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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 23 — Nov. 7, 2011
  • pp: 23258–23270
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Wide range operation of regenerative optical parametric wavelength converter using ASE-degraded 43-Gb/s RZ-DPSK signals

Mingyi Gao, Junya Kurumida, and Shu Namiki  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 23, pp. 23258-23270 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.023258


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Abstract

For sustainable growth of the Internet, wavelength-tunable optical regeneration is the key to scaling up high energy-efficiency dynamic optical path networks while keeping the flexibility of the network. Wavelength-tunable optical parametric regenerator (T-OPR) based on the gain saturation effect of parametric amplification in a highly nonlinear fiber is promising for noise reduction in phase-shift keying signals. In this paper, we experimentally evaluated the T-OPR performance for ASE-degraded 43-Gb/s RZ-DPSK signals over a 20-nm input wavelength range between 1527 nm and 1547 nm. As a result, we achieved improved power penalty performance for the regenerated idler with a proper pump power range.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

On the other hand, for phase-shift keying (PSK) signals, regeneration must preserve the phase information, but may not need thresholder function as every bit slot contains the equal amplitude, while ASE acts as both of amplitude noise and phase noise. Here, we are interested in the effect of phase noise when the regeneration is only with respect to amplitude. The details are developed in Appendix. For DPSK signals, the amplitude noise of each optical pulse, δA, contributes linearly to the output current, I, of the balanced receiver after the delayed interferometer, while the phase noise, δφn, contributes quadratically, i.e. I∝ ± A2 + O(δA/A) + O(δφn2), according to Eq. (A.1) in Appendix. In this sense, the suppression of only amplitude noise makes sense for DPSK signals. In contrast, for DQPSK signals, the photocurrents for both in-phase and quadrature channels will take a form: I∝ ± A2 + O(δA/A) + O(δφn), according to Eqs. (A.2-1) and (A.2-2) in Appendix, where the amplitude and phase noise will equally impact the detection. Considering also the fact that amplitude noise will inevitably be converted to phase noise through nonlinearity of transmission fibers [7

7. J. P. Gordon and L. F. Mollenauer, “Phase noise in photonic communications systems using linear amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 15(23), 1351–1353 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], phase-preserving amplitude regeneration is important as it cannot only mitigate amplitude noise but simultaneously block nonlinear phase noise [8

8. M. Matsumoto and K. Sanuki, “Performance improvement of DPSK signal transmission by a phase-preserving amplitude limiter,” Opt. Express 15(13), 8094–8103 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe /abstract.cfm?uri=oe-15–13–8094. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11

11. Q. T. Le, L. Bramerie, H. T. Nguyen, M. Gay, S. Lobo, M. Joindot, J.-L. Oudar, and J.-C. Simon, “Saturable-absorber-based phase-preserving amplitude regeneration of RZ DPSK signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(12), 887–889 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. Since PSK signals are being increasingly used in the real systems, it is vital to investigate the performances of T-OPR for the PSK signals.

In this paper, we experimentally evaluated the T-OPR characteristics for RZ-DPSK signals at 43 Gb/s, where ASE source was utilized to degrade input signals. The improved power penalty performance was uniformly realized for the signals over a 20-nm input wavelength range. Besides, the influence of the pump power on the regeneration performance was investigated to clarify the pump-power tolerance.

2. Principle

In the operation of T-OPR, when the phase matching condition is satisfied perfectly, the maximum small-signal parametric gain can be expressed as [12

12. J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 506–520 (2002). [CrossRef]

],
Gmax(1/4)exp(2γPpL)
(1)
Here γ is the fiber nonlinear coefficient, Pp is the pump power and L is the fiber interaction length.

