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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 25 — Dec. 5, 2011
  • pp: 25077–25083
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Temporal evolution and correlation between cooperative luminescence and photodarkening in ytterbium doped silica fibers

Hrvoje Gebavi, Stefano Taccheo, Daniel Milanese, Achille Monteville, Olivier Le Goffic, David Landais, David Mechin, Denis Tregoat, Benoit Cadier, and Thierry Robin  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 25, pp. 25077-25083 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.025077


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Abstract

The present work describes photodarkening from the viewpoint of cooperative luminescence. The temporal evolution of both effects was measured simultaneously by means of ytterbium doped aluminosilicate fibers for concentrations up to 1.8 wt% Yb3+. The quadratic dependence of photodarkening and cooperative luminescence versus dopant concentration was observed. The change in the photodarkening and cooperative luminescence mutual dynamics for highly and low doped fibers is ascribed to a different ion number which forms the cluster. Cooperative luminescence is proved to be a natural probe for photodarkening since it provides new pieces of information and contributes to the photodarkening mechanism description.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

The photodarkening effect [1

1. R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, P. R. Barber, J. E. Caplen, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Lifetime quenching in Yb-doped fibres,” Opt. Commun. 136(5-6), 375–378 (1997). [CrossRef]

] (PD) is considered to be the critical factor for high power fiber lasers and amplifiers power stability [2

2. M. Engholm, L. Norin, and D. Åberg, “Strong UV absorption and visible luminescence in ytterbium-doped aluminosilicate glass under UV excitation,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3352–3354 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 3

3. J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Grimm, and V. Reichel, “Materials for high-power fiber lasers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(23-25), 2399–2403 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. It is observed in silica based glass matrixes doped with various rare earth ions (Tb3+, Tm3+, Yb3+) [4

4. G. R. Atkins and A. L. G. Carter, “Photodarkening in Tb(3+)-doped phosphosilicate and germanosilicate optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 19(12), 874–876 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6

6. P. Laperle, A. Chandonnet, and R. Vallée, “Photoinduced absorption in thulium-doped ZBLAN fibers,” Opt. Lett. 20(24), 2484–2486 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In the case of Yb doping, the NIR emission at ~1 µm is usually accompanied by a visible green emission.

The aim of the present paper is to investigate the relationship among CL and PD in order to improve understanding of PD. Both effects were measured simultaneously for various dopant concentrations.

2. Experimental

Aluminosilicate fibers with 0.5, 0.9, 1, 1.075, 1.35, 1.8 wt% Yb3+ dopant concentrations were fabricated by mean of the modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) technique. Short fiber samples (0.2 – 20 cm) with a similar core radius of ~6.6 µm were tested in a 24 hour period. Constant inversion of ~46% was achieved by utilizing short fiber lengths, and the different dopant concentrations were adjusted in order to obtain the same total number of Yb3+ [16

16. S. Taccheo, H. Gebavi, A. Monteville, O. Le Goffic, D. Landais, D. Mechin, D. Tregoat, B. Cadier, D. Milanese, and T. Robin, “Concentration dependence and self-similarity of photodarkening losses induced in Yb-doped fibers by comparable excitation,” Opt. Express 19, 19340–19345 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The pump and HeNe - probe powers were ~200 mW and ~0.5 µW, respectively. The experimental setup utilized for PD and CL examination is shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setup used to carry out PD and CL temporal evolution measurements simultaneously (‘L1’, ‘L2’ are collimating lenses, ‘F’ signs filter for 976 nm laser diode ‘LD’).
.

The HeNe laser at 633 nm and 976 nm LD pump beams are coupled into a tested fiber by customized 980nm/633nm combiner (WDM) developed by one of the co-authors in order to improve the stability of 633 nm probe. The combiner was spliced to the fibers and the output emission is first collimated and then focused into a collecting fiber connected with a spectrum analyzer. The spectrum analyzer is an array of CCD covering the 200 nm – 1100 nm interval. The free space path is useful to filter out the residual pump power. The experimental setup, built in the way cited herein, enables the simultaneous monitoring of PD and CL temporal evolution at 633 nm by using the HeNe laser as a probe and green luminescence at ~500 nm.

