## Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using optical carrier suppression based DC power monitoring |

Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 24, pp. 24712-24717 (2011)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.024712

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### Abstract

A novel photonic-assisted technique for instantaneous microwave frequency measurement is proposed using two cascaded Mach-Zehnder modulators (MZMs) biased at the transmission null point. Then, the microwave frequency can be estimated by monitoring direct current (DC) optical power. Moreover, the measurement range and the measurement resolution can be optimized by setting the time delay between optical and electrical link and optical dispersion, respectively. The approach is theoretically investigated and experimentally verified with a measurement range of 8 GHz and a measurement error of less than ± 0.15 GHz.

© 2011 OSA

## 1. Introduction

2. J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics **1**(6), 319–330 (2007). [CrossRef]

3. J. Niu, S. Fu, K. Xu, J. Zhou, S. Aditya, J. Wu, P. Shum, and J. T. Lin, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement based on amplified fiber-optic recirculating delay loop and broadband incoherent light source,” J. Lightwave Technol. **29**(1), 78–84 (2011). [CrossRef]

4. L. V. T. Nguyen and D. B. Hunter, “A photonic technique for microwave frequency measurement,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. **18**(10), 1188–1190 (2006). [CrossRef]

10. X. H. Zou, W. Pan, B. Luo, and L. Yan, “Full-scale phase demodulation approach for photonic instantaneous frequency measurement,” Opt. Lett. **35**(16), 2747–2749 (2010). [CrossRef]

11. N. Sarkhosh, H. Emami, L. Bui, and A. Mitchell, “Reduced cost photonic instantaneous frequency measurement system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. **20**(18), 1521–1523 (2008). [CrossRef]

12. H. Chi, X. Zou, and J. Yao, “An approach to the measurement of microwave frequency based on optical power monitoring,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. **20**(14), 1249–1251 (2008). [CrossRef]

13. X. Zou, H. Chi, and J. Yao, “Microwave frequency measurement based on optical power monitoring using a complementary optical filter pair,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. **57**(2), 505–511 (2009). [CrossRef]

## 2. Operation Principle

## 3. Experimental Setup

_{3}Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM 1, Avanex SD-10) biased at the transmission null point with a portion of unknown microwave signals from a vector network analyzer (VNA, Anritsu 3769C). An electrical bias controller is used to lock the operation points of MZM and ensure a stable operation over time and environmental conditions. Then, the modulated carriers are sent to a wavelength selective switch (Finisar WaveShaper [14

14. M. A. F. Roelens, S. Frisken, J. A. Bolger, D. Abakoumov, G. Baxter, S. Poole, and B. J. Eggleton, “Dispersion trimming in a reconfigurable wavelength selective switch,” J. Lightwave Technol. **26**(1), 73–78 (2008). [CrossRef]

_{2}can be adjusted by optimizing the delay between the optical and electrical link, while ΔΓ can be chosen by setting the dispersion characteristics of WaveShaper. For previous frequency-to-power mapping based IFM systems, a higher resolution is achieved at the cost of a relatively smaller measurement range. However, in our proposed scheme, we can optimize measurement resolution without compromising the measurement range by setting Δτ

_{2}and ΔΓ value, respectively. Fig. 3 (a) shows the theoretically calculated ACF with respect to the variation of Δτ

_{2}, when ΔΓ is fixed to 20 ps. Generally, the measurement range of our proposed approach is a monotone region of the generated ACF, e.g. from DC to the first notch of the ACF. Thus, with the decrease of Δτ

_{2}, the measurement range of our proposed scheme can be substantially enlarged. However, since Δτ

_{2}is the delay between optical and electrical link, its value cannot be set too small due to the constraints of real implementation. Meanwhile, Fig. 3 (b) shows the theoretically calculated ACF with respect to the variation of ΔΓ, when Δτ

_{2}is fixed to 30 ps. It is clearly observed that the dynamic range of generated ACF is improved with the growing of ΔΓ. Usually, the measurement resolution is characterized by the first-order derivative of generated ACF. Thus, in order to have a higher measurement resolution, we need to set a relatively larger value of ΔΓ. However, the maximum value of ΔΓ is limited by Δτ

_{2}due to the symmetry of cosine function, as shown in Eq. (9), and the achievable dispersion from the WaveShaper.

## 4. Experimental results

_{2}is set to be 30 ps. Meanwhile, we properly set WaveShaper to introduce a dispersion of 20 ps/nm. Considering that the wavelength spacing between two LDs is 1 nm,

## 5. Conclusion

## References and links

1. | H. Gruciiala and A. Slowik, “The complex signals instantaneous frequency measurement using multichannel IFM systems,” in |

2. | J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics |

3. | J. Niu, S. Fu, K. Xu, J. Zhou, S. Aditya, J. Wu, P. Shum, and J. T. Lin, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement based on amplified fiber-optic recirculating delay loop and broadband incoherent light source,” J. Lightwave Technol. |

4. | L. V. T. Nguyen and D. B. Hunter, “A photonic technique for microwave frequency measurement,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. |

5. | X. H. Zou and J. Yao, “An optical approach to microwave frequency measurement with adjustable measurement range and resolution,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. |

