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Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 24 — Nov. 21, 2011
  • pp: 24516–24521
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Individual bioaerosol particle discrimination by multi-photon excited fluorescence

Denis Kiselev, Luigi Bonacina, and Jean-Pierre Wolf  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 24, pp. 24516-24521 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.024516


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Abstract

Femtosecond laser induced multi-photon excited fluorescence (MPEF) from individual airborne particles is tested for the first time for discriminating bioaerosols. The fluorescence spectra, analysed in 32 channels, exhibit a composite character originating from simultaneous two-photon and three-photon excitation at 790 nm. Simulants of bacteria aggregates (clusters of dyed polystyrene microspheres) and different pollen particles (Ragweed, Pecan, Mulberry) are clearly discriminated by their MPEF spectra. This demonstration experiment opens the way to more sophisticated spectroscopic schemes like pump-probe and coherent control.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

The detection and identification of bioaerosols, such as airborne bacteria and pollens, have attracted much attention in the last decade. In particular, several optical systems, based on fluorescence [1

1. Y. L. Pan, J. Hartings, R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, J. Halverson, and R. K. Chang, “Single-particle fluorescence spectrometer for ambient aerosols,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 37, 628–639 (2003). [CrossRef]

4

4. G. A. Luoma, P. P. Cherrier, and L. A. Retfalvi, “Real-time warning of biological-agent attacks with the Canadian integrated biochemical agent detection system ii (cibads ii),” Field Anal. Chem. Technol. 3, 260–273 (1999). [CrossRef]

] and/or elastic scattering [5

5. Y. L. Pan, K. B. Aptowicz, R. K. Chang, M. Hart, and J. D. Eversole, “Characterizing and monitoring respiratory aerosols by light scattering,” Opt. Lett. 28, 589–591 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,6

6. P. Kaye, E. Hirst, and Z. WangThomas, “Neural-network-based spatial light-scattering instrument for hazardous airborne fiber detection,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6149–6156 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] have been developed to distinguish bio- from non-bio aerosols. The most advanced experiments address individual aerosol particles, whose fluorescence is spectrally resolved and analyzed [1

1. Y. L. Pan, J. Hartings, R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, J. Halverson, and R. K. Chang, “Single-particle fluorescence spectrometer for ambient aerosols,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 37, 628–639 (2003). [CrossRef]

, 7

7. S. C. Hill, R. G. Pinnick, S. Niles, Y. L. Pan, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, J. Bottiger, B. T. Chen, C. S. Orr, and G. Feather, “Real-time measurement of fluorescence spectra from single airborne biological particles,” Field Anal. Chem. Technol. 3, 221–239 (1999). [CrossRef]

, 8

8. Y. L. Pan, P. Cobler, S. Rhodes, A. Potter, T. Chou, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, R. G. Pinnick, and J. P. Wolf, “High-speed, high-sensitivity aerosol fluorescence spectrum detection using a 32-anode photomultiplier tube detector,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1831–1836 (2001). [CrossRef]

]. Dual wavelength excitation (for instance 263 nm and 351 nm) of each particle has emerged [9

9. Y. L. Pan, S. C. Hill, R. G. Pinnick, J. M. House, R. C. Flagan, and R. K. Chang, “Dual-excitation-wavelength fluorescence spectra and elastic scattering for differentiation of single airborne pollen and fungal particles,” Atmos. Environ. 45, 1555–1563 (2011). [CrossRef]

11

11. V. Sivaprakasam, A. L. Huston, C. Scotto, and J. D. Eversole, “Multiple UV wavelength excitation and fluorescence of bioaerosols,” Opt Express 12, 4457–4466 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] as an additional tool for improving the measurement selectivity and therefore reducing false alarms. In this letter, we present a novel approach based on multi-photon excited fluorescence (MPEF) of individual bioaerosol particles using femtosecond laser pulses. Thanks to the high peak intensity, 2-photon and 3- photon excited fluorescence (2PEF and 3PEF) from amino acids (tryptophan, tyrosine), NADH, and flavins occur simultaneously, without spectral superposition of excitation and emission. Moreover, the use of femtosecond lasers opens the way to more sophisticated spectroscopic schemes like pump probe experiments [12

12. J. R. Gord, T. R. Meyer, and S. Roy, “Applications of ultrafast lasers for optical measurements in combusting flows,” Annu Rev Anal Chem 1, 663–687 (2008). [CrossRef]

