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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 24 — Nov. 21, 2011
  • pp: 23698–23705
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Characterization of the surface plasmon polariton band gap in an Ag/SiO2/Ag T-shaped periodical structure

Cheng-Wen Cheng, Mohammed Nadhim Abbas, Min-Hsiung Shih, and Yia-Chung Chang  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 24, pp. 23698-23705 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.023698


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Abstract

In this study, the localized surface plasmon polariton (LSPP) band gap of an Ag/SiO2/Ag asymmetric T-shaped periodical structure is demonstrated and characterized. The Ag/SiO2/Ag asymmetric T-shaped periodical structure was designed and fabricated to exhibit the LSPP modes in an infrared wavelength regime, and its band gap can be manipulated through the structural geometry. The LSPP band gap was observed experimentally with the absorbance spectra and its angle dependence characterized with different incident angles. Such a T-shaped structure with a LSPP band gap can be widely exploited in various applications, such as emitters and sensors.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

One method for controlling the numerous features of electromagnetic radiation, such as the propagation of light, the localization of light at defects, and the inhibition of radiation, using photonic band-gap structures has led to a number of interesting results [1

1. J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University Press, 2008).

3

3. S. Noda, A. Chutinan, and M. Imada, “Trapping and emission of photons by a single defect in a photonic bandgap structure,” Nature 407(6804), 608–610 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The band gaps in photonic crystals depend on the periodic lattice arrangement of air holes/dielectric rods, the filling factor, and the dielectric contrast between the host and constituent object materials. Numerous possible applications of the photonic crystal band gap structures have been demonstrated [4

4. Y. Sugimoto, Y. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, Y. Nakamura, K. Asakawa, and K. Inoue, “Low propagation loss of 0.76 dB/mm in GaAs-based single-line-defect two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides up to 1 cm in length,” Opt. Express 12(6), 1090–1096 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7

7. F. Lemarchand, A. Sentenac, and H. Giovannini, “Increasing the angular tolerance of resonant grating filters with doubly periodic structures,” Opt. Lett. 23(15), 1149–1151 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Over the last two decades, plasmonics has emerged as a new research field in nanophotonics. Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) are electromagnetic waves coupled to the surface plasma oscillations of a metal surface. The coupling waves confined on the metal/dielectric interface will propagate with a strong field enhancement and an evanescent wave decay in the normal direction to the interface. Similar to the photonic crystal band-gap structures, surface plasmon polariton band gaps can occur with two-periodic metallic gratings. Surface plasmon polariton band gap structures have been theoretically and experimentally reported [8

8. W. L. Barnes, T. W. Preist, S. C. Kitson, and J. R. Sambles, “Physical origin of photonic energy gaps in the propagation of surface plasmons on gratings,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(9), 6227–6244 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 9

9. A. Kocabas, S. Seckin Senlik, and A. Aydinli, “Plasmonic band gap cavities on biharmonic gratings,” Phys. Rev. B 77(19), 195130 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. The band gap feature is attractive for applications in SPP waveguides [10

10. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leosson, P. M. W. Skovgaard, and J. M. Hvam, “Waveguiding in surface plasmon polariton band gap structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(14), 3008–3011 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 11

11. F. Wu, D. Han, X. Hu, X. Liu, and J. Zi, “Complete surface plasmon-polariton band gap and gap-governed waveguiding, bending and splitting,” J. Phys. Condens. Matt. 21(18), 185010 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], band gap cavities [12

12. A. Kocabas, S. S. Senlik, and A. Aydinli, “Slowing down surface plasmons on a moiré surface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(6), 063901 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14

14. S. Balci, M. Karabiyik, A. Kocabas, C. Kocabas, and A. Aydinli, “Coupled Plasmonic Cavities on Moire Surfaces,” Plasmonics 5(4), 429–436 (2010). [CrossRef]

], surface plasmon lasers [15

15. T. Okamoto, J. Simonen, and S. Kawata, “Plasmonic band gaps of structured metallic thin films evaluated for a surface plasmon laser using the coupled-wave approach,” Phys. Rev. B 77(11), 115425 (2008). [CrossRef]