For the case, where the pump wavelength λp lies in the anomalous dispersion regime of the fiber, the spectral shape of the parametric gain in a single-pump parametric amplifier has two maxima on both shorter- and longer-wavelength sides of the pump wavelength. Figure 1
Fig. 1 Calculated gain spectra of single-pump parametric amplifier with γPpL of 5.1, λ0 of 1542 nm and pump wavelengths λp of 1544, 1545, 1546, 1548, 1550, 1552, 1554 and 1556 nm from a shorter wavelength peak.
shows the calculated gain spectra of single-pump parametric amplifier, where eight pump wavelengths λp are chosen between 1544 nm and 1556 nm.

The MGWs, the wavelengths with peak-gain, on the shorter- and longer-wavelength sides of the pump, λS and λL, are given by [4

4. M. Gao, J. Kurumida, and S. Namiki, “Wavelength-tunable optical parametric regenerator,” Opt. Lett. 35(20), 3468–3470 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

],
λS,L=λpλ0γPpπcS(λpλ0)
(2)
where c is the speed of light in vacuum, S and λ0 are the dispersion slope of the fiber and the zero-dispersion wavelength of the fiber, respectively.

In order to realize efficient gain saturation, one should operate the T-OPR such that both the probe and idler wavelengths are allocated at a wavelength close to either one of the MGWs. The calculated MGWs, λS and λL versus pump wavelength are shown in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Calculated maximum gain wavelengths (λS and λL) versus pump wavelength (λp) in the anomalous dispersion regime with γPpL of 5.0, 6.3 and 7.4 from inner curves.
. The MGW on the curve λS increases steadily with increasing pump wavelength, as shown by red arrows in Fig. 2. While that on λL tends to stay at a certain wavelength over a certain range of pump wavelength as shown by dotted frame in Fig. 2.

The power transfer function (PTF) can represent the regeneration performance of T-OPR well. These PTFs of different signal wavelengths vary with varying parametric gains. The parametric gain at different wavelength determines the location of PTFs and thus a small difference on the parametric gain means that there is possibility to obtain a uniform PTF by adjusting input signal power and output idler power. Such a feature can be utilized, combined with the characteristics of MGWs, to design the T-OPR with uniform PTFs over a wide input wavelength range, by choosing proper fiber parameters and carefully adjusting pump parameters.

Figure 3
Fig. 3 The conceptual block diagram of the pulsed-pump T-OPR. EDFA: erbium-doped fiber amplifier, OBPF: tunable optical bandpass filter, PC: polarization controller, HNLF: highly nonlinear fiber, VOA: variable optical attenuator.
shows the conceptual block diagram of the T-OPR, where the pulsed-pump scheme was used because it provides higher peak power, higher SBS threshold and retiming function by applying a clock source to the pump. Degraded signal and synchronized pump pulse are coupled into a highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF) together, and the idler amplitude will experience the saturated, or amplitude dependent parametric gain to mitigate amplitude noise. Wavelength tuning is achieved by tuning the pump wavelength, while the input signal and output idler wavelengths are always located in the vicinity of λS and λL respectively, in order to realize efficient gain saturation. The uniform PTF is achievable by adjusting input/output average power.

To sum up, the locations of the two maxima λS and λL in the spectral gain shape of the single-pump parametric amplification are the key for the proper design of our proposed T-OPR [4

4. M. Gao, J. Kurumida, and S. Namiki, “Wavelength-tunable optical parametric regenerator,” Opt. Lett. 35(20), 3468–3470 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In order to demonstrate the T-OPR for RZ-DPSK, we chose the similar parameters used in Ref [5

5. M. Gao, J. Kurumida, and S. Namiki, “43-Gbit/s operation of wavelength-tunable optical parametric regenerator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(11), 718–720 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. for RZ-OOK. The output idler wavelength was chosen to be 1561 nm which is near λL and the input signal on λS was varied from 1527 nm to 1547 nm for a small-fluctuation of signal gain with the corresponding pump wavelength from 1544 nm to 1554 nm.