The green luminescence depends on the Al3+ content [17

17. T. G. Ryan and S. D. Jackson, “Cooperative luminescence and absorption in ytterbium doped aluminosilicate glass optical fibres and preforms,” Opt. Commun. 273(1), 159–161 (2007). [CrossRef]

] as well as PD [18

18. S. Jetschke, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, M. Leich, and J. Kirchhof, “Efficient Yb laser fibers with low photodarkening by optimization of the core composition,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15540–15545 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In the present study, the Al3+ content was varying as the Yb3+ dopant concentration was increasing in the following sequence: 1.8, 3.2, 3.4, 3.2, 3.2, 1.8 wt% Al3+. It is assumed that the variations in the Al3+ content do not significantly influence the presented results. Detailed study of Al3+ content impact will be provided in following papers.

The impurities, such as Er3+ and Tm3+ ions, can give their contribution to CL by emitting photons at ~537 and 470 nm, respectively [17

17. T. G. Ryan and S. D. Jackson, “Cooperative luminescence and absorption in ytterbium doped aluminosilicate glass optical fibres and preforms,” Opt. Commun. 273(1), 159–161 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. In the study in question no contamination from impurities were observed.

3. Cooperative luminescence and NIR ytterbium emission dependence

In the course of this investigation, before monitoring temporal evolution of CL due to PD, it is appropriate to examine the relationship between CL and Yb3+ emission in the NIR region.

The emission of one photon at ~500 nm requires two simultaneously de-excited Yb3+ neighboring ions and therefore quadratic mutual dependence should be expected. Two experiments were performed, the first one on a 2 mm long fiber and the second one on a 0.5 mm thick preform slice. As a consequence, samples had a short interaction length in order to minimize reabsorption, a different geometry and the same Yb3+ concentration of 1.8 wt%. Before carrying out the experiments, PD in both samples was in its final, equilibrium state. Green luminescence has very weak intensity and due to the fact the experiments were made in frontal geometry. Integrated intensity of CL and Yb3+ NIR emission for various pump powers is presented in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Integrated intensity of CL and Yb3+ NIR emission. Fiber length is 2 mm and preform slice thickness 0.5 mm. Experimental results were fitted on power function and the obtained exponents were: pfiber = (1.69 ± 0.05), ppreform = (2.21 ±0.09).
.

Less-then-square and overestimated values discrepancy from quadratic dependence in fiber together with preform interaction geometry are observed. However, the results fluctuations are less than 15% of the expected value. A similar breaking of quadratic low dependence among CL and pump power is reported in highly doped silica fibers [19

19. Y. G. Choi, Y. B. Shin, H. S. Seo, and K. H. Kim, “Spectral evolution of cooperative luminescence in an Yb3+-doped silica optical fiber,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 364(1-2), 200–205 (2002). [CrossRef]

, 20

20. A. V. Kir’yanov, Y. O. Barmenkov, I. L. Martinez, A. S. Kurkov, and E. M. Dianov, “Cooperative luminescence and absorption in Ytterbium-doped silica fiber and the fiber nonlinear transmission coefficient at λ=980 nm with a regard to the Ytterbium ion-pairs’ effect,” Opt. Express 14(9), 3981–3992 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The results were described as the consequence of fibers lengths and amplified spontaneous emissions (ASE) which had an influence in the presented experiments as well.

4. Photodarkening and cooperative luminescence temporal evolution

Figure 3
Fig. 3 Characteristic temporal emission spectra of the 1.8 wt% Yb3+ doped fiber and the PD - probe at 633 nm.
shows an example of the CL (~500 nm) spectra and the HeNe probe at 633 nm used for PD monitoring in time.

Figures 4a and 4b show the characteristic temporal evolution of the PD probe at 633 nm and CL intensity at 513 nm for 0.5 and 1.35 wt% Yb3+ doped samples. Experimental data were fitted on the stretched exponential curve [16

16. S. Taccheo, H. Gebavi, A. Monteville, O. Le Goffic, D. Landais, D. Mechin, D. Tregoat, B. Cadier, D. Milanese, and T. Robin, “Concentration dependence and self-similarity of photodarkening losses induced in Yb-doped fibers by comparable excitation,” Opt. Express 19, 19340–19345 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and normalized to its final value.

