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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 25 — Dec. 5, 2011
  • pp: 24967–24979
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Design and optimization of low-loss high-birefringence hollow fiber at terahertz frequency

Xiao-Li Tang, Bang-Shan Sun, and Yi-Wei Shi  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 25, pp. 24967-24979 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.024967


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Abstract

Transmission characteristics at terahertz (THz) frequencies are numerically analyzed for elliptical dielectric-coated metallic hollow fiber (DMHF). Attenuation constants, group velocity, modal birefringence, and modal power fraction in the air core are presented. Optimization of the fiber geometry is investigated to reduce the attenuation and to increase the birefringence simultaneously. Modal birefringence of 3.3×10−2 and attenuation of 2.4 dB/m are expected. It is found that a desirable ellipticity of the air core is around 3. And both the modal birefringence and the attenuation constant are inversely proportional to the cube of the core size. Multiple dielectric layers significantly reduce the attenuation and meanwhile have little influence on the modal birefringence.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

Dielectric-coated metallic hollow fiber (DMHF) is one of the most attractive means of delivering terahertz waves [14

14. Y. Matsuura and E. Takeda, “Hollow optical fibers loaded with an inner dielectric film for terahertz broadband spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(12), 1949–1954 (2008). [CrossRef]

16

16. O. Mitrofanov and J. A. Harrington, “Dielectric-lined cylindrical metallic THz waveguides: mode structure and dispersion,” Opt. Express 18(3), 1898–1903 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. This type of fiber usually has a metallic film of silver (Ag) and a single dielectric film of polystyrene (PS), cyclic olefin polymer (COP), or polyethylene (PE) on the inner wall. A low loss of 0.95 dB/m at the wavelength of 119 μm (2.5 THz) was obtained for the 2 mm bore 90-cm-long polystyrene (PS)-coated silver hollow glass fiber [15

15. B. Bowden, J. A. Harrington, and O. Mitrofanov, “Silver/polystyrene-coated hollow glass waveguides for the transmission of terahertz radiation,” Opt. Lett. 32(20), 2945–2947 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Circular cross sectional DMHF is the most common configuration used to date. However, circular cross sectional hollow fibers do not preserve polarization to any appreciable degree [17

17. C. C. Gregory and J. A. Harrington, “Attenuation, modal, and polarization properties of n < 1, hollow dielectric waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 32(27), 5302–5309 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 18

18. D. Gibson and J. A. Harrington, “Tapered and noncircular hollow glass waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 3596, 8–13 (1999). [CrossRef]

]. By going to square and rectangular cross section fibers, Gibson and Harrington [19

19. D. Gibson and J. A. Harrington, “Polarization-maintaining hollow glass waveguides with noncircular bore,” Opt. Eng. 43(3), 568–572 (2004). [CrossRef]

] showed that the fiber obtained the ability to preserve the polarization of a polarized CO2 laser light. However, there are few reports on the polarization-preservation ability of DMHF in THz region.

2. Fiber structure

Single-mode DMHF with small diameter has high attenuation. Large-bore hollow fiber has low attenuation. However, it results in multi-mode propagation. The power coupling efficiency of the incident beam to the m-th mode of the fiber can be expressed by [23

23. A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman & Hall, 1983), Chap. 20.

]:
ηm=|SEi×Hmz^dS|2SEm×Hmz^dSSEi×Hiz^dS,
(2)
where Ei and Hi are the electric field and the magnetic field of the incident beam. Em and Hm are the electric field and the magnetic field of the m-th mode. S and S denote the integration over the air-core region and the infinite plane transverse to the fiber axis z. Most of the coherent THz sources emit a linearly polarized Gaussian beam. A Gaussian beam focused to a 1/e2 waist ω0 and linearly polarized along the x-axis can be expressed by:

Ei(x,y)=E0ex2+y2ω02x^,
(3)

Figure 2
Fig. 2 Power coupling efficiencies for the first few modes in an elliptical DMHF at 1THz as a function of the spot size to core size ratioω0/ab.
shows the calculation results of power coupling efficiencies for the first few modes in an elliptical DMHF at 1THz. The structural parameters of the fiber considered are a=800 μm, b=400 μm, and d=39 μm. It is seen that the HE11X mode and the HE11Y mode have much higher coupling efficiency than the other modes. The highest coupling efficiency for the HE11X mode and the HE11Y mode are 93% and 92.7% whenω0/ab=0.65. Single-mode propagation is possible in a large-diameter fiber if the input field is properly launched [24

24. R. K. Nubling and J. A. Harrington, “Launch conditions and mode coupling in hollow-glass waveguides,” Opt. Eng. 37(9), 2454–2458 (1998). [CrossRef]

].