], and band gap-assisted sensors [16

16. A. J. Benahmed and C.-M. Ho, “Bandgap-assisted surface-plasmon sensing,” Appl. Opt. 46(16), 3369–3375 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The resonant coupling of localized surface plasmon polaritons (LSPPs) confined at the interface between metallic and dielectric has also been reported [17

17. E. Hutter and J. H. Fendler, “Exploitation of localized surface plasmon resonance,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 16(19), 1685–1706 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. The LSPPs have the advantages of a smaller optical mode volume and the ability to control the location of optical intensity. The special optical properties benefit numerous applications, such as sensors [18

18. T.-J. Wang and C.-W. Hsieh, “Phase interrogation of localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors based on electro-optic modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 113903 (2007). [CrossRef]

, 19

19. S. Herminjard, L. Sirigu, H. P. Herzig, E. Studemann, A. Crottini, J.-P. Pellaux, T. Gresch, M. Fischer, and J. Faist, “Surface Plasmon Resonance sensor showing enhanced sensitivity for CO2 detection in the mid-infrared range,” Opt. Express 17(1), 293–303 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], spasers [20

20. M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and thermal emitter devices [21

21. Y.-H. Ye, Y.-W. Jiang, M.-W. Tsai, Y.-T. Chang, C.-Y. Chen, D.-C. Tzuang, Y.-T. Wu, and S.-C. Lee, “Localized surface plasmon polaritons in Ag/SiO2/Ag plasmonic thermal emitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 033113 (2008). [CrossRef]

, 22

22. M. N. Abbas, C.-W. Cheng, Y.-C. Chang, M.-H. Shih, H.-H. Chen, and S.-C. Lee, “Angle and polarization independent narrow-band thermal emitter made of metallic disk on SiO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(12), 121116 (2011). [CrossRef]

].

2. Design and simulation

Figure 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the T-shaped array structure
shows the proposed Ag/SiO2/Ag asymmetric T-shaped array with the geometric parameters as follows: Λg=1 μm, Wtop=550 nm, ttop=200 nm, Wpost=200 nm, tpost=0~320 nm, d=50 nm, Gt=320 to 0 nm, and tSiO2=320 nm.

To understand the resonant behavior of the structure, its reflectance spectra and resonant mode profiles are calculated by RCWA simulation. Since there is no TE-polarized resonant response from the proposed structures in our designed photon energy region, we only present the case for TM-polarized incident light (with magnetic field parallel to the y-axis) in the simulation for different incident angles in the x-z plane, where the frequency-dependent complex dielectric constants of silver (Ag) and SiO2 are taken from Ref [27

27. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, Boston, 1985).

]. Figure 2(a)
Fig. 2 (a) Simulated reflectance spectra of the multilayer structure with design parameters of Λg = 1 μm, Wtop = 550 nm, ttop = 200 nm, Wpost = 200 nm, d = 0 nm, tpost = 0 nm, and Gt = 320 nm. (b) Stimulated reflectance spectra of the T-shaped structure when d = 50 nm, tpost = 170 nm, and Gt = 150 nm.
shows the calculated reflectance spectra of the Ag/SiO2/Ag multilayer structure (tpost = 0nm and Gt = 320nm) with the photon energy ranging from 0.5 eV to 1.2 eV, while the angle of incidence θi varies from 0° to 90°. The crossings are from the grating coupling at the SiO2/Ag interfaces and associated with the first Brillouin zone folding. The crossings all lies on the Bragg planes, and kx = m π/Λg where m is an integer. The slope of the dispersion indicates the group velocity (vg = ω/kx) of the SPP propagation at the SiO2/Ag interface. Due to less interaction between the two branches, the crossing point is found to be 0.87 ev at normal incidence, showing no energy gap in the dispersion relation. To form an energy gap, additional periodic grating with a period of Λg/2 is commonly used [7

7. F. Lemarchand, A. Sentenac, and H. Giovannini, “Increasing the angular tolerance of resonant grating filters with doubly periodic structures,” Opt. Lett. 23(15), 1149–1151 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9

9. A. Kocabas, S. Seckin Senlik, and A. Aydinli, “Plasmonic band gap cavities on biharmonic gratings,” Phys. Rev. B 77(19), 195130 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. The periodicityΛg/2 is designed to couple an energy gap region with photons inside the light line.