Figure 4a shows that CL and PD evolve in time in a similar way. Nonetheless, it is not the case of highly doped samples (Fig. 4b). They progress equally up to around 30% of their total amplitude decay. In the following step the rate changes and quadratic dependence is observed before reaching the equilibrium state. As a result, CL vs. PD dependence has changed from linear to quadratic (Fig. 5
Fig. 5 CL and PD at 633 nm dependence in time. Excess loss values are processed by Eqs. (1) and 2. The fiber sample is doped with 1.35 wt% Yb3+. The power fit curve has a 1.70 ± 0.04 exponent coefficient.
) for dopant concentrations range from 0.5 to 1.35 wt%. The indicated rate change may be defined by mean of a different number of cluster participants. As to the low doped case (0.5 wt% Yb3+) it is possible to assume that two Yb3+ ions create a pair, whilst concerning the highly doped case (1.35 wt% Yb3+) four Yb3+ ions contribute in the cluster creation. The previously cited observation is supported by the necessity of 3 [16

16. S. Taccheo, H. Gebavi, A. Monteville, O. Le Goffic, D. Landais, D. Mechin, D. Tregoat, B. Cadier, D. Milanese, and T. Robin, “Concentration dependence and self-similarity of photodarkening losses induced in Yb-doped fibers by comparable excitation,” Opt. Express 19, 19340–19345 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] to 3.5 [21

21. S. Jetschke, S. Unger, U. Röpke, and J. Kirchhof, “Photodarkening in Yb doped fibers: experimental evidence of equilibrium states depending on the pump power,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14838–14843 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] excited Yb3+ ions for the color center creation. As a consequence, the difference in the temporal evolution dynamic between low and highly doped samples may be explained by using clusters composed of a different number of ytterbium ions. Furthermore, this issue could be coherent with the assumption of higher CT states excitation and corresponding 230 nm absorption band shift toward lower wavelengths due to the cluster numbers increase [2

2. M. Engholm, L. Norin, and D. Åberg, “Strong UV absorption and visible luminescence in ytterbium-doped aluminosilicate glass under UV excitation,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3352–3354 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

5. Photodarkening and cooperative luminescence correlation with dopant concentration

The obtained results of PD and CL excess loss showed a quadratic dependence on the Yb3+ concentration (Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Excess loss for different Yb3+ concentrations. The obtained power fit exponents are: p633 = (1.9 ± 0.2), and p513 = (2.2 ± 0.2).
). It is already reported that PD linearly depends on population inversion [21

21. S. Jetschke, S. Unger, U. Röpke, and J. Kirchhof, “Photodarkening in Yb doped fibers: experimental evidence of equilibrium states depending on the pump power,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14838–14843 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In the present study, dopant concentration was changed whilst keeping the inversion approximately the same as described above. The quadratic dependence of CL with dopant concentration was assumed in Yb3+ doped aluminosilicate fibers [22

22. J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, S. Jetschke, A. Schwuchow, M. Leich, and V. Reichel, “Yb doped silica based fibers: Correlation of photodarkening kinetics and related optical properties with the glass composition,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71950S (2009). [CrossRef]

]. The presented experimental data highlight the fact that the dependence remains even when the PD loss is monitored. Therefore, the PD loss at 513 and 633 nm has the same quadratic dependence with dopant concentration for the examined set of samples.

Photo-induced optical damage may originate from an electron release of a ligand neighboring an excited Yb3+ pair, followed by an absorption and correspondent emission in the recombination process [13

13. A. D. Guzman Chávez, A. V. Kir’yanov, Y. O. Barmenkov, and N. N. Il’ichev, “Reversible photo-darkening and resonant photobleaching of Ytterbium-doped silica fiber at in-core 977-nm and 543-nm irradiation,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(10), 734–739 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. The cluster number, indicated by the area under the CL emission in the present study, decreases in time which goes in parallel with Yb3+ → Yb2+ transformation if the charge transfer (CT) as the main PD mechanism is supposed. Hence, it is possible to affirm that the self – trapping mechanism of CL could be influenced by the increase in Yb2+ and correspondent whole centers number.

