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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 24 — Nov. 21, 2011
  • pp: 24129–24138
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Compact wavelength de-multiplexer design using slow light regime of photonic crystal waveguides

Ahmet E. Akosman, Mehmet Mutlu, Hamza Kurt, and Ekmel Ozbay  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 24, pp. 24129-24138 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.024129


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Abstract

We demonstrate the operation of a compact wavelength de-multiplexer using cascaded single-mode photonic crystal waveguides utilizing the slow light regime. By altering the dielectric filling factors of each waveguide segment, we numerically and experimentally show that different frequencies are separated at different locations along the waveguide. In other words, the beams of different wavelengths are spatially dropped along the transverse to the propagation direction. We numerically verified the spatial shifts of certain wavelengths by using the two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method. The presented design can be extended to de-multiplex more wavelengths by concatenating additional photonic crystal waveguides with different filling factors.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

Photonic crystals (PCs) are strongly wavelength sensitive, high-index contrast dielectric materials. This sensitivity originates from the dispersive properties of the PC structure as a result of the wavelength scale refractive index modulation with certain crystal symmetry. The wavelength selectivity can be used for the benefit of designing compact optical filters, which are the key components of the wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) systems in optical communications [1

1. J. E. Centeno, B. Guizal, and D. Felbacq, “Multiplexing and demultiplexing with photonic crystals,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 1(5), L10–l13 (1999). [CrossRef]

3

3. A. Sharkawy, S. Shi, and D. W. Prather, “Multichannel wavelength division multiplexing with photonic crystals,” Appl. Opt. 40(14), 2247–2252 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. De-multiplexers (DEMUX) with compact, cost-effective, polarization independent, low cross-talk and high spectral resolution are demanded for the optical communication systems [4

4. M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, E. Kuramochi, and H. Y. Ryu, “Waveguides, resonators and their coupled elements in photonic crystal slabs,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1551–1561 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 5

5. F. Van Laere, T. Stomeo, C. Cambournac, M. Ayre, R. Brenot, H. Benisty, G. Roelkens, T. F. Krauss, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Nanophotonic polarization diversity demultiplexer chip,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(4), 417–425 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. The common methods to achieve WDM operation using planar light wave circuits are based on thin-film filters, Bragg grating filters (high number of periods are required and large side lobes accompany the spectral response) and arrayed waveguide gratings (AWG) [6

6. B. E. Nelson, M. Gerken, D. A. B. Miller, R. Piestun, C. C. Lin, and J. S. Harris, “Use of a dielectric stack as a one-dimensional photonic crystal for wavelength demultiplexing by beam shifting,” Opt. Lett. 25(20), 1502–1504 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 7

7. S. Kamei, K. Iemura, A. Kaneko, Y. Inoue, T. Shibata, H. Takahashi, and A. Sugita, “1.5%-Δ athermal arrayed-waveguide grating multi/demultiplexer with very low loss groove design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(3), 588–590 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. Even though high spectral resolution and low cross-talk have been achieved using these methods, compactness and cost-effectiveness are still questionable [8

8. M. Thorhauge, L. H. Frandsen, and P. I. Borel, “Efficient photonic crystal directional couplers,” Opt. Lett. 28(17), 1525–1527 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. One of the unique properties of the PCs is their extremely small footprints along with the rich dispersion characteristics [9

9. M. Bayindir and E. Ozbay, “Band-dropping via coupled photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 10(22), 1279–1284 (2002). [PubMed]

]. Hence, we can claim that PC based DEMUX designs can be good candidates for implementing compact and effective wavelength monitoring for various applications including communications and sensing.

There have recently been various techniques studied by exploiting the different aspects of the wavelength selectivity features of PCs. For example, PC waveguide (PCW) directional couplers employing two parallel waveguides have been proposed and investigated for wavelength selectivity [8

8. M. Thorhauge, L. H. Frandsen, and P. I. Borel, “Efficient photonic crystal directional couplers,” Opt. Lett. 28(17), 1525–1527 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10

10. S. Boscolo, M. Midrio, and C. G. Someda, “Coupling and decoupling of electromagnetic waves in parallel 2D photonic crystal waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(1), 47–53 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. In all these studies, coupled waveguides are used to create the de-multiplexing mechanism by manipulating the waveguides. Different perturbations in the waveguide branches result in different resonance frequencies. In Ref. 10