Analogous to the pipe waveguides [25

25. C.-H. Lai, B. You, J.-Y. Lu, T.-A. Liu, J.-L. Peng, C.-K. Sun, and H.-C. Chang, “Modal characteristics of antiresonant reflecting pipe waveguides for terahertz waveguiding,” Opt. Express 18(1), 309–322 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], an elliptical DMHF has two types of confined modes: the cladding modes and the core modes. Figure 3
Fig. 3 Normalized z-component power flow and electric field vector distribution for (a) the cladding HE11X mode at 1.88 THz, (b) the cladding HE11Y mode at 0.69 THz, (c) the core HE11X mode at 2 THz, and (d) the core HE11Y mode at 2 THz. The power flow is presented by the colors and the electric field is presented by the arrows.
shows the normalized z-component power flow and the electric field vector distributions for the cladding HE11 mode and the core HE11 mode. Figure 3(a) and Fig. 3(b) are the cladding modes, whose power is largely located inside the cladding region. The cladding modes attenuate rapidly due to the high material absorption. These modes are guided by total internal reflection, with the fiber itself acting as a high index core and the surrounding air behaving as the low index cladding. Figure 3(c) and Fig. 3(d) are the core modes. Since the power is mainly confined inside the air core, the core modes have less material absorption losses than the cladding modes. The guiding mechanism is similar to that of the antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide (ARROW) [26

26. M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, “Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2—Si multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(1), 13–15 (1986). [CrossRef]

]. Core modes are leaky because the refractive index of the core is less than that of the cladding. In this work, only the characteristics of the fundamental core modes (the HE11X mode and the HE11Y mode) are investigated.

3. Transmission characteristics

Structural parameters of the fiber considered in this section are a=800 μm, b=400 μm, and d=39 μm. Attenuation of the HE11X mode and the HE11Y mode from 0.8 to 4 THz are shown in Fig. 4(a)
Fig. 4 (a) Attenuation spectra for the HE11X mode and the HE11Y mode from 0.8 to 4 THz. (b) Attenuation constant of a DMHF as a function of the absorption coefficient at 1THz. Attenuation of an Ag-only coated hollow fiber is shown for comparison.
. In Fig. 4(a), the dielectric is assumed to have a frequency-independent absorption with an extinction coefficient of 4.8×10−4 throughout the frequency region. The two polarized modes have different attenuation valleys but almost the same attenuation peaks. The attenuation spectrum of the elliptical DMHF is periodic owing to the dielectric layer, which can be viewed as a Fabry-perot etalon [25

25. C.-H. Lai, B. You, J.-Y. Lu, T.-A. Liu, J.-L. Peng, C.-K. Sun, and H.-C. Chang, “Modal characteristics of antiresonant reflecting pipe waveguides for terahertz waveguiding,” Opt. Express 18(1), 309–322 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27

27. C.-H. Lai, J.-Y. Lu, and H.-C. Chang, “Adding metallic layers outside terahertz antiresonant reflecting waveguides: the influence on loss spectra,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(9), 2200–2206 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. The wave enters the dielectric layer and undergoes multiple reflections. When the reflected beams are in phase, constructive interference occurs. This causes the core modes to appear with the waves bouncing back and forth inside the core region. On the other hand, if the reflected beams are out of phase, destructive interference occurs. This case corresponds to the attenuation peaks in Fig. 4(a), when fields could hardly exist inside the core region. Although the results are not shown in this paper, we examined DMHFs of different core sizes and different ellipticities (a/b=1, 2, 3, and 4) but with the same dielectric layer thickness. We found that the fibers have the same resonant frequencies. The resonant frequencies, which can be used to locate the transmission windows, depend on the layer thickness d and the dielectric reflective index n [27