], which proved efficient for discriminating bioparticles from non-bio particles in solution [13

13. J. P. Wolf, F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, V. Wood, A. Bartelt, M. Roth, and H. Rabitz, “Femtosecond laser pulses distinguish bacteria from background urban aerosols,” Appl Phys Lett 87, 063901 (2005). [CrossRef]

15

15. H. U. Stauffer, W. D. Kulatilaka, J. R. Gord, and S. Roy, “Laser-induced fluorescence detection of hydroxyl (OH) radical by femtosecond excitation,” Opt. Lett. 36, 1776–1778 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and coherent control, which enabled discriminating between almost identical bio-fluorophors [16

16. G. Gerber, T. Brixner, N. H. Damrauer, and P. Niklaus, “Photoselective adaptive femtosecond quantum control in the liquid phase,” Nature 414, 57–60 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 17

17. M. Roth, L. Guyon, J. Roslund, V. Boutou, F. Courvoisier, J. P. Wolf, and H. Rabitz, “Quantum control of tightly competitive product channels,” Phys Rev Lett 102, 253001 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

2. Experimental

The experiment (Fig. 1) was inspired by the successful design developed about 10 years ago by R.K. Chang at Yale together with researchers at the ARL [7

7. S. C. Hill, R. G. Pinnick, S. Niles, Y. L. Pan, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, J. Bottiger, B. T. Chen, C. S. Orr, and G. Feather, “Real-time measurement of fluorescence spectra from single airborne biological particles,” Field Anal. Chem. Technol. 3, 221–239 (1999). [CrossRef]

, 8

8. Y. L. Pan, P. Cobler, S. Rhodes, A. Potter, T. Chou, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, R. G. Pinnick, and J. P. Wolf, “High-speed, high-sensitivity aerosol fluorescence spectrum detection using a 32-anode photomultiplier tube detector,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1831–1836 (2001). [CrossRef]

]. The aerosols are generated in a small reservoir equipped with an inlet (I1) injecting a 1 l/min clean air flow. The pollens in dry form are placed on the bottom of the reservoir together with a magnetic stirrer. The stirrer rotation speed regulates the particle concentration at the exit of the reservoir, which is connected to the experimental chamber. The latter is equipped with a specially designed sheath nozzle that has a second inlet of clean air (I2) with a flow of 1 l/min. The set up yields a focused laminar air flow of some 300 μm in diameter and 3 mm length. Single aerosol particles are simultaneously detected by two photomultipliers, monitoring the scattering from two crossed diode laser beams (λ1 = 780 nm, λ2 = 655 nm). The coincidence of both scattering signals generates a trigger pulse, sent to a constant frequency generator (CFG). This module creates the necessary TTL signals to synchronize the femtosecond laser to the particle flow. In our case, the Chirped Pulse Amplified (CPA) laser (Legend, Coherent Inc) provides pulses up to 2 mJ, 50 fs at 1 kHz repetition rate. It consists of a Kerr Lens mode locked oscillator (LO), a pulse stretcher (not shown on diagram), a regenerative amplifier cavity (LC) pumped by a 532 nm Q-switched Nd:YLF laser (PL), with an injection and an extraction Pockels cells (PC1, PC2), and a compressor (not shown on diagram). In our experiment, the clock for the Nd:YLF pump laser, is provided by the CFG. For each trigger event, the clock phase is readjusted in order to send a Nd:YLF pump pulse right after the trigger. The CPA is then synchronized by its own delay generator (SDG), which controls the injection of one femtosecond pulse into the regenerative amplifier and its extraction after amplification. A logic gate (AND) circuit prevents extraction of more than one pulse, so that each aerosol particle is illuminated by a single femtosecond pulse. The emitted MPEF is collected by a large aperture reflective objective (L1), dispersed by a grating (G1), and focused (L2) onto a 32-anodes PMT [8

8. Y. L. Pan, P. Cobler, S. Rhodes, A. Potter, T. Chou, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, R. G. Pinnick, and J. P. Wolf, “High-speed, high-sensitivity aerosol fluorescence spectrum detection using a 32-anode photomultiplier tube detector,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1831–1836 (2001). [CrossRef]

] (D3). The signal is finally acquired, stored, and analyzed by a spectrum acquisition electronic system (SAS).

