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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 23 — Nov. 7, 2011
  • pp: 23271–23278
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Gamma irradiation effect on Rayleigh scattering in low water peak single-mode optical fibers

Jianxiang Wen, Gang-Ding Peng, Wenyun Luo, Zhongyin Xiao, Zhenyi Chen, and Tingyun Wang  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 23, pp. 23271-23278 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.023271


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Abstract

The Rayleigh scattering loss in low water peak single-mode optical fibers under varying Gamma rays irradiation has been investigated. We observed that the Rayleigh scattering coefficient (CR) of the fiber is almost linearly increased with the increase of Gamma irradiation in the low-dose range (< 500 Gy). Based on the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra analysis, we confirmed that the Rayleigh scattering mainly results from the irradiation-induced defect centers associated with electron transfer or charge density redistribution around Ge and O atoms. This work provides a new interpretation of the optical loss and reveals a new mechanism on irradiation influence on Rayleigh scattering.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

With the development of new fiber fabrication techniques, low water peak single-mode (LWPSM) fiber, as a result of eliminating interior hydroxyl, is currently utilized not only in long-distance optical transmission system but also in prospective application [1

1. L. Skuja, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, and K. Kajihara, “Defects in oxide glasses,” Phys. Status Solidi 2(1c), 15–24 (2005). [CrossRef]

, 2

2. L. A. de Montmorillon, G. Kuyt, P. Nouchi, and A. Bertaina, “Latest advances in optical fibers,” C. R. Phys. 9(9-10), 1045–1054 (2008). [CrossRef]

] to harsh environments, such as atomic power plants and military applications, etc. In general, there are many optical loss factors in optical fibers such as intrinsic absorptions, impurity material absorption, scatterings and so on [3

3. K. Yoshida, Y. Furui, S. Sentsui, and T. Kuroha, “Loss factors in optical fibres,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 13(1), 85–89 (1981). [CrossRef]

5

5. W. Zhi, R. Guobin, L. Shuqin, and J. Shuisheng, “Loss properties due to Rayleigh scattering in different types of fiber,” Opt. Express 11(1), 39–47 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. As literatures [5

5. W. Zhi, R. Guobin, L. Shuqin, and J. Shuisheng, “Loss properties due to Rayleigh scattering in different types of fiber,” Opt. Express 11(1), 39–47 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10

10. T. Y. Wang, Z. Y. Xiao, and W. Y. Luo, “Influences of thermal annealing temperatures on irradiation induced E` centers in silica glass,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(5), 2685–2688 (2008). [CrossRef]

] reported, the infrared absorption is unchanged regardless of the specific fabrication process, but the Rayleigh scattering does vary with fabrication conditions such as drawing tension, furnace temperature and drawing speed, etc. The Rayleigh scattering is an inherent factor that critically determines the minimum material transmission loss. The scattering loss due to imperfections in waveguides can normally be reduced by appropriately selecting the drawing conditions or the precise process control. For example, the Rayleigh scattering can be reduced by heat treatment [6

6. K. Tsujikawa, M. Ohashi, K. Shiraki, and M. Tateda, “Effect of thermal treatment on Rayleigh scattering in silica-based glasses,” Electron. Lett. 31(22), 1940–1941 (1995). [CrossRef]

8

8. S. Sakaguchi and S. I. Todoroki, “Rayleigh scattering of silica core optical fiber after heat treatment,” Appl. Opt. 37(33), 7708–7711 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Previously a number of literatures reported the irradiation influence on optical fiber material [11

11. B. Tortech, Y. Ouerdane, S. Girard, J. P. Meunier, A. Boukenter, T. Robin, B. Cadier, and P. Crochet, “Radiation effects on Yb- and Er/Yb-doped optical fibers: A micro-luminescence study,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(18-21), 1085–1088 (2009). [CrossRef]