However, this study found that without using extra periodic grating, an energy gap can be opened when tpost is introduced, as shown in Fig. 2(b). The slope of the bent dispersion curves provides the group velocity in the x-direction as a function of the resonance wavelength and incident angle. At small values of kx, we also found that a momentum band gap will occur in the first branch if the T-shaped structure becomes symmetric (d = 0 nm). The momentum gap is due to the non-coupling strength in the first branch and determined by the relative phase between the top grating strip and the post structure [8

8. W. L. Barnes, T. W. Preist, S. C. Kitson, and J. R. Sambles, “Physical origin of photonic energy gaps in the propagation of surface plasmons on gratings,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(9), 6227–6244 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,23

23. M. N. Abbas, Y.-C. Chang, and M. H. Shih, “Plasmon-polariton band structures of asymmetric T-shaped plasmonic gratings,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2509–2514 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Regarding the |Hy|2 distributions at normal incidence for the two branches of the designed structures, Fig. 3(a)
Fig. 3 |Hy|2 distribution at normal incidence in one period of (a) the Ag/SiO2/Ag multilayer structure at the crossing point 0.87 eV, and (b) the first and (c) second branches of the T-shaped structure when d = 50 nm, tpost = 170 nm, and Gt = 150 nm.
shows the free-propagation-like field distribution at the bottom SiO2/Ag interface along the x-direction in one pitch of the multilayer structure. Figures 3(b) and 3(c) are the field distributions for the two standing wave solutions at the first and second branches when the tpost = 170 nm. Most of the field intensity is concentrated in the corners between the post and the grating on the top layer for the first branch. Regarding the second branch, the intensity distribution reveals a periodicity equal to half the pitch period, with the strong field in the SiO2 spacer below the post.

The mechanism of the dispersion-relation modification arises from the impedance mismatch [28

28. Y. Todorov, L. Tosetto, J. Teissier, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, R. Colombelli, I. Sagnes, G. Strasser, and C. Sirtori, “Optical properties of metal-dielectric-metal microcavities in the THz frequency range,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13886–13907 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] between the metal-metal and single metal regions of the T-shaped structure, where the impedances of the metal-metal regions strongly depend on the geometric parameters tpost and Wpost, and when the tSiO2 and Wtop are fixed. As the tpost increases, the band gap progressively opens and is linearly proportional to the post height (tpost) when 0 <tpost ≦270 nm, as shown in Fig. 4(a)
Fig. 4 (a) Energy gap of the T-shaped structure varying with tpost when the Wpost is fixed at 200 nm. (b) Energy gap versus Wpost when the tpost = 170 nm.
. Because tpost>270 nm (Gt<50 nm), the band gap increase rate becomes nonlinear (not shown) due to the resonant mode of the second branch beginning to form Fabry–Perot resonance in the gap (Gt) between the post and the bottom layer. When Gt is decreased, the effective index of the mode will increase [29

29. R. Gordon, “Light in a subwavelength slit in a metal: propagation and reflection,” Phys. Rev. B 73(15), 153405 (2006). [CrossRef]

]; hence, the resonant wavelength of the second branch is red-shifted. This study also observes that the resonance wavelength shift in the first branch of the energy gap is extremely sensitive to variations of tpost compared to the second branch because the field distribution in the first branch is significantly perturbed by the post. The post plays an important role in perturbing the propagation of SPP modes (a change in the group index for the SPP propagations), leading to a modification of the grating-induced line shape in the dispersion relation and energy-gap opening. This study also explores the energy-gap behavior in the varied Wpost, as shown in Fig. 4(b). When the Wpost increases, the first band is shifted upwards to high energy, whereas the second band is moved downwards. Eventually, both branches meet at approximately 0.80 ev when Wpost = 450 nm. We expect that when the Wpost is adjusted, both resonance modes of the two branches (see Figs. 3(b) and 3(c)) are modified along the x-axis, shifting all their resonance energies. Comparing the results shown in Figs. 4(a) and 4(b), we notice that the band gap’s tunability with the variation of post length is clearly much greater and simpler than varying Wpost. The band gap tuning rate is approximately 1 meV per nm variation in tpost. In addition to the tunability, varying post length in the T-shaped structure is easier to fabricate.

