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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 23 — Nov. 7, 2011
  • pp: 22669–22674
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Non-absorption grating approach for X-ray phase contrast imaging

Yang Du, Xin Liu, Yaohu Lei, Jinchuan Guo, and Hanben Niu  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 23, pp. 22669-22674 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.022669


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Abstract

we demonstrate a non-absorption grating approach for X-ray phase contrast imaging based-on grating interferometry. This technique overcomes the limitations imposed by absorption gratings, provides another choice for X-ray phase contrast imaging and potentially improves the image quality for higher X-ray photon energies. We constructed the key devices, established the system and obtained phase contrast images with a field of view larger than 5 centimeters, which is the limitation imposed by the size of our current CCD detector. This method has no need for absorption gratings, which represents a significant development for future promising applications in medicine and industry.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

Conventional hard X-ray imaging is based on attenuation as contrast mechanism and has been widely applied in medical diagnostics and non-destructive inspections. For soft tissues and other materials made of low-Z elements (such as H and C), however, it is impossible to obtain high-contrast absorption images. The phase factors for these materials are usually three orders of magnitude larger than their absorption factors [1

1. A. Momose and J. Fukuda, “Phase-contrast radiographs of nonstained rat cerebellar specimen,” Med. Phys. 22(4), 375–379 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Therefore, phase contrast imaging significantly improves the image contrast of these types of objects.

Several types of X-ray phase contrast imaging have been developed recently. They can be categorized into interferometric methods [2

2. U. Bonse and M. Hart, “An x-ray interferometer with long separated interfering beam paths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 6(8), 155 (1965). [CrossRef]

,3

3. A. Momose, T. Takeda, Y. Itai, and K. Hirano, “Phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography for observing biological soft tissues,” Nat. Med. 2(4), 473–475 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], free-space propagation techniques [4

4. A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, V. Kohn, S. Kuznetsov, and I. Schelokov, “On the possibilities of x-ray phase contrast microimaging by coherent high-energy synchrotron radiation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66(12), 5486 (1995). [CrossRef]

7

7. Y. Hwu, W. Tsai, A. Groso, G. Margaritondo, and J. H. Je, “Coherence-enhanced synchrotron radiology: Simple theory and practical applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 35(13), R105 (2002). [CrossRef]

], diffraction enhanced imaging [8

8. V. N. Ingal and E. A. Beliaevskaya, “X-ray plane-wave topography observation of the phase contrast from a non-crystalline object,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 28(11), 2314–2317 (1995). [CrossRef]

10

10. D. Chapman, W. Thomlinson, R. E. Johnston, D. Washburn, E. Pisano, N. Gmür, Z. Zhong, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, and D. Sayers, “Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(11), 2015–2025 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and grating interferometry [11

11. C. David, B. Nöhammer, H. Solak, and E. Ziegler, “Differential x-ray phase contrast imaging using a shearing interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3287 (2002). [CrossRef]

18

18. F. Pfeiffer, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Hard x-ray phase tomography with low-brilliance sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(10), 108105 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The method using a grating interferometer has many advantages over the others and was first used in applications with synchrotron radiation sources [11

11. C. David, B. Nöhammer, H. Solak, and E. Ziegler, “Differential x-ray phase contrast imaging using a shearing interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3287 (2002). [CrossRef]

15

15. I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, T. Donath, S. Rutishauser, and C. David, “Two-dimensional x-ray grating interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(24), 248102 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Introducing an absorption grating near the conventional low-brilliance X-ray tube [16

16. F. Pfeiffer, T. Weikamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance X-ray sources,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 258–261 (2006). [CrossRef]

18

18. F. Pfeiffer, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Hard x-ray phase tomography with low-brilliance sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(10), 108105 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] enables the grating-based differential phase contrast imaging method, which has potential applications in ordinary laboratories.