14

14. G. Brasse, C. Restoin, J. L. Auguste, and J. M. Blondy, “Cascade emissions of an erbium-ytterbium doped silica-zirconia nanostructured optical fiber under supercontinuum irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 241903 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. Nevertheless, the irradiation influence on Rayleigh scattering of the optical fibers, particularly, the LWPSM optical fibers, has not been studied. In this paper, we reported our investigation of irradiation influence on Rayleigh scattering in LWPSM fibers. We found that the loss increase of the optical fibers irradiated with low-dose Gamma rays mainly results from Rayleigh scattering loss (RSL). The trend of loss increase is almost consistent with that of Rayleigh scattering coefficient increase. We also measured and analyzed ESR spectra characteristics of the fiber material and light scattering properties of the optical fibers under different doses Gamma rays irradiation. Based on these results, we proposed a new mechanism that relates the irradiation influence on Rayleigh scattering to radiation-induced electron transfer.

2. Experimental section

In our experiments, the samples of low water peak single-mode optical fiber (ITU-T G.652D, 500 m in length, Jiangsu Fasten Photonics Co., Ltd.) were irradiated with cumulative doses at about 20 Gy, 50 Gy, 100 Gy, 150 Gy, 200 Gy, 300 Gy, 1.0 kGy, 5.0 kGy at room temperature, respectively. The radiation is from a Cobalt-60 source with a dose rate of 1.4 Gy/s. The irradiations were carried out at the Irradiation Center at the Medical College of Soochow University, China.

Loss spectra, both before and after irradiation, were measured by the well-known cutback technique using a broadband optical spectrum analysis (OSA) (YOKOGAWA AQ6315A) in the 1100-1700 nm range, and with the resolution is 0.2 nm. Each fiber sample is up to 500 m in length. The germanium concentration in the fiber core is less than 10.0 mol %. The diameter of the GeO2-doped core is about 8 μm.

The relative-index profile (RIP) of the optical fiber samplers was measured with an Exfo, Inc., Model NR-9200 fiber analyzer. The resolution is 10−4 and the uncertainty is 10−3. The fiber shows a graded shape of the refractive index difference (RID) between the cladding layer and the core region.

The ESR measurements were performed with Varian E112 spectrometer (Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) operating at 9.53 GHz (X band) and employing a modulation field of frequency fm = 100 kHz. The center magnetic field strength is 3410 Gauss. The sweep range is 50 Gauss. The response time constant is 0.25 s. The microwave power is 50 mW. All ESR spectra are obtained at room temperature. The ESR fiber samples are prepared by removing their coating material and cutting into 80-90 pieces of 40 mm in length with a weight of about 40 mg. The intensities of the observed signals are normalized by the standard pitch signal. The unpaired electron in the molecule structure will split under the action of the direct current magnetic field H, while a frequency ν of electromagnetic waves is added in the vertical direction of the direct current magnetic field. When the relationship satisfies the relation of hv=gβH, the electron in the upper and lower energy level will have stimulated transitions. The absorption signal generated in the process is treated by some electronic system and is recorded by the spectrum-meter. Here h is Planck's constant, v is the microwave frequency, β is the Bohr magneton, H is the magnetic field strength and g value is for the Landé g-factor.

3. Experimental results and discussion

Figure 4
Fig. 4 RSL spectra and relative-index difference of the pristine optical fiber.
shows the attenuation spectrum of the standard LWPSM fiber versus 1/λ4, which is made normalization processing. The slope coefficient CR = 0.946 (αsc=CR/λ4, whereλ is the wavelength, and CR is the Rayleigh scattering coefficient). The RIP of the optical fiber is also shown in the inset of Fig. 4, and the RID (%) is 0.526. The other Rayleigh scatteringcoefficients, no normalization processing, are shown in the Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Optical RSL spectra and CR for the optical fiber samples irradiated with varying doses Gamma rays.
. The CR and RID of optical fiber samples irradiated with various doses are also shown in Table 1. The increasing trend of Rayleigh scattering coefficient can clearly be seen in the Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Relationship between CR and low-dose irradiation in LWPSM fibers.
. Both optical loss and CR are increased with the increase of irradiation dose, which can be seen in Table 1. We consider, under low-dose irradiation (< 500.0 Gy), there is a close relation between the optical attenuation and the CR, and the increase of the loss may mainly comes from the increase of Rayleigh scattering loss.