10. S. Boscolo, M. Midrio, and C. G. Someda, “Coupling and decoupling of electromagnetic waves in parallel 2D photonic crystal waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(1), 47–53 (2002). [CrossRef]

, the evanescent coupling occurs among the coupled waveguides. A rather different approach can be adapted such that the cutoff frequency of the PCW mode can be changed by structural modifications, for example by changing the radii of the border holes. This principle was used in Refs. 11

11. T. Niemi, L. H. Frandsen, K. K. Hede, A. Harpoth, P. I. Borel, and M. Kristensen, “Wavelength-division demultiplexing using photonic crystal waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 226–228 (2006). [CrossRef]

and 12

12. A. Rostami, F. Nazaria, H. Alipour Banaei, and A. Bahrami, “A novel proposal for DWDM demultiplexer design using modified-T photonic crystal structure,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 8(1), 14–22 (2010). [CrossRef]

to selectively drop different wavelengths along the PCW. Micro-cavities are highly frequency selective structures and the resonance frequency of the cavity mode can be tuned to a different wavelength by modifying the size of the cavity. The different frequencies propagating along the waveguide can be selected by these cavities which are placed at the sides of the waveguide-centerline [13

13. Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, Y. Akahane, B.-S. Song, and S. Noda, “Theoretical investigation of a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab with truncated cone air holes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1661–1663 (2003). [CrossRef]

15

15. S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and H. A. Haus, “Channel drop filters in photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 3(1), 4–11 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Broad enough PCWs that operate in the multi-mode regime have been studied for coarse wavelength de-multiplexing [16

16. E. Viasnoff-Schwoob, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, C. Cuisin, E. Derouin, O. Drisse, G.-H. Duan, L. Legouézigou, O. Legouézigou, F. Pommereau, S. Golka, H. Heidrich, H. J. Hensel, and K. Janiak, “Compact wavelength monitoring by lateral outcoupling in wedged photonic crystal multimode waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 101107 (2005). [CrossRef]

20

20. N. Shahid, M. Amin, S. Naureen, M. Swillo, and S. Anand, “Junction-type photonic crystal waveguides for notch- and pass-band filtering,” Opt. Express 19(21), 21074–21080 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The fundamental mode and higher order mode interaction creates mini-stop-band (MSB) in the dispersion diagram where the higher order mode has a lower group velocity which can be considered as slow light regime. As a result the higher order mode with the larger field penetration depth will be dropped from the main channel if one side of the waveguide wall is thinned. The locations of these MSBs can be adjusted by changing the widths of the waveguides. Consequently, different wavelengths can be selected at different propagation distances. In addition, the two-channel wavelength de-multiplexer structure based on the self-imaging phenomenon using a multi-mode PCW has been studied [21

21. F. S.-S. Chien, Y.-J. Hsu, W.-F. Hsieh, and S.-C. Cheng, “Dual wavelength demultiplexing by coupling and decoupling of photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(6), 1119–1125 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Finally, purely periodic PCs may show a strong wavelength discrepancy that can also be exploited for the purpose of designing a DEMUX. This principle has been implemented in Refs. 21

21. F. S.-S. Chien, Y.-J. Hsu, W.-F. Hsieh, and S.-C. Cheng, “Dual wavelength demultiplexing by coupling and decoupling of photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(6), 1119–1125 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

and 22

22. L. Wu, M. Mazilu, T. Karle, and T. F. Krauss, “Superprism phenomena in planar photonic crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(4), 915–917 (2002).

. By further exploiting the super-prism effect along with the two features of PCs, i.e., negative refraction and negative diffraction, a four-channel optical de-multiplexer was demonstrated in Refs. 22

22. L. Wu, M. Mazilu, T. Karle, and T. F. Krauss, “Superprism phenomena in planar photonic crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(4), 915–917 (2002).

and 23

23. A. Adibi, R. K. Lee, Y. Xu, A. Yariv, and A. Scherer, “Design of photonic crystal optical waveguides with singlemode propagation in the photonic bandgap,” Electron. Lett. 36(16), 1376–1378 (2000). [CrossRef]

.

The disadvantages of these early proposed DEMUX solutions such as occupying large areas or utilizing complex operation principles can be partially avoided by allowing PCW to operate at the close proximity of the slow light region.