3. Fabrication

The fabrication processes of the structures are described as follows (see Fig. 5(a)
Fig. 5 (a) The fabrication process of the T-shaped Ag/SiO2/Ag structure. (b) SEM image of the T-shaped array with a displacement of d = 50 nm. The inset shows the details of the structure with a tilt angle of 25° at the ends of the grating slabs on the Ag posts. (c) AFM image profile of the T-shaped array.
). A 100 nm Ag film and a 320 nm SiO2 layer were deposited on a silicon substrate using an electron gun evaporator and RF sputtering system. Then a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) layer as an e-beam resist was spin coated on the SiO2 layer. The grating pattern with a lattice constant Λg and line spacing Wpost was exposed with electron beam lithography (EBL), followed by a dry etching step with a mixture gas of CHF3/O2/Ar in an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) system. After etching a depth of tpost, an O2 plasma ashing process was used. A sliver film was then evaporated on the surface with a thickness of tpost. After removing the residual PMMA, another PMMA periodic structure with a period Λg, line spacing WTop, and displacement d was formed by the alignment in the second EBL. Finally, a 200-nm-thick silver film (ttop) was deposited, and the T-shaped structure was completed via a PMMA lift-off process. Figure 5(b) is the scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the fabricated structure with a tilt angle of 25°, where a bump structure is on the top of the silver grating due to the imperfect nature of the fabrication process. Figure 5(c) shows the atomic force microscopy (AFM) image profile of the fabricated T-shaped grating.

4. Experimental results and discussion

To characterize the band structures varying with the tpost, the absorbance spectra under oblique incidence in x-z plane was measured using a FTIR spectrometer. The light source was focused on the sample that was placed on wedges with tilt angles θi during the FTIR measurements. The back-reflected light from the sample through a 50μm×50μm slit was collected and detected using a MCT (mercury-cadmium-telluride) photodetector with a spectral resolution of 2 cm−1. In order to verify the band strucutre of the T-shaped grating for TM mode [see. Figure 2(b)], a near-infrared polarizer was used to select the polarization of incident light. Figure 6
Fig. 6 Experimental absorbance spectra of the T-shaped grating (Λg = 1 μm, Wtop = 620 nm, ttop = 200 nm, Wpost = 200 nm, tpost = 170 nm, and Gt = 150 nm) at normal incidence under TE-, TM-, and un-polarized illumination.
exhibits the absorbance spectra for TE-, TM-, and un-polarized incident light. As can be seen, two pronounced absorption peaks occur at λ=1.41μm and λ=1.85μm for both TM- and un-polarized cases, corresponding to the LSPP band gap, while there is no peak for the TE mode. It clearly indicates that the TM band-gap of the T-shape array was observed experimentally.

Figure 7(a)
Fig. 7 Experimental absorbance spectra of (a) the multilayer structure (Λg = 1 μm, Wtop = 570 nm, ttop = 200 nm, Wpost = 200 nm, tpost = 0 nm, and Gt = 320 nm) and (b) the T-shaped structure (Λg = 1 μm, Wtop = 620 nm, ttop = 200 nm, Wpost = 200 nm, tpost = 170 nm, and Gt = 150 nm) for the different incident angles θi = 0°, 5°, and 10°. In both (a) and (b), the simulated absorbance spectra are represented by black solid curves.
shows the absorbance spectra of the proposed structure when tpost = 0 nm, and its simulation result. The results show that as θi increases, the resonance peak at λ = 1.43 μm at normal incidence is split into two, one peak is red-shifted and the other is blue-shifted, corresponding to the grating-coupled SPP at the bottom SiO2/Ag interface. The distance difference between the two split peaks is linearly increased with an increasing incidence angle in the presence of a 3% measurement error. The measured absorbance spectra of the T-shaped structure with d = 50 nm and tpost=170 nm was also observed in Fig. 7(b). Two clear resonance peaks at normal incidence are found at λ=1.83μm for the first band and λ=1.41μm for the second band, demonstrating an energy gap between them in accordance with our simulation. The width of the band gap is up to 420 nm, much larger than the 188 nm created by the silicon-loaded bihamonic metallic grating [9

