400-nm pulse. A 1.1-mm-thick fused-silica plate was inserted in the SFM path to compensate the dispersion imparted by BS3. The nonlinear crystals used for SHG and SFM were 100-μm-thick ( ± 0.03 mm according to the manufacturer) type-I BBO crystals and were cut at 49.3 and 61.9°, respectively; the 520-nm pulse energies at these crystals were 1.6 and 0.7 μJ, respectively. The generated DUV pulse energies were 250 nJ at 260 nm and 130 nJ at 226 nm, which correspond to a conversion efficiency from the NOPA output to DUV of up to 15%. Their power drifts were within 2% rms. Figures 4(a) and (b)
Fig. 4 Spectra of (a) 226-nm and (b) 260-nm DUV laser pulses. Beam profiles of (c) 226-nm and (d) 260-nm DUV pulses at foci.
show the spectra of the 226- and 260-nm pulses, which have FTL pulse widths of 38 and 37 fs, respectively.

The efficiencies for NOPA and SHG/SFM to DUV obtained in this study are comparable with those obtained by other research groups at similar repetition rates [8

8. F. Tavella, A. Willner, J. Rothhardt, S. Hädrich, E. Seise, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, H. Schlarb, J. Feldhaus, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, and J. Rossbach, “Fiber-amplifier pumped high average power few-cycle pulse non-collinear OPCPA,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4689–4694 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,9

9. M. Schultze, T. Binhammer, A. Steinmann, G. Palmer, M. Emons, and U. Morgner, “Few-cycle OPCPA system at 143 kHz with more than 1 microJ of pulse energy,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2836–2841 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], but they are somewhat below that reported for ~1-kHz systems (e.g., ref. 18

18. S. Adachi, N. Ishii, T. Kanai, A. Kosuge, J. Itatani, Y. Kobayashi, D. Yoshitomi, K. Torizuka, and S. Watanabe, “5-fs, Multi-mJ, CEP-locked parametric chirped-pulse amplifier pumped by a 450-nm source at 1 kHz,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14341–14352 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

). This may be explainable by geometrical effects with a focused beam [19

19. G. D. Boyd and D. A. Keinman, “Parametric interaction of focused Gaussian light beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 39(8), 3597–3639 (1968). [CrossRef]

]. Since high-repetition-rate lasers usually have lower pulse energies than low-repetition-rate systems, the pulse should be focused more tightly to increase the conversion efficiency. Consequently, the conversion efficiency decreases due to severer geometrical effects. Nonetheless, it is noted that some groups have achieved conversion efficiencies at high-repetition rates that are comparable to those of ~1-kHz systems [5

5. J. Piel, E. Riedle, L. Gundlach, R. Ernstorfer, and R. Eichberger, “Sub-20 fs visible pulses with 750 nJ energy from a 100 kHz noncollinear optical parametric amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1289–1291 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,6

6. J. Rothhardt, S. Hädrich, D. N. Schimpf, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High repetition rate fiber amplifier pumped sub-20 fs optical parametric amplifier,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16729–16736 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

To further demonstrate the DUV pulse durations, cross-correlation between the DUV pulses was estimated using (1+1′) resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization of nitric oxide (NO). The two DUV pulses were introduced into a vacuum chamber through a 0.5-mm-thick quartz window and focused on NO gas. Figures 4(c) and (d) show the excellent DUV beam profiles obtained at the foci measured using a beam profiler (SP503U, Ophir-Spiricon). The NO molecules were excited to the A (2+) state from the ground state by single-photon absorption at 226 nm and ionized by a 260-nm photon. Figure 5(a)
Fig. 5 (a) Schematic energy diagram of (1+1′) ionization of NO molecules. (b) Time profile of photoelectron signal intensity. The inset shows a cross-correlation profile between two DUV pulses extracted by differentiating the time profile.
shows a schematic energy diagram. The photoelectrons were sampled by a time-of-flight photoelectron spectrometer through a skimmer with a 1-mm-diameter aperture. After passing through a 1-m field-free region, the photoelectrons were detected by a dual microchannel plate. Since the lifetime of A (2+) state is as long as 200 ns [20

20. Y. Tang, Y. Suzuki, T. Horio, and T. Suzuki, “Molecular frame image restoration and partial wave analysis of photoionization dynamics of NO by time-energy mapping of photoelectron angular distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(7), 073002 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], the cross-correlation between the two pulses was extracted from the rise time of the photoelectron signal intensity observed in the (1+1′) ionization process. Figure 5(b) shows the time profile of the photoelectron signal intensity from which the cross-correlation time was evaluated to be 60 fs. We simulated the cross-correlation between the DUV pulses by assuming that they were transform-limited on generation and that they were dispersed during propagation through a 1-m optical path in air and the entrance window of the chamber. This assumption is considered to be reasonable because the dispersion in the NOPA output was well compensated and the dispersion caused by the self-standing 100-μm BBO crystals is negligible for the DUV 40-fs pulses. Our simulation predicted that the 226- and 260-nm pulses have durations in the vacuum chamber of 44 and 40 fs, respectively, and a cross-correlation time of 60 fs, which agrees quite well with the experimental results.