The aforementioned grating-based methods use absorption gratings as key optical elements. However, higher X-ray photon energies are required for most clinical and industrial applications, thus, it is essential to manufacture large-area absorption gratings with higher aspect ratios to provide sufficient image contrast for this energy range. The fabricating process for this kind of absorption grating is currently a great challenge, and even state-of-the-art absorption materials used for absorption gratings rely on Au [19

19. C. David, J. Bruder, T. Rohbeck, C. Grünzweig, C. Kottler, A. Diaz, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Fabrication of diffraction gratings for hard X-ray phase contrast imaging,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(5-8), 1172–1177 (2007). [CrossRef]

,20

20. D. Noda, H. Tsujii, N. Takahashi, and T. Hattori, “Fabrication of high precision X-ray mask for X-ray grating of X-ray Talbot interferometer,” Microsyst. Technol. 16(8-9), 1309–1313 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. In addition, the transmission properties of absorption gratings lead to deterioration in the image quality. To address these issues, we have proposed a non-absorption grating approach for X-ray phase contrast imaging [21

21. H. Niu, J. Guo, and X. Liu, C.N. Patent No. 200810216469.3 (2008).

]. To this end, A laboratory-based multi-line X-ray source has been developed to replace the source grating [22

22. H. Niu, J. Guo, K. Wang, and Q. Yang, C.N. Patent No. 200610062487.1 (2006).

24

24. Y. Lei, X. Liu, J. Guo, Z. Zhao, and H. Niu, “Development of x-ray scintillator functioning also as an analyzer grating used in grating-based x-ray differential phase contrast imaging,” Chin. Phys. B 20(4), 042901 (2011). [CrossRef]

], which essentially overcomes the limitation of un-ideal transmission from the source grating especially for the case using higher X-ray photon energies (Au can’t absorb X-rays completely), and a structured scintillator has been proposed and developed to replace the combination of absorption analyzer grating and X-ray scintillator and overcome its main drawback: the reduction of the fringe visibility for higher X-ray photon energies [25

25. S. Rutishauser, I. Zanette, T. Donath, A. Sahlholm, J. Linnros, and C. David, “Structured scintillator for hard x-ray grating interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(17), 171107 (2011). [CrossRef]

,26

26. T. Weitkamp, C. David, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Tomography with grating interferometers at low-brilliance sources,” Proc. SPIE 6318, 63180S, 63180S-10 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. In this letter, we give the details of our non-absorption grating approach and demonstrate its primary results for X-ray phase contrast imaging.

2. Experimental setup

The arrangement is shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (Color online) The principles of the non-absorption grating X-ray phase-contrast imaging. The system consists of a ladder-shaped multi-line X-ray source, a phase grating and a structured scintillator.
. It consists of a multi-line X-ray source with a spatial period of p0, a phase grating G1 of period p1 with π phase shift and an analyzer structured scintillator G2 of period p2. A ladder-shaped structure is fabricated on a tungsten fixed anode by Micro-fabrication techniques. The oil cooling method is used to solve the heat problem. Each step’s length at axial direction is 100μm, and the altitude difference between the adjacent two steps is 31.5μm. The angle between the optical axis and each step’s top surface of the ladder-shaped anode is 6, thus the apparent pitch of the multi-line source is 42μm, and each apparent X-ray emission line width is 10.5μm. Our ladder-shaped structure can reduce the length of multi-line source along the optical axis, which has a maximized emission area and minimal axial length. Corresponding to the functions of both the conventional X-ray source and source grating, the ladder-shaped multi-line X-ray source generates individually spatial coherent but mutually incoherent line source. Its advantages are obvious: it integrates the source grating into the conventional X-ray tube, improves the mechanical stabilization, increases the fringe contrast especially for higher X-ray photon energies, and provides a cheap and commercially available source with uniform radiation for the entire field of view. For the phase contrast image formation process, the spatial coherence length lc should satisfy the condition [16

16. F. Pfeiffer, T. Weikamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance X-ray sources,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 258–261 (2006). [CrossRef]

]
lc=z0λγ0p0p1,
(1)
where z0 is the distance between the source and the phase grating, γ0 is the duty cycle and λ is the central wavelength of the multi-line X-ray source. According to the Talbot-Lau theory, the first fractional Talbot distance under a spherical wave illumination [27

27. X. Liu, Y. Lei, Z. Zhao, J. Guo, and H. Niu, “Design and fabrication of hard x-ray phase grating,” Acta. Phys. Sin. 59, 6927 (2010).