9. A. Kocabas, S. Seckin Senlik, and A. Aydinli, “Plasmonic band gap cavities on biharmonic gratings,” Phys. Rev. B 77(19), 195130 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. Because of the wider band gap occurring on the Bragg plane kx=0 (incident angle θi = 0°), the structure is feasible for band gap defect cavities and band gap defect mode laser applications. Moreover, if the post tpost reaches 320 nm (Gt = 0 nm), an angle-independent band-stop reflective filter can be realized [30

30. C.-W. Cheng, M. N. Abbas, Z.-C. Chang, M.-H. Shih, C.-M. Wang, M.-C. Wu, and Y.-C. Chang, “Angle-independent plasmonic infrared band-stop reflective filter based on the Ag/SiO₂/Ag T-shaped array,” Opt. Lett. 36(8), 1440–1442 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. When the incident angle increases, both resonance peaks of the T-shaped structure are moved away, and the wavelength difference between the two peaks is not linearly proportional to the incident angle. This indicates a change in the first and second band curves. Therefore, the band curve feature implies the possibility of controlling the SPPs for dielectric-loaded SPP waveguides. The propagation loss for the SPPs is mainly from the roughness of dielectric/metal interfaces and ohmic heating loss in the metal. To reduce the loss and extend the propagation length, much energy concentrated in the dielectric medium and smaller values of group velocity dispersion should be taken into account [31

31. B. Han and C. Jiang, “Plasmonic slow light waveguide and cavity,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 97–103 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. It is also worth noting that the measured spectra could be improved by using a collimated light source in experiment.

Because most of the field intensity of the SPP propagation is on the bottom SiO2/Ag interface (see Fig. 3(a)), and the SPP effective index can be modified by different metallic slit widths [29

29. R. Gordon, “Light in a subwavelength slit in a metal: propagation and reflection,” Phys. Rev. B 73(15), 153405 (2006). [CrossRef]

], this study proposes a simple 1D photonic crystal slab to qualitatively interpret the SPP band gap behavior. Figure 8
Fig. 8 1D photonic dispersion curve of the slab with the constituent dielectrics n1 = 1.414 and n2 = 2.236, when Λg = 1 μm, tSiO2 = 320 nm, and Wpost = 200 nm.
shows the dispersion relation of the 1D photonic slab with a periodicity of 1 μm and a SiO2 thickness of 320 nm, where n1 is the SiO2 index and n2 is a high-index in the Wpost region. An energy gap at kx = 0 caused by the index contrast between the constituent dielectrics can be found in its dispersion relation, which behaves similarly to that shown in Fig. 2(b). Overall, these results substantially prove that the band curves and the band gap between the first and second bands can be engineered by varying the post depth. The unique properties of the T-shaped configuration can be applied to control the light localization and propagation at the dielectric/metal interface.

5. Conclusion

In summary, this study demonstrated the localized surface plasmon-polariton band gap based on an Ag/SiO2/Ag asymmetric T-shaped structure. The localized surface plasmonic band gap was characterized with a measured absorbance spectra from the FTIR system. This band gap is attributed to the index contrast between the metal-metal and single metal regions, and is linearly proportional to the increased tpost (tpost ≦270 nm). When the band gap opens, the shift of the first branch is much greater than that of the second branch because of the perturbed SPP mode of the first branch caused by the post. The plasmonic band gap structure suggests applications for plasmonic devices with LSPP band gap manipulations, such as band gap waveguides, defect cavities, emitters, and sensors.