2. Proposed wavelength selective structure

In this study, we report a wavelength de-multiplexer design taking the benefit of the slow light phenomena in PCWs. The goal of this study is not implementing a DEMUX design that fulfills all of the aforementioned properties. Instead, we firstly plan to prove the operation mechanism of a DEMUX design employing a rather simple system with three channels. The proposed DEMUX is designed and optimized for single wavelength operation. The principle of the frequency selection mechanism is based on the modulation of the photonic band gap (PBG) confinement by altering the dielectric filling factors and electric-field distributions in the slow light regime. Each PCW section has a different filling factor that in turn produces different PBG regions. The PBG is the only confinement mechanism in the square-lattice dielectric PCW, because index based confinement does not occur. In PCWs, if the frequency of the propagating field is outside the PBG of the waveguide, then there is not any mechanism that supports the guiding of the light. As a result, the light starts to leak out of the waveguide. Depending on the number of wavelengths that we wish to perform de-multiplexing on, the number of the cascaded waveguides can be increased.

The critical part of the design benefits from the electromagnetic wave behavior in the vicinity of the slow light region. Figure 1(a)
Fig. 1 (a) The steady-state electric field distribution when the wavelength of incident light corresponds to a propagating mode within the photonic crystal waveguide. (b) The field distribution for a different frequency, which is in the vicinity of the slow light regime. The same PCW is used in both cases.
shows the light propagation through a single mode PCW. The strong confinement and propagating nature of the light can be observed using the steady-state field distribution. On the other hand, if the frequency of light is in the vicinity of the slow light region, the spatial distribution of light changes. The oscillation period along the longitudinal direction increases and the field penetrates deeper toward the transverse plane to the propagation direction. As a consequence, the interaction with the PC structure is increased. If the width of the PC is decreased on one side and coupled to a new PCW channel such that the evanescent field can leak out at the channel location, the wavelength selectivity can be achieved. The different wavelengths enter different slow light regimes if the filling factor of the PC section is altered.

Figure 2
Fig. 2 The schematic of the device that is designed for the wavelength de-multiplexing. The different wavelengths are spatially separated at different locations along the x-direction. The complete structure is composed of three PCWs of different dielectric filling factors.
shows the geometry of the proposed PCW device for the DEMUX design. It consists of three cascaded waveguides for which the dielectric filling factors are varied. The interface of each waveguide segment is indicated by a solid line. The waveguide is created as a result of removing one row of dielectric rods along the ΓΧ symmetry direction. The wavelength selectivity of the waveguides comes from the PBG effect and the slow light phenomenon as mentioned previously.

The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is utilized for investigating the evolution of the different wavelengths that propagate through the concatenated PCWs [24

24. A. Taflove, Computational Electrodynamics—The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, (Artech House, Norwood, MA 2000).

]. The perfectly matched layer absorbing boundary condition surrounds the computational domain [25

25. J. P. Berenger, “A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves,” J. Comput. Phys. 114(2), 185–200 (1994). [CrossRef]

]. The unit-cell lattice a is discretized by 32 grid points. The input pulse is a modulated Gaussian pulse whose center frequency is varied to excite different channels. The incident wave is set to TM polarization (i.e., the electric field component is perpendicular to the propagation plane) to create a PBG region and a highly confined waveguide mode.

The complete structure consists of three sections and each section performs a testing by checking the wavelength of the incoming pulse. The parameters of each section are selected by investigating the cut-off frequencies of the waveguide bands of the PCW structures as shown in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The relation between the waveguide band cut-off frequency and the dielectric filling factor. The highlighted frequencies correspond to the selected PCW sections.
. The first PCW has the highest dielectric filling factor with, f = 15.2% and the radius of the rods is r1 = 0.22a (point C in Fig. 3). The filling factors of the second and the third section are decreased to 12.57% and 10.18%, respectively, by setting r2 = 0.20a and r3 = 0.18a (points B and A, respectively). As a result of decreasing the filling factors, the frequency of the slow light regime increases as shown in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) The evolution of the waveguide bands due to the different dielectric filling factors, (b) the enlarged view of the vicinity of the slow light region, where the dashed lines correspond to the operating frequencies.
.