3. Experimental setup

Figure 4
Fig. 4 Experimental setup of the pulsed-pump T-OPR for 43-Gbit/s RZ-DPSK.
shows the experimental setup of the pulsed-pump T-OPR for 43-Gbit/s RZ-DPSK. Firstly, 43-Gbit/s optical RZ-DPSK signal with the wavelengths between 1527 and 1547nm was generated by cascaded Mach-Zehnder modulators (MZMs) from a tunable laser source (TLS). A 21.5-GHz clock and 43-Gbit/s 231-1 pseudorandom bit sequence (PRBS) were provided to modulators from the pulse pattern generator (PPG). Generated RZ-DPSK signal has 9-ps pulse width that was realized by shifted bias point and increased peak-to-peak voltage for making 43-GHz pulse train. An ASE source was constructed by a typical erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) with a variable optical attenuator (VOA) and an optical band-pass filter (OBPF). The output of the ASE source was connected to the RZ-DPSK signal line to cause a degradation of the signal. The signal input power to the highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF) was controlled by the cascaded EDFA, OBPF and VOA. Secondly, 43-GHz pump pulse train was generated with an optical pulse generator (OPG) under the synchronous condition which consisted of a modulator followed by a pulse compressor based on HNLFs [13

13. T. Inoue and S. Namiki, “Pulse compression techniques using highly nonlinear fibers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2(1-2), 83–99 (2008). [CrossRef]

] and its pulse width was adjusted to 4 ps. The pump was amplified by a high-power EDFA. An optical delay line (∆τ) was inserted into the signal path to adjust the synchronization between the signal and the pump. Finally, both the signal and the pump were coupled into a 600-m long HNLF, which consisted of three sets of 200-m fibers to increase SBS threshold [14

14. M. Takahashi, M. Tadakuma, J. Hiroishi, and T. Yagi, “5.7dB SBS suppression with a HNLF (module) comprised of 3 HNLFs having different GeO2 concentration,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC 2007), Paper P014, 2007.

], each with the zero-dispersion wavelength of 1541, 1542 and 1542 nm, the nonlinear coefficient of 19, 13 and 13 W−1km−1, the loss of 0.97, 0.65 and 0.39 dB/km and the dispersion slope of 0.022, 0.027 and 0.026 ps·nm−2km−1, respectively. Polarization controllers (PC) and a polarizer (POL) were used to ensure the aligned linear polarization of the pump and the signal. Optical isolator (ISO) was utilized to protect the EDFAs from the reflected wave induced by SBS. The generated idler was demodulated by a one-bit delay interferometer, detected by a balanced receiver and evaluated by an error analyzer (EA).

RZ-DPSK: return-to-zero differential phase shift keying, PPG: pulse pattern generator, TLS: tunable laser source, MZM: Mach-Zehnder modulator, OPG: optical pulse generator, EDFA: erbium-doped fiber amplifier, OBPF: tunable optical bandpass filter, VOA: variable optical attenuator, ∆τ: optical time delay line, PC: polariztion controller, POL: polarizer, ISO: optical isolator, HNLF: highly nonlinear fiber, PM: power meter, OSA: optical spectrum analyzer, DCA: digital communication analyzer, PD: photodiode, CR: clock recovery, EA: error analyzer.

4. Results and discussion

4.1 Influence of ASE noise added to the RZ-DPSK signal

In order to extend the scalability of DOPN and compensate the insertion loss of optical switches, optical amplifiers at cascaded optical nodes are indispensable. However, accumulated ASE noise will limit the scalability of the DOPN. Before investigating the regeneration ability of the T-OPR, we evaluated the influence of ASE noise on the RZ-DPSK signal performance. In the experiment, output power from RZ-DPSK transmitter without ASE source was set to be −4.1 dBm and the optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) was found to be 32.5 dB for a resolution bandwidth (RBW) of 0.1 nm. When the ASE noises with powers of −24.1 dBm, −18.2 dBm, −16.9 dBm and −13.6 dBm were added to the RZ-DPSK signal, OSNRs were degraded to 22.7 dB, 17.3 dB, 15.9 dB and 12.8 dB, respectively. Figure 5
Fig. 5 (a) BER characteristics and (b) the corresponding waveforms of 43-Gb/s RZ-DPSK signal at 1535nm with varying ASE-degradation: OSNR=32.5 dB (pentagram), 22.7 dB (diamonds), 17.3 dB (squares), 15.9 dB (triangles) and 12.8 dB (circles).
shows the measured BER characteristics and the corresponding waveforms of the signal at 1535 nm with varying ASE-degradation.