27. C.-H. Lai, J.-Y. Lu, and H.-C. Chang, “Adding metallic layers outside terahertz antiresonant reflecting waveguides: the influence on loss spectra,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(9), 2200–2206 (2011). [CrossRef]

, 28

28. S. Ouyang, Y.-W. Shi, Y. Matsuura, and M. Miyagi, “Rugged distal tips for CO2 laser medicine,” Opt. Laser Technol. 35(1), 65–68 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. It was demonstrated that the material absorption does not affect the positions of the resonant frequencies [27

27. C.-H. Lai, J.-Y. Lu, and H.-C. Chang, “Adding metallic layers outside terahertz antiresonant reflecting waveguides: the influence on loss spectra,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(9), 2200–2206 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. However, the material absorption brings additional loss. The absorption values of polymers differ due to the variability of polymer chain length and cross-linking. Taking High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) for an example, it values ranging from ~0.15 cm−1 [29

29. A. Sengupta, A. Bandyopadhyay, B. F. Bowden, J. A. Harrington, and J. F. Federici, “Characterisation of olefin copolymers using terahertz spectroscopy,” Electron. Lett. 42(25), 1477–1479 (2006). [CrossRef]

] to ~2.0 cm−1 [30

30. Y.-S. Jin, G.-J. Kim, and S.-G. Jeon, “Terahertz Dielectric Properties of Polymers,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 49, 513–517 (2006).

] at 1THz. Figure 4(b) shows the attenuation constants of the two polarizations in DMHF as a function of the absorption coefficient at 1THz. The attenuation curves for an Ag-only coated hollow fiber are also shown for comparison. The inner major radius and the inner minor radius of the Ag-only coated hollow fiber are 839 μm and 439 μm, respectively. Although the dielectric layer can effectively enhance the reflectivity, it brings additional loss due to its absorption. The attenuations increase as the absorption coefficient becomes larger. The attenuation of the DMHF is equal to that of the Ag-only coated hollow fiber when the dielectric absorption coefficient is 0.6 cm−1 and 0.3 cm−1 for the x- and the y-polarization, respectively. It means that polymers with absorption coefficient larger than 0.6 cm−1 is not suitable for inner coating in the case considered in Fig. 4. The absorption tolerance for the polymer is dependent on the dielectric refractive index and the core size of the hollow fiber. Increased core size makes a larger absorption tolerance for the polymers [21

21. X.-L. Tang, Y.-W. Shi, Y. Matsuura, K. Iwai, and M. Miyagi, “Transmission characteristics of terahertz hollow fiber with an absorptive dielectric inner-coating film,” Opt. Lett. 34(14), 2231–2233 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Effective refractive indices of the HE11X mode and the HE11Y mode are shown in Fig. 5(a)
Fig. 5 (a) Effective refractive indices and (b) group velocities of the HE11X mode and the HE11Y mode.
. The frequency region from 1.5 to 4 THz is enlarged in the inset to clearly show the values in the resonant regions. The refractive indices for the two polarizations are less than 1 and tend to increase with the frequency except in the resonant regions. The group velocity is important for the propagation of electromagnetic pulses that are often used in the THz region. The group velocity can be expressed as:
vg=Cnneff+ωnneffω,
(4)
where C, neff, and ω are light velocity in vacuum, effective refractive index, and angle frequency, respectively. Figure 5(b) shows the group velocities of the two polarizations as a function of the frequency. The shadows in Fig. 5(b) indicate the frequency regions where the HE11X attenuation is smaller than 2dB/m. It shows that small group velocity dispersion can be achieved in the low-loss transmission windows.