The dielectric constant of the rods is set to 9.61 in the simulations to achieve a relatively high contrast between the air and the PC structure. The material is chosen as Alumina (Al2O3). The high contrast provides a significant decrease in the cross-talk between the channels as a result of the strong interaction of the slow light modes with the rods. Furthermore, the group velocities of the selected modes are expected to exhibit larger differences if higher dielectric materials are used.

The length of the waveguide and the design of the output channels are optimized such that maximum output power is obtained at the operating frequencies. The length of the PCW and the formation of the output channels are optimized in order to achieve the maximum performance. The output channel is a wider waveguide in order to get a gradual group velocity transition between the main and the output waveguides. This gradual transition provides a higher transmission or stronger coupling between the waveguides as a result of the better match in the impedances. The width of the output waveguides is selected as 3a, which corresponds to a multimode waveguide and creates an easier design. At the utilization of a single-mode but a wider waveguide (compared to a classical photonic crystal waveguide), the improvement of the output power can still be achieved, but further optimizations would be required.

The shifts between the de-multiplexed wavelengths are shown in Fig. 5. The r/a ratios are determined using the evolution of cut-off frequencies that is shown in Fig. 3. We choose the ratios as a11 = 0.3086, a22 = 0.3158, and a33 = 0.3247. These ratios are created by changing the periodicity of each PCW section and keeping the radii of rods constant. Therefore, each normalized frequency for each PCW section is unique. One can see that, each wavelength is picked up by the relevant output channel. The numerical results are compared to the experimental results for each PCW y that is used in the cascaded PC structure. Alumina rods with a radius of 0.158 cm and a length of 15.32 cm are used in the experiments. Therefore, the periodicities are selected as 0.878 cm, 0.79 cm, 0.718 cm for r = 0.18a, r = 0.20a and r = 0.22a, respectively. The proposed structure is installed between two platforms that have comparable dielectric constants to that of the free space. The experiments are conducted using two standard horn antennas that are placed 10 cm away from the input and output channels. An HP-8510C network analyzer (Agilent Technologies, USA) is used to measure the transmission coefficients. The frequency shifts between the de-multiplexed waves are observed in the experiments. A slight frequency shift occurred between the numerical and experimental results possibly because of fabrication inconsistencies and impurities in the Alumina rods. The usage of alumina rods can also cause power leakage in the z-direction. However, the leakage is prevented by using relatively long rods (~100r). In Fig. 5, the good agreement between the numerical and experimental results proves that a significant leakage in the z-direction is not observed. The results of different sections are shown separately because of the method that is used when conducting the experiments that is changing the periodicity which creates a different normalized frequency axis for each PCW section.

In the simulations, the results for the composite structure are obtained by keeping the periodicity for each PCW section constant and adjusting the radii of rods for each section to keep the r/a ratios. Figure 6(a)
Fig. 6 The steady-state electric field profiles of the three de-multiplexed frequencies for each waveguide channel where the input beam is placed 5a away from the PC structure, (a) a/λ = 0.3086, (b) a/λ = 0.3158, (c) a/λ = 0.3247, (d) the steady-state electric field profile of an unselected frequency, which has a normalized frequency of a/λ = 0.34.
shows the steady-state electric field distribution due to the incident light whose normalized frequency is a/λ = 0.3086. This frequency is within the PBG of the first PCW and below that of the second PCW. It is expected that this frequency is dropped at the first channel. This observation can be confirmed from the FDTD result shown in Fig. 6(a). Similarly, when the normalized input frequency is switched to a/λ = 0.3158, this pulse can propagate without any spreading until the second section of the structure. Afterwards, in the second section, it enters the slow light regime and therefore is picked up from the second channel. Figure 6(b) confirms this wavelength selection rule by presenting the distribution of the steady-state fields. Similarly, Fig. 6(c) shows the selectivity of the wavelength at a/λ = 0.3247. A typical unselected wavelength at a/λ = 0.34 is shown in Fig. 6(d), which stays confined until the end of the waveguide. It is observed using these figures that each PCW section filters a different wavelength and directs the selected wavelength toward the appropriate drop channel.

We also calculated the spatial distributions of the output channels in x-direction in Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The spatial distributions of the operating frequencies at three output channels in x-direction. The output levels are calculated nearly 5a away from the output channels. The green dashed lines show the positions of the output channels in x-direction.
. By applying Fourier transform on the time domain data of the output channels, the spectral content of the selected wavelength in a specific channel is determined. The operating frequencies are selected such that, at these frequencies, the transmitted power is maximized whereas the cross-talk between the channels is minimized. The maximum level of the cross-talk for the first channel is obtained as −13.7 dB. The cross-talks are −15.6 dB and −28.7 dB for the second and third channels, respectively.