Although raising the power of the ASE noise induces a reduction of signal OSNR linearly, the power penalty at 10−8 BER behaves differently. A power threshold for ASE noise to start degrading sharply the signal existed. For the ASE noise power lower than about −16.9 dBm with the input signal power of −4.1 dBm, the power penalty is around 2 dB. With the increase of the ASE noise, the power penalty increases sharply, as shown in Fig. 5. In the following experiments to measure the regeneration performance of the T-OPR, we always use the medium-degraded signal with the ASE noise around −16.9 dBm and RZ-DPSK signal power of −4.1 dBm at the output port of the transmitter.

4.2 Influence of pump power on the output idler characteristics

The parametric gain determines the efficiency of gain saturation and hence the PTF of the T-OPR. Therefore, MGW is one of the most important indices of the T-OPR to achieve a high efficient regeneration, which is determined by the pump and fiber parameters, as mentioned in Ref [4

4. M. Gao, J. Kurumida, and S. Namiki, “Wavelength-tunable optical parametric regenerator,” Opt. Lett. 35(20), 3468–3470 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. For a given fiber, the parametric gain mainly depends on the pump power. Actually, the spectral shape of the parametric gain can be measured by observing the output ASE spectrum, where only the pump was launched to the T-OPR blocking the signal input. Figure 6
Fig. 6 Measured pump ASE spectra (0.1-nm RBW) with varying average pump power, 21.8 dBm (red), 22.8 dBm (green) and 23.5 dBm (blue).
shows the measured pump ASE spectra with different average pump powers at 1548 nm. Due to an approximately exponential relation between the small-signal maximum parametric gain Gmax and the pump power Pp, as expressed in Eq. (1), a small variation of Pp will result in a large change of Gmax. On the contrary, the MGWs will not vary largely, owing to an approximately square root relation between the MGWs and the pump power, as expressed in Eq. (2). A small variation of the pump power will therefore induce a large change in the maximum parametric gain while keeping MGWs around the predetermined values. Furthermore, this change in Gmax will bring a considerable variation of input signal power to obtain gain saturation.

Then, we investigated the influence of the pump power on the T-OPR. Figure 7
Fig. 7 The measured average power transfer function of input 43-Gb/s RZ-DPSK signal at 1535nm and regenerated idler at 1561nm with average pump power of 21.8dBm (circles), 22.8dBm (squares) and 23.5dBm (diamonds) at 1548nm.
shows the measured average PTFs of 43-Gb/s RZ-DPSK signal at 1535 nm and regenerated idler at 1561nm with varying average pump power of 21.8, 22.8 and 23.5 dBm. The required input signal power to realize gain saturation is decreasing with the increase in the parametric gain due to the pump power increase. Lower pump power required the higher input signal power for the gain saturation whereas higher pump power deteriorated the extinction ratio of the regenerated idler more, due to relatively higher transmittance of small noise signal. Therefore the power variation of + 0.7dB/-1dB around the pump power of 22.8 dBm is found to be appropriate for our scheme.