6. | J. Li, S. Fu, K. Xu, J. Q. Zhou, P. Shum, J. Wu, and J. Lin, “Photonic-assisted microwave frequency measurement with higher resolution and tunable range,” Opt. Lett. |

7. | L. A. Bui, M. D. Pelusi, T. D. Vo, N. Sarkhosh, H. Emami, B. J. Eggleton, and A. Mitchell, “Instantaneous frequency measurement system using optical mixing in highly nonlinear fiber,” Opt. Express |

8. | M. V. Drummond, P. Monteiro, and R. N. Nogueira, “Photonic RF instantaneous frequency measurement system by means of a polarizatio-ndomain interferometer,” Opt. Express |

9. | J. Zhou, S. Aditya, P. Shum, and J. Yao, “Instantaneous Microwave Frequency Measurement Using a Photonic Microwave Filter with an Infinite Impulse Response,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. |

10. | X. H. Zou, W. Pan, B. Luo, and L. Yan, “Full-scale phase demodulation approach for photonic instantaneous frequency measurement,” Opt. Lett. |

11. | N. Sarkhosh, H. Emami, L. Bui, and A. Mitchell, “Reduced cost photonic instantaneous frequency measurement system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. |

12. | H. Chi, X. Zou, and J. Yao, “An approach to the measurement of microwave frequency based on optical power monitoring,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. |

13. | X. Zou, H. Chi, and J. Yao, “Microwave frequency measurement based on optical power monitoring using a complementary optical filter pair,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. |

14. | M. A. F. Roelens, S. Frisken, J. A. Bolger, D. Abakoumov, G. Baxter, S. Poole, and B. J. Eggleton, “Dispersion trimming in a reconfigurable wavelength selective switch,” J. Lightwave Technol. |

**OCIS Codes**

(070.6020) Fourier optics and signal processing : Continuous optical signal processing

(350.4010) Other areas of optics : Microwaves

(060.5625) Fiber optics and optical communications : Radio frequency photonics

**ToC Category:**

Instrumentation, Measurement, and Metrology

**History**

Original Manuscript: August 19, 2011

Revised Manuscript: October 7, 2011

Manuscript Accepted: October 16, 2011

Published: November 17, 2011

**Citation**

Songnian Fu, Ming Tang, and Perry Shum, "Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using optical carrier suppression based DC power monitoring," Opt. Express **19**, 24712-24717 (2011)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-24-24712

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### References

- H. Gruciiala and A. Slowik, “The complex signals instantaneous frequency measurement using multichannel IFM systems,” in Proceedings of 15th International Conference on Microwaves, Radar and Wireless Communications, 1, 210–213 (2004).
- J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics1(6), 319–330 (2007). [CrossRef]
- J. Niu, S. Fu, K. Xu, J. Zhou, S. Aditya, J. Wu, P. Shum, and J. T. Lin, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement based on amplified fiber-optic recirculating delay loop and broadband incoherent light source,” J. Lightwave Technol.29(1), 78–84 (2011). [CrossRef]
- L. V. T. Nguyen and D. B. Hunter, “A photonic technique for microwave frequency measurement,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(10), 1188–1190 (2006). [CrossRef]
- X. H. Zou and J. Yao, “An optical approach to microwave frequency measurement with adjustable measurement range and resolution,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(23), 1989–1991 (2008). [CrossRef]
- J. Li, S. Fu, K. Xu, J. Q. Zhou, P. Shum, J. Wu, and J. Lin, “Photonic-assisted microwave frequency measurement with higher resolution and tunable range,” Opt. Lett.34(6), 743–745 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- L. A. Bui, M. D. Pelusi, T. D. Vo, N. Sarkhosh, H. Emami, B. J. Eggleton, and A. Mitchell, “Instantaneous frequency measurement system using optical mixing in highly nonlinear fiber,” Opt. Express17(25), 22983–22991 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- M. V. Drummond, P. Monteiro, and R. N. Nogueira, “Photonic RF instantaneous frequency measurement system by means of a polarizatio-ndomain interferometer,” Opt. Express17(7), 5433–5438 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- J. Zhou, S. Aditya, P. Shum, and J. Yao, “Instantaneous Microwave Frequency Measurement Using a Photonic Microwave Filter with an Infinite Impulse Response,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(10), 682–684 (2010). [CrossRef]
- X. H. Zou, W. Pan, B. Luo, and L. Yan, “Full-scale phase demodulation approach for photonic instantaneous frequency measurement,” Opt. Lett.35(16), 2747–2749 (2010). [CrossRef]
- N. Sarkhosh, H. Emami, L. Bui, and A. Mitchell, “Reduced cost photonic instantaneous frequency measurement system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(18), 1521–1523 (2008). [CrossRef]
- H. Chi, X. Zou, and J. Yao, “An approach to the measurement of microwave frequency based on optical power monitoring,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(14), 1249–1251 (2008). [CrossRef]
- X. Zou, H. Chi, and J. Yao, “Microwave frequency measurement based on optical power monitoring using a complementary optical filter pair,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.57(2), 505–511 (2009). [CrossRef]
- M. A. F. Roelens, S. Frisken, J. A. Bolger, D. Abakoumov, G. Baxter, S. Poole, and B. J. Eggleton, “Dispersion trimming in a reconfigurable wavelength selective switch,” J. Lightwave Technol.26(1), 73–78 (2008). [CrossRef]

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