] can be expressed by
z1=Mp128λ,
(2)
and
M=(z0+z1)z0,
(3)
where M is the geometric magnification projected from the source. To ensure that the fringes of self-image produced by the every line of multi-line source are well overlapped in the detector plane, the geometry of the setup must satisfy the condition

p2=p0z1z0,
(4)

The phase grating has a phase shift of π. It acts as a beam splitter, diffracts the incoming X-rays into the ± 1st orders and attenuates the zero and higher order components. Over 80% of the X-ray energy is carried by the ± 1st order [11

11. C. David, B. Nöhammer, H. Solak, and E. Ziegler, “Differential x-ray phase contrast imaging using a shearing interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3287 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. A linear phase diffraction grating with a high aspect ratio was successfully produced on a 5 inch n-type 100 silicon wafer by the photo-assisted electrochemical etching technique [28

28. M. Simon, K. J. Engel, B. Menser, X. Badel, and J. Linnros, “X-ray imaging performance of scintillator-filled silicon pore arrays,” Med. Phys. 35(3), 968–981 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Because of the Talbot effect, the fringes of self-image of the phase grating can be generated at the detector plane.

Unfortunately, the period of the fringes is too small to be resolved by a CCD detector directly. Accordingly, in the general setup, an absorption grating corresponding to the periodicity and orientation of the fringe pattern of the phase grating is placed immediately in front of the scintillator as an analyzer device to form a detectable Moiré pattern. In the absorption analyzer grating setup, when using the higher X-ray photon energies, the depth of absorption grating should be increased. The high-Z materials such as Au is used to absorb the X-rays, but it cannot absorb the X-ray passing it completely especially for higher X-ray photon energy, which reduces the fringe visibility and therefore deteriorates the image quality. The structured scintillator, which integrates the analyzer grating into the scintillator, functions as both the common scintillator and the analyzer grating. It is fabricated by filling silicon pore arrays with X-ray sensitive materials such as Tl-doped cesium iodide(CsI:Tl). To allow it to function as an analyzer grating, a half period of the structured scintillator is filled with CsI:Tl, which converts X-rays into visible light. Another half period of the structured scintillator is completely made of silicon. To enable total light reflection at the silicon pore inner wall of the structured scintillator, enhancing its conversion efficiency from X-ray to visible light, silicon oxide is formed on the inner wall surface [25

25. S. Rutishauser, I. Zanette, T. Donath, A. Sahlholm, J. Linnros, and C. David, “Structured scintillator for hard x-ray grating interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(17), 171107 (2011). [CrossRef]

,29

29. X. Liu, J. Guo, and H. Niu, “A new method of detecting interferogram in differential phase-contrast imaging system based on special structured x-ray scintillator screen,” Chin. Phys. B 19(7), 070701 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. When X-rays penetrate through a structured scintillator, only the half pitch of filling with X-ray sensitive materials converts X-rays into the visible light that can be directly detected by a visible light CCD detector. Therefore the contrast between two half pitches in one spatial period of the structured scintillator is nearly 100% for the visible light CCD detector. Compared with an absorption grating made from Au, the structured scintillator is more suitable for broadband X-rays, especially for higher photon energy X-ray phase contrast imaging. Therefore, it can potentially provide high image quality for harder X-ray with large fields of view.