Since careful adjustment of the pump power is vital for amplitude regeneration based on parametric gain saturation, we investigated the regeneration performances of the T-OPR with different pump powers. Figure 8
Fig. 8 (a) BER characteristics and (b) the corresponding waveforms for different pump powers. Back-to-back signal (pentagram); degraded signal (triangles) at 1535nm and regenerated idler at 1561nm with pump power of 21.8 dBm (circles), 22.8 dBm (squares) and 23.5 dBm (diamonds) at 1548 nm.
plots the measured BERs and the corresponding waveforms of the degraded signals and the regenerated idlers with varying average pump powers of 21.8, 22.8 and 23.5 dBm at 1548 nm. The obvious regeneration is observed for all of these pump powers. It is noted that the small variation of the power penalty of 0.8 dB at 10−9 BER was observed for the regenerated idlers. Similar regeneration performances were obtained for these different pump powers in Fig. 8 because of such a small pump power difference and higher OSNR of the pump pulse around 40 dB [15

15. M. Matsumoto, “Phase noise generation in an amplitude limiter using saturation of a fiber-optic parametric amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 33(15), 1638–1640 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

4.3 Demonstration of tunability

It is important to evaluate the tunability of the T-OPR for applications in the DOPN. In the following experiments, we measured the performances of T-OPR over a 20-nm input wavelength range with the average pump power of 22.8 dBm. Figure 9
Fig. 9 Measured pump ASE spectra (0.1-nm RBW) with varying pump wavelengths of 1544, 1548 and 1554 nm from a shorter wavelength peak.
shows the ASE spectra for the pump wavelengths of 1544, 1548 and 1554 nm. Here, only the pump was launched to the T-OPR blocking the signal input. From the observed output ASE spectra, we measured the variations of MGWs with the pump wavelengths along with the theoretical calculation by the dotted curves, as shown by diamonds in Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Measured MGWs vs. pump wavelength (diamonds) along with the theoretical calculation (dotted curves). The squares show corresponding input probe wavelengths and output idler wavelength of 1561nm.
. The corresponding input signal wavelengths of 1527, 1535 and 1547 nm and the output idler wavelength of 1561 nm shown by squares are in good agreement with the MGWs shown by diamonds. Then we measured the PTFs for signal wavelengths of 1527, 1535 and 1547 nm and the PTF curves of the output idler at 1561 nm are shown in Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Measured average power transfer functions of 43-Gb/s RZ-DPSK signal and regenerated idler at 1561 nm. Signal wavelengths were 1527 nm (red), 1535 nm (green), and 1548 nm (blue) and average pump power was 22.8 dBm.
for the average pump power of 22.8 dBm. These PTF curves behave very similarly and the uniform PTF can be achieved by adjusting the input power of at most 5 dB and the output power of at most 1 dB.

Figure 12
Fig. 12 BER characteristics for various RZ-DPSK signal wavelengths of (a) 1527 nm, (b) 1535 nm, (c) 1547 nm. Back-to-back signal (pentagram), degraded signal (triangles) and regenerated idler at 1561nm (squares) with an average pump power of 22.8 dBm.
plots the measured BERs of the back-to-back signal, degraded signal with input signal wavelengths of 1527 nm, 1535 nm and 1547 nm and regenerated idler at 1561 nm. The improvement in the power penalty for the regenerated idler is obvious compared with that for the ASE-degraded signal. Power penalties from 0.4-dB to 1.1-dB were obtained at 10−9 BER between back-to-back signal and regenerated idler. Figure 13
Fig. 13 (a) Waveform before demodulation of degraded signal at 1527 nm, (b) eye diagram after demodulation of degraded signal at 1527 nm, (c) waveform before demodulation of regenerated idler at 1561 nm, (d) eye diagram after demodulation of regenerated idler at 1561 nm, for 43-Gb/s RZ-DPSK signal.
shows the measured waveforms before demodulation and eye diagrams after demodulation for 43-Gb/s RZ-DPSK degraded signal at 1527 nm and regenerated idler at 1561 nm, corresponding to the BER plots shown in Fig. 12(a).