Fig. 1 Experimental set-up; I1, I2 - air inlets; Y1, Y2 - crossed diode lasers; D1, D2 - spectrally filtered photomultipliers; SSA - scatter signal analyzer; CFG - constant frequency generator; LO - Ti:Sa femtosecond oscillator; LC - regenerative amplifier; PL -pump Nd:YLF laser; PC1, PC2 - injection and extraction Pockels cells; SDG - system delay generator; L1 - reflective objective; G1 - grating; D3 - 32-anodes PMT; SAS - spectrum acquisition electronics.

3. Results and discussion

Figure 2 shows the MPEF images of the 3 selected pollens and the bacteria simulant acquired by a scanning microscope (Nikon A1R-MP) coupled to a Ti:Sapphire femtosecond laser oscillator (Newport Mai Tai HP DeepSee) tuned at 790 nm. MPEF is simultaneously detected by four independent non de-scanned photomultipliers set in four consecutive spectral channels defined by appropriate dichroic mirror/interference filter pairs. The actual spectral ranges correspond to UV (360 nm, FWHM 12 nm); Blue (485 nm, FWHM 20 nm); Green (531 nm, FWHM 40 nm), and Red (600 nm, FWHM 70 nm). When excited at 790 nm, pollens mainly absorb 2 photons and fluoresce in the blue-green channels, while FB345 clusters exhibit 3PEF in the UV channel, as expected. At the typical incident intensity used 1012 W/cm2, Ragweed exhibits a weak fluorescence in the UV channel too, in contrast to Pecan and Mulberry. This UV contribution clearly originates from 3PEF, in addition to the 2PEF in the blue-green channels. The laser intensity used in these experiments constitutes the upper limit before degradation of the samples. Notice that photomultiplier gain of each spectral channel was kept constant throughout the different samples to allow a visual comparison of the relative intensities. In particular, the UV channel gain was set to a very high value to detect the weakest signal intensities, as evidenced by the relatively large noise as compared to the UV case of series a). Pollen fluorescence is mainly attributed to NADH and to a smaller extent to flavins [19

19. L. Cardenas, S. T. McKenna, J. G. Kunkel, and P. K. Hepler, “NAD(P)H oscillates in pollen tubes and is correlated with tip growth,” Plant Physiol. 142, 1460–1468 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 20

20. N. Dharajiya, I. Boldogh, V. Cardenas, and S. Sur, “Role of pollen NAD(P)H oxidase in allergic inflammation,” Curr. Opin. Allergy Cl 8, 57–62 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. Typical sizes of the pollens are respectively 19 – 20 μm for Ragweed, 45 – 52 μm for Pecan, and 12 – 13 μm for Mulberry. The size of the airborne FB345 aggregates in the experiment was determined by elastic scattering from the crossed diode lasers to be 50 ± 30 μm.

Fig. 2 MPEF microscopy images of a) FB345 clusters, b) Ragweed pollens, c) Pecan pollens, and d) Mulberry pollens. The large images correspond to the UV fluorescence channel (360 nm, FWHM 12 nm); the insets display the composite images of the UV- (360 nm, FWHM 12 nm), Blue- (485 nm, FWHM 20 nm), Green- (531 nm, FWHM 40 nm) and Red-channels (600 nm, FWHM 70 nm). The reference ruler corresponds to 50 μm.
Fig. 3 Single-shot MPEF spectra of individual aerosol particles. (a) Simulants of bacteria aggregates (FB345); (b) Ragweed pollen; (c) Pecan Pollen; and (d) Mulberry pollen. The dashed lines represent the 96% confidence interval (±2σ) calculated from a series of individual detection events.

Table 1. Detection statistics

table-icon
View This Table

In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time that femtosecond laser pulses could generate detectable MPEF spectra from individual aerosol particles. This successful demonstration experiment opens new possibilities for probing individual aerosol particles, namely femtosecond LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) [24

24. J. Yu, M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, “Femtosecond time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection and identification of bacteria: A comparison to the nanosecond regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 084701 (2006). [CrossRef]

, 25

25. J. Yu, M. Baudelet, M. Bossu, J. Jovelet, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, “Discrimination of microbiological samples using femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 163903 (2006). [CrossRef]

], femtosecond pump-probe approaches that exploit differences in excited states dynamics [13

13. J. P. Wolf, F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, V. Wood, A. Bartelt, M. Roth, and H. Rabitz, “Femtosecond laser pulses distinguish bacteria from background urban aerosols,” Appl Phys Lett 87, 063901 (2005). [CrossRef]