3. Conclusions and prospects

We developed a 100-kHz laser system that can generate two-color DUV (260 and 226 nm) pulses with energies of 250 and 130 nJ, respectively. The DUV pulses were found to have durations of about 40 fs using (1+1′) resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization of NO. To the best of our knowledge, these are the shortest pulse durations reported to date for wavelengths below 280 nm for high-repetition-rates (≥100 kHz) lasers.

The wavelength of the DUV pulses can be tuned by adjusting the seed delay of the NOPA and by realigning the DUV frequency-conversion setup. Although the narrow-band high-reflection mirrors in the seed path limited the NOPA tuning range in the present setup to 510–550 nm, we expect that a much broader tuning range from 500 to 900 nm (corresponding to DUV tuning ranges for SHG/SFM of 250–450/222–277 nm) is feasible (as demonstrated in, for example, refs. 4

4. L. Gundlach, R. Ernstorfer, E. Riedle, R. Eichberger, and F. Willig, “Femtosecond two-photon photoemission at 150 kHz utilizing two noncollinear optical parametric amplifiers for measuring ultrafast electron dynamics,” Appl. Phys. B 80(6), 727–731 (2005). [CrossRef]

and 5

5. J. Piel, E. Riedle, L. Gundlach, R. Ernstorfer, and R. Eichberger, “Sub-20 fs visible pulses with 750 nJ energy from a 100 kHz noncollinear optical parametric amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1289–1291 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

). The NOPA output power remained almost constant at least for the present tuning range of 510–550 nm because the parametric amplification saturated sufficiently. In addition, to independently tune the wavelengths of the two-color DUV pulses, we have started to construct another NOPA system that has almost an identical design. The fundamental pulse from the Ti:sapphire amplifier is split into two equal beams and they are sent to two independent NOPAs. The ultrashort high-average-power DUV laser system with a wide wavelength tunability and excellent power stability serves as an ideal source for various experiments in chemistry and physics including TRPES in gas and condensed phases.

References and links

1.

S. Passlack, S. Mathias, O. Andreyev, D. Mittnacht, M. Aeschlimann, and M. Bauer, “Space charge effects in Photoemission with a low repetition, high intensity femtosecond laser source,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024912 (2006). [CrossRef]

2.

T. Fuji, T. Horio, and T. Suzuki, “Generation of 12 fs deep-ultraviolet pulses by four-wave mixing through filamentation in neon gas,” Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2481–2483 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

U. Graf, M. Fieβ, M. Schultze, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Intense few-cycle light pulses in the deep ultraviolet,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18956–18963 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

L. Gundlach, R. Ernstorfer, E. Riedle, R. Eichberger, and F. Willig, “Femtosecond two-photon photoemission at 150 kHz utilizing two noncollinear optical parametric amplifiers for measuring ultrafast electron dynamics,” Appl. Phys. B 80(6), 727–731 (2005). [CrossRef]

5.

J. Piel, E. Riedle, L. Gundlach, R. Ernstorfer, and R. Eichberger, “Sub-20 fs visible pulses with 750 nJ energy from a 100 kHz noncollinear optical parametric amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1289–1291 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

J. Rothhardt, S. Hädrich, D. N. Schimpf, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High repetition rate fiber amplifier pumped sub-20 fs optical parametric amplifier,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16729–16736 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

C. Schriever, S. Lochbrunner, P. Krok, and E. Riedle, “Tunable pulses from below 300 to 970 nm with durations down to 14 fs based on a 2 MHz ytterbium-doped fiber system,” Opt. Lett. 33(2), 192–194 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

F. Tavella, A. Willner, J. Rothhardt, S. Hädrich, E. Seise, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, H. Schlarb, J. Feldhaus, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, and J. Rossbach, “Fiber-amplifier pumped high average power few-cycle pulse non-collinear OPCPA,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4689–4694 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

M. Schultze, T. Binhammer, A. Steinmann, G. Palmer, M. Emons, and U. Morgner, “Few-cycle OPCPA system at 143 kHz with more than 1 microJ of pulse energy,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2836–2841 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

M. Emons, A. Steinmann, T. Binhammer, G. Palmer, M. Schultze, and U. Morgner, “Sub-10-fs pulses from a MHz-NOPA with pulse energies of 0.4 microJ,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1191–1196 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