5. Conclusion

A wavelength-tunable optical parametric regenerator (T-OPR) is indispensable to extend the scale of the DOPN, which is limited by accumulation of the ASE noise due to optical amplifiers at cascaded optical nodes. In the paper, the T-OPR was experimentally assessed for ASE-degraded 43-Gb/s RZ-DPSK signals over a 20-nm input wavelength range between 1527 and 1547 nm. At first, BER performances of various ASE-degraded 43-Gb/s RZ-DPSK signals were investigated. Then, an ASE noise power of around −16.9 dBm and RZ-DPSK signal power of −4.1 dBm at the output of the transmitter were chosen for the evaluation of the T-OPR. Next, we investigated the influence of pump power on the regeneration performance. For power variation of + 0.7dB/-1dB around the designated pump power of 22.8 dBm, we observed an almost 20-dB difference of the small-signal parametric gain and a 0.8-dB variation of the power penalty at 10−9 BER for the regenerated idler. Finally, tunability of the T-OPR was investigated. A uniform set of PTFs can be obtained almost completely by adjusting the input power of at most 5 dB and output power of at most 1 dB for the input signal over a 20-nm input wavelength range between 1527 and 1547 nm. Measured BERs show power penalties from 0.4 dB to 1.1 dB at 10−9 BER between back-to-back signal and the regenerated idler.

A remarkable noise reduction was achieved for degraded DPSK signals by the T-OPR. Further research and development of the T-OPR technique is expected for the achievement of an impairment-free DPSK transmission and realization of scalable dynamic optical path networks.

Appendix

Figure A1 shows the direct-detection receivers for DPSK and DQPSK signal using asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI), where the signal is split and combined with a path difference of a one-bit delay of τ. The direct-detection receiver for DQPSK signal requires two MZIs and extra bias phase shifters of ±π/4. The input DPSK/DQPSK signal is denotes as Ã(t).

Fig. A1 Direct-detection receivers for (a) DPSK signal and (b) DQPSK signal.

The photocurrent I(t) at the output of the balanced receiver for the DPSK signal is,
I(t)=2RRe[A˜(t)A˜*(tT)]=2RA(A+δA)cos(δφs+δφn){2RA2(1+δAA)(1δφn22)withδφs=02RA2(1+δAA)(1δφn22)withδφs=π
(A.1)
where R is the responsivity of photodiode, A is the amplitude of the signal pulse, δA is the amplitude noise of the signal pulse and δφn is the phase noise of the signal pulse. δφss(t-T)-φs(t)is the phase difference between the adjacent signals, which is 0 or π for DPSK signal.

The photocurrents II(t) and IQ(t) at the output of the balanced receivers for the DQPSK signal are given, where the phase difference between the adjacent signals δφss(t-T)-φs(t), is 0, π/2, π or 3π/2 for DQPSK.

II(t)=RRe[A˜(t)A˜*(tT)exp(j/4)]=RA(A+δA)cos(δφs+δφn+π4){RA2(1+δAA)cos(δφn+π4)22RA2(1+δAA)(1δφn22δφn)withδφs=0-RA2(1+δAA)sin(δφn+π4)22RA2(1+δAA)(1δφn22+δφn)withδφs=π2-RA2(1+δAA)cos(δφn+π4)22RA2(1+δAA)(1δφn22δφn)withδφs=πRA2(1+δAA)sin(δφn+π4)22RA2(1+δAA)(1δφn22+δφn)withδφs=2 (A.2-1)
IQ(t)=RRe[A˜(t)A˜*(tT)exp(j/4)]=RA(A+δA)cos(δφs+δφnπ4){RA2(1+δAA)cos(δφnπ4)22RA2(1+δAA)(1δφn22+δφn)withδφs=0-RA2(1+δAA)sin(δφnπ4)22RA2(1+δAA)(1δφn22δφn)withδφs=π2-RA2(1+δAA)cos(δφnπ4)22RA2(1+δAA)(1δφn22+δφn)withδφs=πRA2(1+δAA)sin(δφnπ4)22RA2(1+δAA)(1δφn22δφn)withδφs=2 (A.2-2)

Acknowledgments

This work was partly supported by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) and the Project for Developing Innovation Systems of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). Authors acknowledge Dr. Naoya Uchida for valuable discussions and Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd. for lending the HNLF.