4. Conclusion

We have investigated the influence of Gamma rays irradiation on Rayleigh scattering of the low water peak single-mode optical fibers. We found that, under the low-dose irradiation (< 500 Gy), the CR is increased with the increase of irradiation dose. By experimental measurements of ESR and optical attenuation under various radiation doses, our work provides an interpretation of the optical loss and reveals a mechanism on irradiation influence on Rayleigh scattering. The irradiation influence on optical fiber results from the formation and enhancement of defect centers, such as GEC and STH center. These defect centers represent the radiation-induced electron transfer and the charge density redistribution around Ge and O atoms, which leads to the increase of Rayleigh scattering. Hence the increase of the irradiation dose results in the increase of Rayleigh scattering, ultimately the increase of optical attenuation or transmission loss in these low water peak single-mode optical fibers.

Acknowledgments

This work is supported by Shanghai Leading Academic Discipline Project and Science Committee (Grant Nos. S30108, 08DZ2231100, and 08DZ2271700), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 60937003, 61077068) and Shanghai Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 10ZR1411900).

References and links

1.

L. Skuja, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, and K. Kajihara, “Defects in oxide glasses,” Phys. Status Solidi 2(1c), 15–24 (2005). [CrossRef]

2.

L. A. de Montmorillon, G. Kuyt, P. Nouchi, and A. Bertaina, “Latest advances in optical fibers,” C. R. Phys. 9(9-10), 1045–1054 (2008). [CrossRef]

3.

K. Yoshida, Y. Furui, S. Sentsui, and T. Kuroha, “Loss factors in optical fibres,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 13(1), 85–89 (1981). [CrossRef]

4.

M. Ohashi, K. Shiraki, and K. Tajima, “Optical loss property of silica-based single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(5), 539–543 (1992). [CrossRef]

5.

W. Zhi, R. Guobin, L. Shuqin, and J. Shuisheng, “Loss properties due to Rayleigh scattering in different types of fiber,” Opt. Express 11(1), 39–47 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

K. Tsujikawa, M. Ohashi, K. Shiraki, and M. Tateda, “Effect of thermal treatment on Rayleigh scattering in silica-based glasses,” Electron. Lett. 31(22), 1940–1941 (1995). [CrossRef]

7.

S. Sakaguchi, “Relaxation of Rayleigh scattering in silica core optical fiber by heat treatment,” Electron. Comm. Jpn. 83(Part 2), 35–41 (2000).

8.

S. Sakaguchi and S. I. Todoroki, “Rayleigh scattering of silica core optical fiber after heat treatment,” Appl. Opt. 37(33), 7708–7711 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

K. Tsujikawa, K. Tajima, and M. Ohashi, “Rayleigh scattering reduction method for silica-based optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18(11), 1528–1532 (2000). [CrossRef]

10.

T. Y. Wang, Z. Y. Xiao, and W. Y. Luo, “Influences of thermal annealing temperatures on irradiation induced E` centers in silica glass,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(5), 2685–2688 (2008). [CrossRef]

11.

B. Tortech, Y. Ouerdane, S. Girard, J. P. Meunier, A. Boukenter, T. Robin, B. Cadier, and P. Crochet, “Radiation effects on Yb- and Er/Yb-doped optical fibers: A micro-luminescence study,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(18-21), 1085–1088 (2009). [CrossRef]

12.

J. X. Wen, W. Y. Luo, Z. Y. Xiao, T. Y. Wang, Z. Y. Chen, and X. L. Zeng, “Formation and conversion of defect centers in low water peak single mode optical fiber induced by gamma rays irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(4), 044904 (2010). [CrossRef]

13.

S. Girard, C. Marcandella, G. Origlio, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, and J. P. Meunier, “Radiation-induced defects in fluorine-doped silica-based optical fibers: Influence of a pre-loading with H2,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(18-21), 1089–1091 (2009). [CrossRef]

14.