, 14

14. V. Boutou, F. Courvoisier, L. Guyon, M. Roth, H. Rabitz, and J. P. Wolf, “Discriminating bacteria from other atmospheric particles using femtosecond molecular dynamics,” J. Photoch. Photobio. A 180, 300–306 (2006). [CrossRef]

], coherent control of molecular wavepackets that proved able of discriminating molecules with identical linear spectra [16

16. G. Gerber, T. Brixner, N. H. Damrauer, and P. Niklaus, “Photoselective adaptive femtosecond quantum control in the liquid phase,” Nature 414, 57–60 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 17

17. M. Roth, L. Guyon, J. Roslund, V. Boutou, F. Courvoisier, J. P. Wolf, and H. Rabitz, “Quantum control of tightly competitive product channels,” Phys Rev Lett 102, 253001 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and femtosecond CARS (Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering) [26

26. Y. Silberberg, N. Dudovich, and D. Oron, “Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy,” Nature 418, 512–514 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

29

29. S. Roy, J. R. Gord, and A. K. Patnaik, “Recent advances in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy: Fundamental developments and applications in reacting flows,” Prog. Energ. Combust. 36, 280–306 (2010). [CrossRef]

] that makes use of identified vibrational signatures.

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to Thibaud Magouroux for the Microscopy images on the Nikon multi-photon FP7 NAMDIATREAM platform. The authors wish to acknowledge the Swiss National Foundation for Research within the NCCR MUST program and the SER-COST action P21 (Physics of Droplets) for their support. They also wish to thank R.K. Chang (Yale), Y.L. Pan and S.C Hill. (ARL, Adelphi) for their advices in constructing the aerosol chamber, and for as well as E. Frejafon from INERIS for very fruitful discussions.

References and links

1.

Y. L. Pan, J. Hartings, R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, J. Halverson, and R. K. Chang, “Single-particle fluorescence spectrometer for ambient aerosols,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 37, 628–639 (2003). [CrossRef]

2.

F. L. Reyes, T. H. Jeys, N. R. Newbury, C. A. Primmerman, G. S. Rowe, and A. Sanchez, “Bio-aerosol fluorescence sensor,” Field Anal. Chem. Technol. 3, 240–248 (1999). [CrossRef]

3.

J. D. Eversole, W. K. Cary, C. S. Scotto, R. Pierson, M. Spence, and A. J. Campillo, “Continuous bioaerosol monitoring using UV excitation fluorescence: Outdoor test results,” Field Anal. Chem. Technol. 5, 205–212 (2001). [CrossRef]

4.

G. A. Luoma, P. P. Cherrier, and L. A. Retfalvi, “Real-time warning of biological-agent attacks with the Canadian integrated biochemical agent detection system ii (cibads ii),” Field Anal. Chem. Technol. 3, 260–273 (1999). [CrossRef]

5.

Y. L. Pan, K. B. Aptowicz, R. K. Chang, M. Hart, and J. D. Eversole, “Characterizing and monitoring respiratory aerosols by light scattering,” Opt. Lett. 28, 589–591 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

P. Kaye, E. Hirst, and Z. WangThomas, “Neural-network-based spatial light-scattering instrument for hazardous airborne fiber detection,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6149–6156 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

S. C. Hill, R. G. Pinnick, S. Niles, Y. L. Pan, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, J. Bottiger, B. T. Chen, C. S. Orr, and G. Feather, “Real-time measurement of fluorescence spectra from single airborne biological particles,” Field Anal. Chem. Technol. 3, 221–239 (1999). [CrossRef]

8.

Y. L. Pan, P. Cobler, S. Rhodes, A. Potter, T. Chou, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, R. G. Pinnick, and J. P. Wolf, “High-speed, high-sensitivity aerosol fluorescence spectrum detection using a 32-anode photomultiplier tube detector,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1831–1836 (2001). [CrossRef]

9.

Y. L. Pan, S. C. Hill, R. G. Pinnick, J. M. House, R. C. Flagan, and R. K. Chang, “Dual-excitation-wavelength fluorescence spectra and elastic scattering for differentiation of single airborne pollen and fungal particles,” Atmos. Environ. 45, 1555–1563 (2011). [CrossRef]

10.