To avoid the influence of the highly absorbing materials in the THz region, an effective fiber design should maximize the guided power fraction in the air, because dry air is nearly lossless for THz wave propagation. Figure 7
Fig. 7 Power ratio in the air core of the HE11X mode.
shows the power ratio of the HE11X mode in the air core. The power fraction in the air core is obtained according to the equation:
η=coreSzdAtotalSzdA,
(5)
where “core” and “total” indicate integration over the air-core region and the entire fiber cross section. Sz is the time-averaged z-component Poynting-vector. In the most part of the frequency region, the HE11X mode has a very high power ratio (up to 99.9%) in the air core due to the high reflectivity of the metal layer. The ratio is much higher than that of the other high-birefringence THz fibers, such as elliptical-hole terahertz fibers (~50%) [8

8. H.-B. Chen, D.-R. Chen, and Z. Hong, “Squeezed lattice elliptical-hole terahertz fiber with high birefringence,” Appl. Opt. 48(20), 3943–3947 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], super-cell structure fibers (~35%) [9

9. D.-R. Chen and H. Y. Tam, “Highly birefringent terahertz fibers based on super-cell structures,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(12), 1858–1863 (2010). [CrossRef]

], and the polymer tubes (~30%) [11

11. J.-L. Wang, J.-Q. Yao, H.-M. Chen, and Z.-Y. Li, “A simple birefringent terahertz waveguide based on polymer elliptical tube,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 28(1), 014207 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. The tightly confined light in the hollow core not only ensures the low-loss propagation but also greatly enhances the ability to resist environmental disturbance.

4. Optimization of the fiber geometry

d=λ2πn121arctan[n1n1214(n1n2)mp(n121n221)mp/2],   (mp=0,1,,7).
(6)
di=λ4(ni21)1/2,    (i=1,2).
(7)

5. Conclusion

We are also preparing to fabricate an elliptical DMHF. Polycarbonate (PC) capillary was chosen as the supporting tube, because PC capillary demands lower temperature to be reshaped. A 1.5-mm-bore circular PC capillary was sandwiched in between two glass plates. The distance between the plates was adjustable according to the desired ellipticity. The PC capillary together with the glass plates were heated to the temperature of 192°C when the PC capillary was soften and reshaped. Silver and dielectric layers are inner-coated by using liquid-phase coating techniques. There are several challenges to fabricating DMHF for the THz wave transmission, such as much thicker silver and dielectric layers comparing to the MIR DMHF, uniform elliptical cross-section, and longer hollow fiber. Thicker inner layers introduce larger surface roughness. Nevertheless the surface roughness has less effect on the attenuation at THz frequencies because of the longer wavelengths. Perturbations to the ellipse cause coupling of the HE11X mode to the higher loss HE11Y mode. It is also possible to form an elliptical PC preform by using the extrusion method [7

7. S. Atakaramians, S. Afshar V, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, M. Nagel, B. M. Fischer, D. Abbott, and T. M. Monro, “THz porous fibers: design, fabrication and experimental characterization,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14053–15062 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 35

35. H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem and T. M. Monro, “Extrusion of complex preforms for microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 15(23), 15086–15092 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Then glass-draw method can be used to fabricate longer elliptical capillary. It is still a challenge to control the ellipticity during the drawing process.

Acknowledgement

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (60971014) and Talented Graduate Student Foundation of Fudan University.

References and links

1.

M. B. Byrne, M. U. Shaukat, J. E. Cunningham, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Simultaneous measurement of orthogonal components of polarization in a free-space propagating terahertz signal using electro-optic detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151104 (2011). [CrossRef]

2.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Flectcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and J. Keith, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire “terahertz gap”,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011131 (2008). [CrossRef]

3.

J. Noda, K. Okamoto, and Y. Sasaki, “Polarization-maintaining fibers and their applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4(8), 1071–1089 (1986). [CrossRef]

4.

M. Cho, J. Kim, H. Park, Y. Han, K. Moon, E. Jung, and H. Han, “Highly birefringent terahertz polarization maintaining plastic photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 16(1), 7–12 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

G.-B. Ren, Y.-D. Gong, P. Shum, X. Yu, and J.-J. Hu, “Polarization Maintaining Air-Core Bandgap Fibers for Terahertz Wave Guiding,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 506–513 (2009). [CrossRef]

6.

S. Atakaramians, S. Afshar Vahid, B. M. Fischer, D. Abbott, and T. M. Monro, “Low loss, low dispersion and highly birefringent terahertz porous fibers,” Opt. Commun. 282(1), 36–38 (2009). [CrossRef]

7.