G. Brasse, C. Restoin, J. L. Auguste, and J. M. Blondy, “Cascade emissions of an erbium-ytterbium doped silica-zirconia nanostructured optical fiber under supercontinuum irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 241903 (2009). [CrossRef]

15.

M. E. Lines, “Scattering losses in optic fiber materials. I. A new parametrization,” J. Appl. Phys. 55(11), 4052–4057 (1984). [CrossRef]

16.

D. A. Pinnow, T. C. Rich, F. W. Ostermayer, and J. M. Didomerico, “Fundamental optical attenuation limits in the liquid and glassy state with application to fiber optical waveguide materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22(10), 527–529 (1973). [CrossRef]

17.

I. V. Pevnitskii and V. Kh. Khalilov, “Light scattering in vitreous silica,” J. Glass Phys. Chem. 15, 246–250 (1989).

18.

S. Sakaguchi, S. Todoroki, and T. Murata, “Rayleigh scattering in silica glass with heat treatment,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 220(2-3), 178–186 (1997). [CrossRef]

19.

D. L. Griscom, “Self-trapped holes in pure-silica glass: A history of their discovery and characterization and an example of their critical significance to industry,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(23-25), 2601–2617 (2006). [CrossRef]

20.

E. J. Friebele, D. L. Griscom, and G. H. Sigel, “Observation and analysis of the primary 29Si hyperfine structure of the E′ center in non-crystalline SiO2,” Solid State Commun. 15(3), 479–483 (1974). [CrossRef]

21.

S. Shibata and M. Nakahara, “Fluorine and chlorine effects on radiation-induced loss for GeO2-doped silica optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 3(4), 860–863 (1985). [CrossRef]

22.

J. Nishii, K. Kintaka, H. Hosono, H. Kawazoe, M. Kato, and K.- Muta, “Pair generation of Ge electron centers and self-trapped hole centers in GeO2-SiO2 glasses by KrF excimer-laser irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B 60(10), 7166–7169 (1999). [CrossRef]

23.

T. Y. Wang, J. X. Wen, W. Y. Luo, Z. Y. Xiao, and Z. Y. Chen, “Influences of irradiation on network microstructure of low water peak optical fiber material,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(25-27), 1332–1336 (2010). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.2400) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber properties
(290.5870) Scattering : Scattering, Rayleigh
(350.5610) Other areas of optics : Radiation

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: August 3, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: October 7, 2011
Published: November 1, 2011

Citation
Jianxiang Wen, Gang-Ding Peng, Wenyun Luo, Zhongyin Xiao, Zhenyi Chen, and Tingyun Wang, "Gamma irradiation effect on Rayleigh scattering in low water peak single-mode optical fibers," Opt. Express 19, 23271-23278 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-23-23271