Y. L. Pan, S. C. Hill, R. G. Pinnick, H. Huang, J. R. Bottiger, and R. K. Chang, “Fluorescence spectra of atmospheric aerosol particles measured using one or two excitation wavelengths: Comparison of classification schemes employing different emission and scattering results,” Opt Express 18, 12436–12457 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

V. Sivaprakasam, A. L. Huston, C. Scotto, and J. D. Eversole, “Multiple UV wavelength excitation and fluorescence of bioaerosols,” Opt Express 12, 4457–4466 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

J. R. Gord, T. R. Meyer, and S. Roy, “Applications of ultrafast lasers for optical measurements in combusting flows,” Annu Rev Anal Chem 1, 663–687 (2008). [CrossRef]

13.

J. P. Wolf, F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, V. Wood, A. Bartelt, M. Roth, and H. Rabitz, “Femtosecond laser pulses distinguish bacteria from background urban aerosols,” Appl Phys Lett 87, 063901 (2005). [CrossRef]

14.

V. Boutou, F. Courvoisier, L. Guyon, M. Roth, H. Rabitz, and J. P. Wolf, “Discriminating bacteria from other atmospheric particles using femtosecond molecular dynamics,” J. Photoch. Photobio. A 180, 300–306 (2006). [CrossRef]

15.

H. U. Stauffer, W. D. Kulatilaka, J. R. Gord, and S. Roy, “Laser-induced fluorescence detection of hydroxyl (OH) radical by femtosecond excitation,” Opt. Lett. 36, 1776–1778 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

G. Gerber, T. Brixner, N. H. Damrauer, and P. Niklaus, “Photoselective adaptive femtosecond quantum control in the liquid phase,” Nature 414, 57–60 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

M. Roth, L. Guyon, J. Roslund, V. Boutou, F. Courvoisier, J. P. Wolf, and H. Rabitz, “Quantum control of tightly competitive product channels,” Phys Rev Lett 102, 253001 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

T. Nicolai, D. Carr, S. K. Weiland, H. Duhme, O. von Ehrenstein, C. Wagner, and E. von Mutius, “Urban traffic and pollutant exposure related to respiratory outcomes and atopy in a large sample of children,” Eur Respir J 21, 956–963 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

L. Cardenas, S. T. McKenna, J. G. Kunkel, and P. K. Hepler, “NAD(P)H oscillates in pollen tubes and is correlated with tip growth,” Plant Physiol. 142, 1460–1468 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

N. Dharajiya, I. Boldogh, V. Cardenas, and S. Sur, “Role of pollen NAD(P)H oxidase in allergic inflammation,” Curr. Opin. Allergy Cl 8, 57–62 (2008). [CrossRef]

21.

W. W. Webb, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, and B. T. Hyman, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 7075–7080 (2003). [CrossRef]

22.

S. C. Hill, B. V, J. Yu, S. Ramstein, J. P. Wolf, Y. L. Pan, S. Holler, and R. K. Chang, “Enhanced backward-directed multiphoton-excited fluorescence from dielectric microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 54–57 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

C. Favre, V. Boutou, S. C. Hill, W. Zimmer, M. Krenz, H. Lambrecht, J. Yu, R. K. Chang, L. Woeste, and J. P. Wolf, “White-light nanosource with directional emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 035002 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

J. Yu, M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, “Femtosecond time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection and identification of bacteria: A comparison to the nanosecond regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 084701 (2006). [CrossRef]

25.

J. Yu, M. Baudelet, M. Bossu, J. Jovelet, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, “Discrimination of microbiological samples using femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 163903 (2006). [CrossRef]

26.

Y. Silberberg, N. Dudovich, and D. Oron, “Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy,” Nature 418, 512–514 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27.

A. Dogariu, A. Goltsov, D. Pestov, A. V. Sokolov, and M. O. Scully, “Real-time detection of bacterial spores using coherent anti-stokes Raman spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 103 (2008). [CrossRef]

28.

S. Roy, P. Wrzesinski, D. Pestov, T. Gunaratne, M. Dantus, and J. R. Gord, “Single-beam coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy of N2 using a shaped 7 fs laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95 (2009).

29.