In answer to the question addressed in the introduction, it can be concluded that CL loss may play a role in the PD process whether being an intermediate state necessary to reach CT band [2

2. M. Engholm, L. Norin, and D. Åberg, “Strong UV absorption and visible luminescence in ytterbium-doped aluminosilicate glass under UV excitation,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3352–3354 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] or giving the internal excitation to the oxygen deficiency centers (ODC) [23

23. C. G. Carlson, K. E. Keister, P. D. Dragic, A. Croteau, and J. G. Eden, “Photoexcitation of Yb-doped aluminosilicate fibers at 250 nm: evidence for excitation transfer from oxygen deficiency centers to Yb3+,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(10), 2087–2094 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. Here we can frame an extension of the paradigm by including a kind of self – bleaching process of CL as stated above.

6. Conclusion

Acknowledgments

This project was funded by FP7 LIFT (Leadership in Fiber Technology) Project (Grant #228587).

References and links

1.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, P. R. Barber, J. E. Caplen, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Lifetime quenching in Yb-doped fibres,” Opt. Commun. 136(5-6), 375–378 (1997). [CrossRef]

2.

M. Engholm, L. Norin, and D. Åberg, “Strong UV absorption and visible luminescence in ytterbium-doped aluminosilicate glass under UV excitation,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3352–3354 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Grimm, and V. Reichel, “Materials for high-power fiber lasers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(23-25), 2399–2403 (2006). [CrossRef]

4.

G. R. Atkins and A. L. G. Carter, “Photodarkening in Tb(3+)-doped phosphosilicate and germanosilicate optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 19(12), 874–876 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

M. M. Broer, D. M. Krol, and D. J. Digiovanni, “Highly nonlinear near-resonant photodarkening in a thulium-doped aluminosilicate glass fiber,” Opt. Lett. 18(10), 799–801 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

P. Laperle, A. Chandonnet, and R. Vallée, “Photoinduced absorption in thulium-doped ZBLAN fibers,” Opt. Lett. 20(24), 2484–2486 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

E. Nakazawa and S. Shionoya, “Cooperative Luminescence in YbPO4,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 25(25), 1710–1712 (1970). [CrossRef]

8.

S. Magne, Y. Ouerdane, M. Druetta, J. P. Goure, P. Ferdinand, and G. Monnom, “Cooperative luminescence in an ytterbium-doped silica fiber,” Opt. Commun. 111(3-4), 310–316 (1994). [CrossRef]

9.

R. S. Brown, W. S. Brocklesby, W. L. Barnes, and J. E. Townsend, “Cooperative energy transfer in silica fibres doped with ytterbium and terbium,” J. Lumin. 63(1-2), l–7 (1995). [CrossRef]

10.

B. Schaudel, P. Goldner, M. Prassas, and F. Auzel, “Cooperative luminescence as a probe of clustering in Yb3+ doped glasses,” J. Alloy. Comp. 300–301, 443–449 (2000). [CrossRef]

11.

S. Yoo, C. Basu, A. J. Boyland, C. Sones, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, and D. Payne, “Photodarkening in Yb-doped aluminosilicate fibers induced by 488 nm irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 32(12), 1626–1628 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

P. D. Dragic, C. G. Carlson, and A. Croteau, “Characterization of defect luminescence in Yb doped silica fibers: part I NBOHC,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4688–4697 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

A. D. Guzman Chávez, A. V. Kir’yanov, Y. O. Barmenkov, and N. N. Il’ichev, “Reversible photo-darkening and resonant photobleaching of Ytterbium-doped silica fiber at in-core 977-nm and 543-nm irradiation,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(10), 734–739 (2007). [CrossRef]

14.

L. Dong, “Advanced Specialty Fibers for Applications in Fiber Lasers,” Advanced solid-state photonics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper JWA1.

15.