S. Atakaramians, S. Afshar V, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, M. Nagel, B. M. Fischer, D. Abbott, and T. M. Monro, “THz porous fibers: design, fabrication and experimental characterization,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14053–15062 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

H.-B. Chen, D.-R. Chen, and Z. Hong, “Squeezed lattice elliptical-hole terahertz fiber with high birefringence,” Appl. Opt. 48(20), 3943–3947 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

D.-R. Chen and H. Y. Tam, “Highly birefringent terahertz fibers based on super-cell structures,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(12), 1858–1863 (2010). [CrossRef]

10.

D.-R. Chen, “Mode property of terahertz polymer tube,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(18), 2708–2713 (2010). [CrossRef]

11.

J.-L. Wang, J.-Q. Yao, H.-M. Chen, and Z.-Y. Li, “A simple birefringent terahertz waveguide based on polymer elliptical tube,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 28(1), 014207 (2011). [CrossRef]

12.

S. Atakaramians, S. Afshar V, B. M. Fischer, D. Abbott, and T. M. Monro, “Porous fibers: a novel approach to low loss THz waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8845–8854 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

A. Hassani, A. Dupuis, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Porous polymer fibers for low-loss Terahertz guiding,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6340–6351 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

Y. Matsuura and E. Takeda, “Hollow optical fibers loaded with an inner dielectric film for terahertz broadband spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(12), 1949–1954 (2008). [CrossRef]

15.

B. Bowden, J. A. Harrington, and O. Mitrofanov, “Silver/polystyrene-coated hollow glass waveguides for the transmission of terahertz radiation,” Opt. Lett. 32(20), 2945–2947 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

O. Mitrofanov and J. A. Harrington, “Dielectric-lined cylindrical metallic THz waveguides: mode structure and dispersion,” Opt. Express 18(3), 1898–1903 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

C. C. Gregory and J. A. Harrington, “Attenuation, modal, and polarization properties of n < 1, hollow dielectric waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 32(27), 5302–5309 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

D. Gibson and J. A. Harrington, “Tapered and noncircular hollow glass waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 3596, 8–13 (1999). [CrossRef]

19.

D. Gibson and J. A. Harrington, “Polarization-maintaining hollow glass waveguides with noncircular bore,” Opt. Eng. 43(3), 568–572 (2004). [CrossRef]

20.

M. Miyagi and S. Kawakami, “Design theory of dielectric coated circular metallic waveguides for infrared Transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 2(2), 116–126 (1984). [CrossRef]

21.

X.-L. Tang, Y.-W. Shi, Y. Matsuura, K. Iwai, and M. Miyagi, “Transmission characteristics of terahertz hollow fiber with an absorptive dielectric inner-coating film,” Opt. Lett. 34(14), 2231–2233 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

M. A. Ordal, L. L. Long, R. J. Bell, S. E. Bell, R. R. Bell, R. W. Alexander Jr, and C. A. Ward, “Optical properties of the metals Al, Co, Cu, Au, Fe, Pb, Ni, Pd, Pt, Ag, Ti, and W in the infrared and far infrared,” Appl. Opt. 22(7), 1099–20 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman & Hall, 1983), Chap. 20.

24.

R. K. Nubling and J. A. Harrington, “Launch conditions and mode coupling in hollow-glass waveguides,” Opt. Eng. 37(9), 2454–2458 (1998). [CrossRef]

25.

C.-H. Lai, B. You, J.-Y. Lu, T.-A. Liu, J.-L. Peng, C.-K. Sun, and H.-C. Chang, “Modal characteristics of antiresonant reflecting pipe waveguides for terahertz waveguiding,” Opt. Express 18(1), 309–322 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, “Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2—Si multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(1), 13–15 (1986). [CrossRef]

27.

C.-H. Lai, J.-Y. Lu, and H.-C. Chang, “Adding metallic layers outside terahertz antiresonant reflecting waveguides: the influence on loss spectra,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(9), 2200–2206 (2011). [CrossRef]

28.

S. Ouyang, Y.-W. Shi, Y. Matsuura, and M. Miyagi, “Rugged distal tips for CO2 laser medicine,” Opt. Laser Technol. 35(1), 65–68 (2003). [CrossRef]

29.

A. Sengupta, A. Bandyopadhyay, B. F. Bowden, J. A. Harrington, and J. F. Federici, “Characterisation of olefin copolymers using terahertz spectroscopy,” Electron. Lett. 42(25), 1477–1479 (2006). [CrossRef]

30.