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References

  1. L. Skuja, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, and K. Kajihara, “Defects in oxide glasses,” Phys. Status Solidi2(1c), 15–24 (2005). [CrossRef]
  2. L. A. de Montmorillon, G. Kuyt, P. Nouchi, and A. Bertaina, “Latest advances in optical fibers,” C. R. Phys.9(9-10), 1045–1054 (2008). [CrossRef]
  3. K. Yoshida, Y. Furui, S. Sentsui, and T. Kuroha, “Loss factors in optical fibres,” Opt. Quantum Electron.13(1), 85–89 (1981). [CrossRef]
  4. M. Ohashi, K. Shiraki, and K. Tajima, “Optical loss property of silica-based single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.10(5), 539–543 (1992). [CrossRef]
  5. W. Zhi, R. Guobin, L. Shuqin, and J. Shuisheng, “Loss properties due to Rayleigh scattering in different types of fiber,” Opt. Express11(1), 39–47 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. Tsujikawa, M. Ohashi, K. Shiraki, and M. Tateda, “Effect of thermal treatment on Rayleigh scattering in silica-based glasses,” Electron. Lett.31(22), 1940–1941 (1995). [CrossRef]
  7. S. Sakaguchi, “Relaxation of Rayleigh scattering in silica core optical fiber by heat treatment,” Electron. Comm. Jpn.83(Part 2), 35–41 (2000).
  8. S. Sakaguchi and S. I. Todoroki, “Rayleigh scattering of silica core optical fiber after heat treatment,” Appl. Opt.37(33), 7708–7711 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. K. Tsujikawa, K. Tajima, and M. Ohashi, “Rayleigh scattering reduction method for silica-based optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol.18(11), 1528–1532 (2000). [CrossRef]
  10. T. Y. Wang, Z. Y. Xiao, and W. Y. Luo, “Influences of thermal annealing temperatures on irradiation induced E` centers in silica glass,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.55(5), 2685–2688 (2008). [CrossRef]
  11. B. Tortech, Y. Ouerdane, S. Girard, J. P. Meunier, A. Boukenter, T. Robin, B. Cadier, and P. Crochet, “Radiation effects on Yb- and Er/Yb-doped optical fibers: A micro-luminescence study,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(18-21), 1085–1088 (2009). [CrossRef]
  12. J. X. Wen, W. Y. Luo, Z. Y. Xiao, T. Y. Wang, Z. Y. Chen, and X. L. Zeng, “Formation and conversion of defect centers in low water peak single mode optical fiber induced by gamma rays irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys.107(4), 044904 (2010). [CrossRef]
  13. S. Girard, C. Marcandella, G. Origlio, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, and J. P. Meunier, “Radiation-induced defects in fluorine-doped silica-based optical fibers: Influence of a pre-loading with H2,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(18-21), 1089–1091 (2009). [CrossRef]
  14. G. Brasse, C. Restoin, J. L. Auguste, and J. M. Blondy, “Cascade emissions of an erbium-ytterbium doped silica-zirconia nanostructured optical fiber under supercontinuum irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(24), 241903 (2009). [CrossRef]
  15. M. E. Lines, “Scattering losses in optic fiber materials. I. A new parametrization,” J. Appl. Phys.55(11), 4052–4057 (1984). [CrossRef]
  16. D. A. Pinnow, T. C. Rich, F. W. Ostermayer, and J. M. Didomerico, “Fundamental optical attenuation limits in the liquid and glassy state with application to fiber optical waveguide materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.22(10), 527–529 (1973). [CrossRef]
  17. I. V. Pevnitskii and V. Kh. Khalilov, “Light scattering in vitreous silica,” J. Glass Phys. Chem.15, 246–250 (1989).
  18. S. Sakaguchi, S. Todoroki, and T. Murata, “Rayleigh scattering in silica glass with heat treatment,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids220(2-3), 178–186 (1997). [CrossRef]
  19. D. L. Griscom, “Self-trapped holes in pure-silica glass: A history of their discovery and characterization and an example of their critical significance to industry,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(23-25), 2601–2617 (2006). [CrossRef]
  20. E. J. Friebele, D. L. Griscom, and G. H. Sigel, “Observation and analysis of the primary 29Si hyperfine structure of the E′ center in non-crystalline SiO2,” Solid State Commun.15(3), 479–483 (1974). [CrossRef]
  21. S. Shibata and M. Nakahara, “Fluorine and chlorine effects on radiation-induced loss for GeO2-doped silica optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.3(4), 860–863 (1985). [CrossRef]
  22. J. Nishii, K. Kintaka, H. Hosono, H. Kawazoe, M. Kato, and K.- Muta, “Pair generation of Ge electron centers and self-trapped hole centers in GeO2-SiO2 glasses by KrF excimer-laser irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B60(10), 7166–7169 (1999). [CrossRef]
  23. T. Y. Wang, J. X. Wen, W. Y. Luo, Z. Y. Xiao, and Z. Y. Chen, “Influences of irradiation on network microstructure of low water peak optical fiber material,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids356(25-27), 1332–1336 (2010). [CrossRef]

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