The phase stepping technique is used to retrieve the phase information [13

13. T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, P. Cloetens, and E. Ziegler, “X-ray phase imaging with a grating interferometer,” Opt. Express 13(16), 6296–6304 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,16

16. F. Pfeiffer, T. Weikamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance X-ray sources,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 258–261 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. For theπshift of the phase grating, the oscillation intensity of the specimen for each detector pixel(m,n)can be expressed as the Fourier series [30

30. F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7(2), 134–137 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]
I(m,n,yg)=iai(m,n)cos(i2πp2yg+φi(m,n)),
(5)
where ai is the amplitude coefficients, yg is the normalized phase stepping position and φi is the phase coefficients. By scanning the phase grating along the longitudinal direction yg with five steps in one period [23

23. A. Momose, W. Yashiro, H. Huwahara, and K. Kawabata, “Grating-Based X-ray Phase Imaging Using Multiline X-ray Source,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(7), 076512 (2009). [CrossRef]

], the differential phase contrast images can be extracted from the shift of the intensity modulation.

3. Experimental results

The experiment was performed using the ladder-shaped structured multi-line X-ray source and the structured scintillator. It was operated at 60 KV and a 2 mA tube current. Because of the inclination of the target, the axial length of anode was 2 mm and the total effective X-ray source size was 0.6×0.9mm2. It had an equivalent period of p0=42μm and a line width of w0=10.5μm. The phase grating had a period of 5.6μm, a duty ratio of 0.5 and a depth of 40μm, which corresponded to a π phase shift for 31 keV, the most probable photon energy generated by the multi-line X-ray source. The thickness of the structured scintillator was up to 150μm, and its period was 3μm with a duty ratio of 0.5 (equal to the pitch of the phase grating's self-image at the first fractional Talbot distance). The distance between the multi-line X-ray source and the phase grating was z0=1.47m, and the distance between the phase grating and the structured scintillator was z1=105mm. The scintillator was directly coupled with an ANDOR 2048×2048 pixels (13.5μm/pixel) CCD camera through a fiber optical tape with a demagnification of 2. Thus, the effective scintillator pixel size is 27μm, and the field of view is about 55×55mm2.

Figure 2
Fig. 2 (Color online) The image of a piece of a violet leaf. (a) is the conventional digital chromo-photograph. (b) is the X-ray transmission image. (c) is the differential phase contrast image. (d), (e) and (f) are magnified sections of the chromatic, transmission and differential phase contrast images, respectively, of the dried footstalk. (g), (h) and (i) are the magnified sections of the chromatic, transmission and differential phase contrast images, respectively, of the dried leaf apex. (j) and (k) are the profile values of the transmission and differential phase contrast images, respectively, of the dried footstalk.
shows the experimental results of a weakly absorbing specimen, a piece of a violet leaf. The exposure time is 10 s for each original image, and the field of view is 55×45mm2. Figure 2(a) shows the chromo-photograph of the specimen, where a part of the footstalk and leaf apex is dried. The X-ray transmission image and the differential phase contrast image, which clearly show the contour of the leaf, are shown in Fig. 2(b) and Fig. 2(c), respectively. In the section of the dried leaves shown in Fig. 2(d) and Fig. 2(g), the small difference in the intensity of the tissues is barely discernible in the absorption images in Fig. 2(e) and Fig. 2(h), while the differential phase contrast images shown in Fig. 2(f) and Fig. 2(i) show them clearly.

Figure 3
Fig. 3 The chicken claw image. (a) is the X-ray transmission image. (b) is the differential phase contrast image. (c) and (d) are magnified sections of the transmission and differential phase contrast images, respectively, of the chicken toes.
shows the results obtained by our method with a biological sample containing soft and hard tissues (a chicken claw). The exposure time is 10 s for each original image, and the field of view is 55×55mm2. The absorption and differential phase contrast images are shown in Fig. 3(a) and Fig. 3(b), respectively. As expected, the differential phase contrast image reveals much more detail of the sample, especially for the soft tissues and cartilages, while only some highly absorbing tissues are clearly visible in transmission image. Smaller structures with higher spatial frequencies (the structures of imbricate skins, for example) are also better visualized in the phase contrast images. Finally, in the magnified images corresponding to the rectangular area shown in Fig. 3(c) and Fig. 3(d), we can also see that the phase contrast image provides more information about the nail.