Y.-S. Jin, G.-J. Kim, and S.-G. Jeon, “Terahertz Dielectric Properties of Polymers,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 49, 513–517 (2006).

31.

X. Lin, Y.-W. Shi, K.-R. Sui, X.-S. Zhu, K. Iwai, and M. Miyagi, “Fabrication and characterization of infrared hollow fiber with multi- SiO2 and AgI inner-coating layers,” Appl. Opt. 48(35), 6765–6769 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

32.

B.-S. Sun, X.-L. Tang, Y.-W. Shi, K. Iwai, and M. Miyagi, “Optimal design for hollow fiber inner-coated by dielectric layers with surface roughness,” Opt. Lett. 36(17), 3461–3463 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

33.

C. Jansen, S. Member, F. Neubauer, J. Helbig, D. M. Mittleman, and M. Koch, “Flexible Bragg reflectors for the terahertz regime composed of polymeric compounds,” in IRMMW, A–TjKh–NN4N (2007).

34.

A. Dupuis, K. Stoeffler, B. Ung, C. Dubois, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Transmission measurements of hollow-core THz Bragg fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(4), 896–907 (2011). [CrossRef]

35.

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem and T. M. Monro, “Extrusion of complex preforms for microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 15(23), 15086–15092 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(060.2420) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fibers, polarization-maintaining
(230.7370) Optical devices : Waveguides
(260.1440) Physical optics : Birefringence
(040.2235) Detectors : Far infrared or terahertz

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: September 13, 2011
Revised Manuscript: October 27, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: October 27, 2011
Published: November 22, 2011

Citation
Xiao-Li Tang, Bang-Shan Sun, and Yi-Wei Shi, "Design and optimization of low-loss high-birefringence hollow fiber at terahertz frequency," Opt. Express 19, 24967-24979 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-25-24967


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References

  1. M. B. Byrne, M. U. Shaukat, J. E. Cunningham, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Simultaneous measurement of orthogonal components of polarization in a free-space propagating terahertz signal using electro-optic detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151104 (2011). [CrossRef]
  2. N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Flectcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and J. Keith, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire “terahertz gap”,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011131 (2008). [CrossRef]
  3. J. Noda, K. Okamoto, and Y. Sasaki, “Polarization-maintaining fibers and their applications,” J. Lightwave Technol.4(8), 1071–1089 (1986). [CrossRef]
  4. M. Cho, J. Kim, H. Park, Y. Han, K. Moon, E. Jung, and H. Han, “Highly birefringent terahertz polarization maintaining plastic photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express16(1), 7–12 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G.-B. Ren, Y.-D. Gong, P. Shum, X. Yu, and J.-J. Hu, “Polarization Maintaining Air-Core Bandgap Fibers for Terahertz Wave Guiding,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.45(5), 506–513 (2009). [CrossRef]
  6. S. Atakaramians, S. Afshar Vahid, B. M. Fischer, D. Abbott, and T. M. Monro, “Low loss, low dispersion and highly birefringent terahertz porous fibers,” Opt. Commun.282(1), 36–38 (2009). [CrossRef]
  7. S. Atakaramians, S. Afshar V, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, M. Nagel, B. M. Fischer, D. Abbott, and T. M. Monro, “THz porous fibers: design, fabrication and experimental characterization,” Opt. Express17(16), 14053–15062 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H.-B. Chen, D.-R. Chen, and Z. Hong, “Squeezed lattice elliptical-hole terahertz fiber with high birefringence,” Appl. Opt.48(20), 3943–3947 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D.-R. Chen and H. Y. Tam, “Highly birefringent terahertz fibers based on super-cell structures,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(12), 1858–1863 (2010). [CrossRef]
  10. D.-R. Chen, “Mode property of terahertz polymer tube,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(18), 2708–2713 (2010). [CrossRef]
  11. J.-L. Wang, J.-Q. Yao, H.-M. Chen, and Z.-Y. Li, “A simple birefringent terahertz waveguide based on polymer elliptical tube,” Chin. Phys. Lett.28(1), 014207 (2011). [CrossRef]
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