O. Isaienko, E. Borguet, and P. Vöhringer, “High-repetition-rate near-infrared noncollinear ultrabroadband optical parametric amplification in KTiOPO4.,” Opt. Lett. 35(22), 3832–3834 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, J. Rothhardt, C. Jocher, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High-repetition-rate sub-5-fs pulses with 12 GW peak power from fiber-amplifier-pumped optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification,” Opt. Lett. 36(3), 313–315 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

Y. Tang, Y. Suzuki, H. Shen, K. Sekiguchi, N. Kurahashi, K. Nishizawa, P. Zuo, and T. Suzuki, “Time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of bulk liquids at ultra-low kinetic energy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 494(1-3), 111–116 (2010). [CrossRef]

14.

Y. Suzuki, H. Shen, Y. Tang, N. Kurahashi, K. Sekiguchi, T. Mizuno, and T. Suzuki, “Isotope effect on ultrafast charge-transfer-to-solvent reaction from I- to water in aqueous NaI solution,” Chem. Sci. 2(6), 1094–1102 (2011). [CrossRef]

15.

H. A. Haus and E. P. Ippen, “Group velocity of solitons,” Opt. Lett. 26(21), 1654–1656 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

A. Baltuska, M. Uiberacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovlev, T. Udem, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Phase-Controlled Amplification of Few-Cycle Laser Pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(4), 972–989 (2003). [CrossRef]

17.

R. Trebino, K. W. Delong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9), 3277–3295 (1997). [CrossRef]

18.

S. Adachi, N. Ishii, T. Kanai, A. Kosuge, J. Itatani, Y. Kobayashi, D. Yoshitomi, K. Torizuka, and S. Watanabe, “5-fs, Multi-mJ, CEP-locked parametric chirped-pulse amplifier pumped by a 450-nm source at 1 kHz,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14341–14352 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

G. D. Boyd and D. A. Keinman, “Parametric interaction of focused Gaussian light beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 39(8), 3597–3639 (1968). [CrossRef]

20.

Y. Tang, Y. Suzuki, T. Horio, and T. Suzuki, “Molecular frame image restoration and partial wave analysis of photoionization dynamics of NO by time-energy mapping of photoelectron angular distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(7), 073002 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(190.4970) Nonlinear optics : Parametric oscillators and amplifiers
(320.5520) Ultrafast optics : Pulse compression
(320.7090) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast lasers

ToC Category:
Ultrafast Optics

History
Original Manuscript: August 25, 2011
Revised Manuscript: October 11, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: October 12, 2011
Published: October 25, 2011

Citation
Huan Shen, Shunsuke Adachi, Takuya Horio, and Toshinori Suzuki, "Two-color deep-ultraviolet 40-fs pulses based on parametric amplification at 100 kHz," Opt. Express 19, 22637-22642 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-23-22637


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References

  1. S. Passlack, S. Mathias, O. Andreyev, D. Mittnacht, M. Aeschlimann, and M. Bauer, “Space charge effects in Photoemission with a low repetition, high intensity femtosecond laser source,” J. Appl. Phys.100(2), 024912 (2006). [CrossRef]
  2. T. Fuji, T. Horio, and T. Suzuki, “Generation of 12 fs deep-ultraviolet pulses by four-wave mixing through filamentation in neon gas,” Opt. Lett.32(17), 2481–2483 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. U. Graf, M. Fieβ, M. Schultze, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Intense few-cycle light pulses in the deep ultraviolet,” Opt. Express16(23), 18956–18963 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. L. Gundlach, R. Ernstorfer, E. Riedle, R. Eichberger, and F. Willig, “Femtosecond two-photon photoemission at 150 kHz utilizing two noncollinear optical parametric amplifiers for measuring ultrafast electron dynamics,” Appl. Phys. B80(6), 727–731 (2005). [CrossRef]
  5. J. Piel, E. Riedle, L. Gundlach, R. Ernstorfer, and R. Eichberger, “Sub-20 fs visible pulses with 750 nJ energy from a 100 kHz noncollinear optical parametric amplifier,” Opt. Lett.31(9), 1289–1291 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Rothhardt, S. Hädrich, D. N. Schimpf, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High repetition rate fiber amplifier pumped sub-20 fs optical parametric amplifier,” Opt. Express15(25), 16729–16736 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. Schriever, S. Lochbrunner, P. Krok, and E. Riedle, “Tunable pulses from below 300 to 970 nm with durations down to 14 fs based on a 2 MHz ytterbium-doped fiber system,” Opt. Lett.33(2), 192–194 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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