4. Conclusion

On the basis of the key improvements described here, the non-absorption grating X-ray phase contrast imaging technique presented in this work represents an important progress towards applying X-ray phase contrast imaging. As a powerful inspection tool for materials composed of low-Z elements, this technique may play important roles in soft tissue pathologies, biology, paleontology and materials science. Due to the characteristics of the ladder-shaped multi-line X-ray source and the structured scintillator, the approach creates a great number of preponderant applications for higher X-ray photon energies. We believe that our method significantly advances this technique toward future practical applications.

Grating-based X-ray phase contrast imaging has long been restricted by the use of absorption gratings. Unlike absorption gratings, the ladder-shaped multi-line X-ray source and large-area structured scintillator are inexpensively fabricated in ordinary laboratory, which provides another choice for X-ray phase contrast imaging and potentially promote the use of this technique for higher X-ray photon energies. Furthermore, like other techniques, implementing X-ray dark field imaging [30

30. F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7(2), 134–137 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and X-ray phase contrast tomography [18

18. F. Pfeiffer, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Hard x-ray phase tomography with low-brilliance sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(10), 108105 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], is also possible by this approach.

5. Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Major Program of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 60532090).

References and links

1.

A. Momose and J. Fukuda, “Phase-contrast radiographs of nonstained rat cerebellar specimen,” Med. Phys. 22(4), 375–379 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

U. Bonse and M. Hart, “An x-ray interferometer with long separated interfering beam paths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 6(8), 155 (1965). [CrossRef]

3.

A. Momose, T. Takeda, Y. Itai, and K. Hirano, “Phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography for observing biological soft tissues,” Nat. Med. 2(4), 473–475 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, V. Kohn, S. Kuznetsov, and I. Schelokov, “On the possibilities of x-ray phase contrast microimaging by coherent high-energy synchrotron radiation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66(12), 5486 (1995). [CrossRef]

5.

S. W. Wilkins, T. E. Gureyev, D. Gao, A. Pogany, and W. Stevenson, “Phase-contrast imaging using polychromatic hard X-rays,” Nature 384(6607), 335–338 (1996). [CrossRef]

6.

K. A. Nugent, T. E. Gureyev, D. J. Cookson, D. Paganin, and Z. Barnea, “Quantitative phase imaging using hard X-rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(14), 2961–2964 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

Y. Hwu, W. Tsai, A. Groso, G. Margaritondo, and J. H. Je, “Coherence-enhanced synchrotron radiology: Simple theory and practical applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 35(13), R105 (2002). [CrossRef]

8.

V. N. Ingal and E. A. Beliaevskaya, “X-ray plane-wave topography observation of the phase contrast from a non-crystalline object,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 28(11), 2314–2317 (1995). [CrossRef]

9.

T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, A. W. Stevenson, and S. W. Wilkins, “Phase-contrast imaging of weakly absorbing materials using hard X-rays,” Nature 373(6515), 595–598 (1995). [CrossRef]

10.

D. Chapman, W. Thomlinson, R. E. Johnston, D. Washburn, E. Pisano, N. Gmür, Z. Zhong, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, and D. Sayers, “Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(11), 2015–2025 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

C. David, B. Nöhammer, H. Solak, and E. Ziegler, “Differential x-ray phase contrast imaging using a shearing interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3287 (2002). [CrossRef]

12.

A. Momose, “Phase-sensitive imaging and phase tomography using X-ray interferometers,” Opt. Express 11(19), 2303–2314 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, P. Cloetens, and E. Ziegler, “X-ray phase imaging with a grating interferometer,” Opt. Express 13(16), 6296–6304 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

P. Zhu, K. Zhang, Z. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Liu, Z. Wu, S. A. McDonald, F. Marone, and M. Stampanoni, “Low-dose, simple, and fast grating-based X-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(31), 13576–13581 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, T. Donath, S. Rutishauser, and C. David, “Two-dimensional x-ray grating interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(24), 248102 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weikamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance X-ray sources,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 258–261 (2006). [CrossRef]

17.