The usage of PCWs of equal lengths leads to a compact design, although the management of cross-talk between channels becomes more difficult as a consequence of the absence of the minimization of back reflections from each section.

3. Conclusion

In conclusion, we propose a wavelength de-multiplexer design based on concatenated photonic crystal waveguides, for which dielectric filling factors are varied in order to target the slow light region. The frequency selectivity of the device originates from the light behavior in the vicinity of the slow light regime due to the high leakage as a result of the wider spatial distribution of the electromagnetic waves inside the main waveguide. The spatial selection of different wavelengths occurs within consecutive PCW sections and we numerically and experimentally demonstrate the successful de-multiplexing of three wavelengths in a compact manner.

The preliminary results of the DEMUX design employing the slow light phenomena are encouraging. However, the DEMUX design can be further studied in order to obtain higher output power levels at each output channel and a linear spacing in de-multiplexed frequencies. Moreover, using the proposed de-multiplexer design idea, slab dielectric PC structures with air holes in triangular lattice form can be a good candidate to create similar devices that work at optical frequencies avoiding the power leakage in the z-direction. In addition, the length of each PCW can be optimized to create a more compact design. Such investigations will be the subject of a future study.

Acknowledgments

This work is supported by the European Union (EU) under the projects PHOME, ECONAM, and N4E; by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) under the projects 110T306, 109E301, 107A004, and 107A012; and the State Planning Organization (DPT) under the project DPT-HAMIT. H. Kurt acknowledges support from the Turkish Academy of Sciences Distinguished Young Scientist Award (TUBA GEBIP). One of the authors (E. Ozbay) also acknowledges partial support from the Turkish Academy of Sciences.

References and links

1.

J. E. Centeno, B. Guizal, and D. Felbacq, “Multiplexing and demultiplexing with photonic crystals,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 1(5), L10–l13 (1999). [CrossRef]

2.

M. Koshiba, “Wavelength division multiplexing and demultiplexing with photonic crystal waveguide couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19(12), 1970–1975 (2001). [CrossRef]

3.

A. Sharkawy, S. Shi, and D. W. Prather, “Multichannel wavelength division multiplexing with photonic crystals,” Appl. Opt. 40(14), 2247–2252 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, E. Kuramochi, and H. Y. Ryu, “Waveguides, resonators and their coupled elements in photonic crystal slabs,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1551–1561 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

F. Van Laere, T. Stomeo, C. Cambournac, M. Ayre, R. Brenot, H. Benisty, G. Roelkens, T. F. Krauss, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Nanophotonic polarization diversity demultiplexer chip,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(4), 417–425 (2009). [CrossRef]

6.

B. E. Nelson, M. Gerken, D. A. B. Miller, R. Piestun, C. C. Lin, and J. S. Harris, “Use of a dielectric stack as a one-dimensional photonic crystal for wavelength demultiplexing by beam shifting,” Opt. Lett. 25(20), 1502–1504 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

S. Kamei, K. Iemura, A. Kaneko, Y. Inoue, T. Shibata, H. Takahashi, and A. Sugita, “1.5%-Δ athermal arrayed-waveguide grating multi/demultiplexer with very low loss groove design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(3), 588–590 (2005). [CrossRef]

8.

M. Thorhauge, L. H. Frandsen, and P. I. Borel, “Efficient photonic crystal directional couplers,” Opt. Lett. 28(17), 1525–1527 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

M. Bayindir and E. Ozbay, “Band-dropping via coupled photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 10(22), 1279–1284 (2002). [PubMed]

10.

S. Boscolo, M. Midrio, and C. G. Someda, “Coupling and decoupling of electromagnetic waves in parallel 2D photonic crystal waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(1), 47–53 (2002). [CrossRef]

11.

T. Niemi, L. H. Frandsen, K. K. Hede, A. Harpoth, P. I. Borel, and M. Kristensen, “Wavelength-division demultiplexing using photonic crystal waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 226–228 (2006). [CrossRef]

12.