Acknowledgement

The authors would like thank the Center for Nano Science & Technology, National Chiao Tung University (NCTU) for the fabrication facilities support. This study is based on research supported by Nano Program of the Academia Sinica, Taiwan and the National Science Council (NSC) of ROC, Taiwan under Grant Nos. NSC-99-2112-M-001-033-MY3 and NSC 98-2112-M-001-022-MY3.

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4.

Y. Sugimoto, Y. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, Y. Nakamura, K. Asakawa, and K. Inoue, “Low propagation loss of 0.76 dB/mm in GaAs-based single-line-defect two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides up to 1 cm in length,” Opt. Express 12(6), 1090–1096 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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8.

W. L. Barnes, T. W. Preist, S. C. Kitson, and J. R. Sambles, “Physical origin of photonic energy gaps in the propagation of surface plasmons on gratings,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(9), 6227–6244 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

A. Kocabas, S. Seckin Senlik, and A. Aydinli, “Plasmonic band gap cavities on biharmonic gratings,” Phys. Rev. B 77(19), 195130 (2008). [CrossRef]

10.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leosson, P. M. W. Skovgaard, and J. M. Hvam, “Waveguiding in surface plasmon polariton band gap structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(14), 3008–3011 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

F. Wu, D. Han, X. Hu, X. Liu, and J. Zi, “Complete surface plasmon-polariton band gap and gap-governed waveguiding, bending and splitting,” J. Phys. Condens. Matt. 21(18), 185010 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

A. Kocabas, S. S. Senlik, and A. Aydinli, “Slowing down surface plasmons on a moiré surface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(6), 063901 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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15.

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A. J. Benahmed and C.-M. Ho, “Bandgap-assisted surface-plasmon sensing,” Appl. Opt. 46(16), 3369–3375 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

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18.

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19.

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20.

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21.

Y.-H. Ye, Y.-W. Jiang, M.-W. Tsai, Y.-T. Chang, C.-Y. Chen, D.-C. Tzuang, Y.-T. Wu, and S.-C. Lee, “Localized surface plasmon polaritons in Ag/SiO2/Ag plasmonic thermal emitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 033113 (2008). [CrossRef]

22.

M. N. Abbas, C.-W. Cheng, Y.-C. Chang, M.-H. Shih, H.-H. Chen, and S.-C. Lee, “Angle and polarization independent narrow-band thermal emitter made of metallic disk on SiO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(12), 121116 (2011). [CrossRef]

23.

M. N. Abbas, Y.-C. Chang, and M. H. Shih, “Plasmon-polariton band structures of asymmetric T-shaped plasmonic gratings,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2509–2514 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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28.

Y. Todorov, L. Tosetto, J. Teissier, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, R. Colombelli, I. Sagnes, G. Strasser, and C. Sirtori, “Optical properties of metal-dielectric-metal microcavities in the THz frequency range,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13886–13907 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

29.

R. Gordon, “Light in a subwavelength slit in a metal: propagation and reflection,” Phys. Rev. B 73(15), 153405 (2006). [CrossRef]

30.

C.-W. Cheng, M. N. Abbas, Z.-C. Chang, M.-H. Shih, C.-M. Wang, M.-C. Wu, and Y.-C. Chang, “Angle-independent plasmonic infrared band-stop reflective filter based on the Ag/SiO₂/Ag T-shaped array,” Opt. Lett. 36(8), 1440–1442 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

31.

B. Han and C. Jiang, “Plasmonic slow light waveguide and cavity,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 97–103 (2009). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(260.3060) Physical optics : Infrared
(160.5293) Materials : Photonic bandgap materials
(250.5403) Optoelectronics : Plasmonics

ToC Category:
Optics at Surfaces

History
Original Manuscript: September 7, 2011
Revised Manuscript: October 14, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: October 14, 2011
Published: November 7, 2011

Citation
Cheng-Wen Cheng, Mohammed Nadhim Abbas, Min-Hsiung Shih, and Yia-Chung Chang, "Characterization of the surface plasmon polariton band gap in an Ag/SiO2/Ag T-shaped periodical structure," Opt. Express 19, 23698-23705 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-24-23698


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