C. Kottler, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Grünzweig, J. Bruder, and R. Kaufmann, “Phase contrast X-ray imaging of large samples using an incoherent laboratory source,” Phys. Status Solidi 204(8), 2728–2733 (2007) (a).

18.

F. Pfeiffer, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Hard x-ray phase tomography with low-brilliance sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(10), 108105 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

C. David, J. Bruder, T. Rohbeck, C. Grünzweig, C. Kottler, A. Diaz, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Fabrication of diffraction gratings for hard X-ray phase contrast imaging,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(5-8), 1172–1177 (2007). [CrossRef]

20.

D. Noda, H. Tsujii, N. Takahashi, and T. Hattori, “Fabrication of high precision X-ray mask for X-ray grating of X-ray Talbot interferometer,” Microsyst. Technol. 16(8-9), 1309–1313 (2010). [CrossRef]

21.

H. Niu, J. Guo, and X. Liu, C.N. Patent No. 200810216469.3 (2008).

22.

H. Niu, J. Guo, K. Wang, and Q. Yang, C.N. Patent No. 200610062487.1 (2006).

23.

A. Momose, W. Yashiro, H. Huwahara, and K. Kawabata, “Grating-Based X-ray Phase Imaging Using Multiline X-ray Source,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(7), 076512 (2009). [CrossRef]

24.

Y. Lei, X. Liu, J. Guo, Z. Zhao, and H. Niu, “Development of x-ray scintillator functioning also as an analyzer grating used in grating-based x-ray differential phase contrast imaging,” Chin. Phys. B 20(4), 042901 (2011). [CrossRef]

25.

S. Rutishauser, I. Zanette, T. Donath, A. Sahlholm, J. Linnros, and C. David, “Structured scintillator for hard x-ray grating interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(17), 171107 (2011). [CrossRef]

26.

T. Weitkamp, C. David, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Tomography with grating interferometers at low-brilliance sources,” Proc. SPIE 6318, 63180S, 63180S-10 (2006). [CrossRef]

27.

X. Liu, Y. Lei, Z. Zhao, J. Guo, and H. Niu, “Design and fabrication of hard x-ray phase grating,” Acta. Phys. Sin. 59, 6927 (2010).

28.

M. Simon, K. J. Engel, B. Menser, X. Badel, and J. Linnros, “X-ray imaging performance of scintillator-filled silicon pore arrays,” Med. Phys. 35(3), 968–981 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

29.

X. Liu, J. Guo, and H. Niu, “A new method of detecting interferogram in differential phase-contrast imaging system based on special structured x-ray scintillator screen,” Chin. Phys. B 19(7), 070701 (2010). [CrossRef]

30.

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7(2), 134–137 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(050.1950) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction gratings
(340.7440) X-ray optics : X-ray imaging
(340.7450) X-ray optics : X-ray interferometry

ToC Category:
X-ray Optics

History
Original Manuscript: September 6, 2011
Revised Manuscript: October 1, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: October 14, 2011
Published: October 26, 2011

Virtual Issues
Vol. 7, Iss. 1 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Yang Du, Xin Liu, Yaohu Lei, Jinchuan Guo, and Hanben Niu, "Non-absorption grating approach for X-ray phase contrast imaging," Opt. Express 19, 22669-22674 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-23-22669


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References

  1. A. Momose and J. Fukuda, “Phase-contrast radiographs of nonstained rat cerebellar specimen,” Med. Phys.22(4), 375–379 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. U. Bonse and M. Hart, “An x-ray interferometer with long separated interfering beam paths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.6(8), 155 (1965). [CrossRef]
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