S. Roy, J. R. Gord, and A. K. Patnaik, “Recent advances in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy: Fundamental developments and applications in reacting flows,” Prog. Energ. Combust. 36, 280–306 (2010). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(190.4180) Nonlinear optics : Multiphoton processes
(280.1120) Remote sensing and sensors : Air pollution monitoring

ToC Category:
Remote Sensing

History
Original Manuscript: September 13, 2011
Revised Manuscript: October 11, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: October 11, 2011
Published: November 15, 2011

Virtual Issues
Vol. 7, Iss. 1 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Denis Kiselev, Luigi Bonacina, and Jean-Pierre Wolf, "Individual bioaerosol particle discrimination by multi-photon excited fluorescence," Opt. Express 19, 24516-24521 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-24-24516


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References

  1. Y. L. Pan, J. Hartings, R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, J. Halverson, and R. K. Chang, “Single-particle fluorescence spectrometer for ambient aerosols,” Aerosol Sci. Technol.37, 628–639 (2003). [CrossRef]
  2. F. L. Reyes, T. H. Jeys, N. R. Newbury, C. A. Primmerman, G. S. Rowe, and A. Sanchez, “Bio-aerosol fluorescence sensor,” Field Anal. Chem. Technol.3, 240–248 (1999). [CrossRef]
  3. J. D. Eversole, W. K. Cary, C. S. Scotto, R. Pierson, M. Spence, and A. J. Campillo, “Continuous bioaerosol monitoring using UV excitation fluorescence: Outdoor test results,” Field Anal. Chem. Technol.5, 205–212 (2001). [CrossRef]
  4. G. A. Luoma, P. P. Cherrier, and L. A. Retfalvi, “Real-time warning of biological-agent attacks with the Canadian integrated biochemical agent detection system ii (cibads ii),” Field Anal. Chem. Technol.3, 260–273 (1999). [CrossRef]
  5. Y. L. Pan, K. B. Aptowicz, R. K. Chang, M. Hart, and J. D. Eversole, “Characterizing and monitoring respiratory aerosols by light scattering,” Opt. Lett.28, 589–591 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. Kaye, E. Hirst, and Z. WangThomas, “Neural-network-based spatial light-scattering instrument for hazardous airborne fiber detection,” Appl. Opt.36, 6149–6156 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. C. Hill, R. G. Pinnick, S. Niles, Y. L. Pan, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, J. Bottiger, B. T. Chen, C. S. Orr, and G. Feather, “Real-time measurement of fluorescence spectra from single airborne biological particles,” Field Anal. Chem. Technol.3, 221–239 (1999). [CrossRef]
  8. Y. L. Pan, P. Cobler, S. Rhodes, A. Potter, T. Chou, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, R. G. Pinnick, and J. P. Wolf, “High-speed, high-sensitivity aerosol fluorescence spectrum detection using a 32-anode photomultiplier tube detector,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.72, 1831–1836 (2001). [CrossRef]
  9. Y. L. Pan, S. C. Hill, R. G. Pinnick, J. M. House, R. C. Flagan, and R. K. Chang, “Dual-excitation-wavelength fluorescence spectra and elastic scattering for differentiation of single airborne pollen and fungal particles,” Atmos. Environ.45, 1555–1563 (2011). [CrossRef]
  10. Y. L. Pan, S. C. Hill, R. G. Pinnick, H. Huang, J. R. Bottiger, and R. K. Chang, “Fluorescence spectra of atmospheric aerosol particles measured using one or two excitation wavelengths: Comparison of classification schemes employing different emission and scattering results,” Opt Express18, 12436–12457 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. V. Sivaprakasam, A. L. Huston, C. Scotto, and J. D. Eversole, “Multiple UV wavelength excitation and fluorescence of bioaerosols,” Opt Express12, 4457–4466 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. R. Gord, T. R. Meyer, and S. Roy, “Applications of ultrafast lasers for optical measurements in combusting flows,” Annu Rev Anal Chem1, 663–687 (2008). [CrossRef]
  13. J. P. Wolf, F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, V. Wood, A. Bartelt, M. Roth, and H. Rabitz, “Femtosecond laser pulses distinguish bacteria from background urban aerosols,” Appl Phys Lett87, 063901 (2005). [CrossRef]
  14. V. Boutou, F. Courvoisier, L. Guyon, M. Roth, H. Rabitz, and J. P. Wolf, “Discriminating bacteria from other atmospheric particles using femtosecond molecular dynamics,” J. Photoch. Photobio. A180, 300–306 (2006). [CrossRef]
  15. H. U. Stauffer, W. D. Kulatilaka, J. R. Gord, and S. Roy, “Laser-induced fluorescence detection of hydroxyl (OH) radical by femtosecond excitation,” Opt. Lett.36, 1776–1778 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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