A. Rostami, F. Nazaria, H. Alipour Banaei, and A. Bahrami, “A novel proposal for DWDM demultiplexer design using modified-T photonic crystal structure,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 8(1), 14–22 (2010). [CrossRef]

13.

Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, Y. Akahane, B.-S. Song, and S. Noda, “Theoretical investigation of a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab with truncated cone air holes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1661–1663 (2003). [CrossRef]

14.

B.-S. Song, S. Noda, and T. Asano, “Photonic devices based on in-plane hetero photonic crystals,” Science 300(5625), 1537 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and H. A. Haus, “Channel drop filters in photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 3(1), 4–11 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

E. Viasnoff-Schwoob, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, C. Cuisin, E. Derouin, O. Drisse, G.-H. Duan, L. Legouézigou, O. Legouézigou, F. Pommereau, S. Golka, H. Heidrich, H. J. Hensel, and K. Janiak, “Compact wavelength monitoring by lateral outcoupling in wedged photonic crystal multimode waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 101107 (2005). [CrossRef]

17.

L. Martinelli, H. Benisty, O. Khayam, G. H. Duan, H. Heidrich, and K. Janiak, “Analysis and optimization of compact demultiplexer monitor based on photonic crystal waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(9), 2385–2394 (2007). [CrossRef]

18.

H. Benisty, C. Cambournac, F. Van Laere, and D. Van Thourhout, “Photonic-Crystal Demultiplexer With Improved Crosstalk by Second-Order Cavity Filtering,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(8), 1201–1208 (2010). [CrossRef]

19.

H. J. Kim, I. Park, B. H. O, S. G. Park, H. Lee, and S. G. Lee, “Self-imaging phenomena in multi-mode photonic crystal line-defect waveguides: application to wavelength de-multiplexing,” Opt. Express 12(23), 5625–5633 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

N. Shahid, M. Amin, S. Naureen, M. Swillo, and S. Anand, “Junction-type photonic crystal waveguides for notch- and pass-band filtering,” Opt. Express 19(21), 21074–21080 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

F. S.-S. Chien, Y.-J. Hsu, W.-F. Hsieh, and S.-C. Cheng, “Dual wavelength demultiplexing by coupling and decoupling of photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(6), 1119–1125 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

L. Wu, M. Mazilu, T. Karle, and T. F. Krauss, “Superprism phenomena in planar photonic crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(4), 915–917 (2002).

23.

A. Adibi, R. K. Lee, Y. Xu, A. Yariv, and A. Scherer, “Design of photonic crystal optical waveguides with singlemode propagation in the photonic bandgap,” Electron. Lett. 36(16), 1376–1378 (2000). [CrossRef]

24.

A. Taflove, Computational Electrodynamics—The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, (Artech House, Norwood, MA 2000).

25.

J. P. Berenger, “A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves,” J. Comput. Phys. 114(2), 185–200 (1994). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(050.0050) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction and gratings
(060.1810) Fiber optics and optical communications : Buffers, couplers, routers, switches, and multiplexers
(050.5298) Diffraction and gratings : Photonic crystals

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: September 27, 2011
Revised Manuscript: October 26, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: October 28, 2011
Published: November 10, 2011

Citation
Ahmet E. Akosman, Mehmet Mutlu, Hamza Kurt, and Ekmel Ozbay, "Compact wavelength de-multiplexer design using slow light regime of photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Express 19, 24129-24138 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-24-24129


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References

  1. J. E. Centeno, B. Guizal, and D. Felbacq, “Multiplexing and demultiplexing with photonic crystals,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.1(5), L10–l13 (1999). [CrossRef]
  2. M. Koshiba, “Wavelength division multiplexing and demultiplexing with photonic crystal waveguide couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol.19(12), 1970–1975 (2001). [CrossRef]
  3. A. Sharkawy, S. Shi, and D. W. Prather, “Multichannel wavelength division multiplexing with photonic crystals,” Appl. Opt.40(14), 2247–2252 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, E. Kuramochi, and H. Y. Ryu, “Waveguides, resonators and their coupled elements in photonic crystal slabs,” Opt. Express12(8), 1551–1561 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. F. Van Laere, T. Stomeo, C. Cambournac, M. Ayre, R. Brenot, H. Benisty, G. Roelkens, T. F. Krauss, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Nanophotonic polarization diversity demultiplexer chip,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(4), 417–425 (2009). [CrossRef]
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