References and links

1.

S. Namiki, T. Kurosu, K. Tanizawa, J. Kurumida, T. Hasama, H. Ishikawa, T. Nakatogawa, M. Nakamura, K. Oyamada, and K. Oyamada, “Ultrahigh-definition video transmission and extremely green optical networks for future,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 446–457 (2011). [CrossRef]

2.

S. Namiki, T. Hasama, and H. Ishikawa, “Optical signal processing for energy-efficient dynamic optical path network,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC 2010), Paper Mo.2.A.4, 2010.

3.

J. Berthold, A. A. M. Saleh, L. Blair, and J. M. Simmons, “Optical networking: past, present, and future,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(9), 1104–1118 (2008). [CrossRef]

4.

M. Gao, J. Kurumida, and S. Namiki, “Wavelength-tunable optical parametric regenerator,” Opt. Lett. 35(20), 3468–3470 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

M. Gao, J. Kurumida, and S. Namiki, “43-Gbit/s operation of wavelength-tunable optical parametric regenerator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(11), 718–720 (2011). [CrossRef]

6.

M. Gao, J. Kurumida, and S. Namiki, “Cascaded optical parametric amplitude thresholder and limiter,” in Proc. Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference (OECC 2011), Paper 7C4_4, 2011.

7.

J. P. Gordon and L. F. Mollenauer, “Phase noise in photonic communications systems using linear amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 15(23), 1351–1353 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

M. Matsumoto and K. Sanuki, “Performance improvement of DPSK signal transmission by a phase-preserving amplitude limiter,” Opt. Express 15(13), 8094–8103 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe /abstract.cfm?uri=oe-15–13–8094. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

M. Sköld, J. Yang, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, S. Oda, and P. A. Andrekson, “Constellation diagram analysis of DPSK signal regeneration in a saturated parametric amplifier,” Opt. Express 16(9), 5974–5982 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-9-5974. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

C. Peucheret, M. Lorenzen, J. Seoane, D. Noordegraaf, C. V. Nielsen, L. Gruner-Nielsen, and K. Rottwitt, “Amplitude regeneration of RZ-DPSK signals in single-pump fiber-optic parametric amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(13), 872–874 (2009). [CrossRef]

11.

Q. T. Le, L. Bramerie, H. T. Nguyen, M. Gay, S. Lobo, M. Joindot, J.-L. Oudar, and J.-C. Simon, “Saturable-absorber-based phase-preserving amplitude regeneration of RZ DPSK signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(12), 887–889 (2010). [CrossRef]

12.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 506–520 (2002). [CrossRef]

13.

T. Inoue and S. Namiki, “Pulse compression techniques using highly nonlinear fibers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2(1-2), 83–99 (2008). [CrossRef]

14.

M. Takahashi, M. Tadakuma, J. Hiroishi, and T. Yagi, “5.7dB SBS suppression with a HNLF (module) comprised of 3 HNLFs having different GeO2 concentration,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC 2007), Paper P014, 2007.

15.

M. Matsumoto, “Phase noise generation in an amplitude limiter using saturation of a fiber-optic parametric amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 33(15), 1638–1640 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(060.0060) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics and optical communications
(190.4975) Nonlinear optics : Parametric processes
(200.6015) Optics in computing : Signal regeneration

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: August 3, 2011
Revised Manuscript: September 30, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: September 30, 2011
Published: November 1, 2011

Citation
Mingyi Gao, Junya Kurumida, and Shu Namiki, "Wide range operation of regenerative optical parametric wavelength converter using ASE-degraded 43-Gb/s RZ-DPSK signals," Opt. Express 19, 23258-23270 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-23-23258


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References

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