S. Jetschke, M. Leich, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, and J. Kirchhof, “Influence of Tm- or Er-codoping on the photodarkening kinetics in Yb fibers,” Opt. Express 19(15), 14473–14478 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

S. Taccheo, H. Gebavi, A. Monteville, O. Le Goffic, D. Landais, D. Mechin, D. Tregoat, B. Cadier, D. Milanese, and T. Robin, “Concentration dependence and self-similarity of photodarkening losses induced in Yb-doped fibers by comparable excitation,” Opt. Express 19, 19340–19345 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

T. G. Ryan and S. D. Jackson, “Cooperative luminescence and absorption in ytterbium doped aluminosilicate glass optical fibres and preforms,” Opt. Commun. 273(1), 159–161 (2007). [CrossRef]

18.

S. Jetschke, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, M. Leich, and J. Kirchhof, “Efficient Yb laser fibers with low photodarkening by optimization of the core composition,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15540–15545 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

Y. G. Choi, Y. B. Shin, H. S. Seo, and K. H. Kim, “Spectral evolution of cooperative luminescence in an Yb3+-doped silica optical fiber,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 364(1-2), 200–205 (2002). [CrossRef]

20.

A. V. Kir’yanov, Y. O. Barmenkov, I. L. Martinez, A. S. Kurkov, and E. M. Dianov, “Cooperative luminescence and absorption in Ytterbium-doped silica fiber and the fiber nonlinear transmission coefficient at λ=980 nm with a regard to the Ytterbium ion-pairs’ effect,” Opt. Express 14(9), 3981–3992 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

S. Jetschke, S. Unger, U. Röpke, and J. Kirchhof, “Photodarkening in Yb doped fibers: experimental evidence of equilibrium states depending on the pump power,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14838–14843 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, S. Jetschke, A. Schwuchow, M. Leich, and V. Reichel, “Yb doped silica based fibers: Correlation of photodarkening kinetics and related optical properties with the glass composition,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71950S (2009). [CrossRef]

23.

C. G. Carlson, K. E. Keister, P. D. Dragic, A. Croteau, and J. G. Eden, “Photoexcitation of Yb-doped aluminosilicate fibers at 250 nm: evidence for excitation transfer from oxygen deficiency centers to Yb3+,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(10), 2087–2094 (2010). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(140.3510) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, fiber
(160.5690) Materials : Rare-earth-doped materials
(260.5210) Physical optics : Photoionization
(140.3615) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, ytterbium

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: October 10, 2011
Revised Manuscript: November 14, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: November 14, 2011
Published: November 23, 2011

Citation
Hrvoje Gebavi, Stefano Taccheo, Daniel Milanese, Achille Monteville, Olivier Le Goffic, David Landais, David Mechin, Denis Tregoat, Benoit Cadier, and Thierry Robin, "Temporal evolution and correlation between cooperative luminescence and photodarkening in ytterbium doped silica fibers," Opt. Express 19, 25077-25083 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-25-25077


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References

  1. R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, P. R. Barber, J. E. Caplen, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Lifetime quenching in Yb-doped fibres,” Opt. Commun.136(5-6), 375–378 (1997). [CrossRef]
  2. M. Engholm, L. Norin, and D. Åberg, “Strong UV absorption and visible luminescence in ytterbium-doped aluminosilicate glass under UV excitation,” Opt. Lett.32(22), 3352–3354 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Grimm, and V. Reichel, “Materials for high-power fiber lasers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(23-25), 2399–2403 (2006). [CrossRef]
  4. G. R. Atkins and A. L. G. Carter, “Photodarkening in Tb(3+)-doped phosphosilicate and germanosilicate optical fibers,” Opt. Lett.19(12), 874–876 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. M. Broer, D. M. Krol, and D. J. Digiovanni, “Highly nonlinear near-resonant photodarkening in a thulium-doped aluminosilicate glass fiber,” Opt. Lett.18(10), 799–801 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. Laperle, A. Chandonnet, and R. Vallée, “Photoinduced absorption in thulium-doped ZBLAN fibers,” Opt. Lett.20(24), 2484–2486 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. Nakazawa and S. Shionoya, “Cooperative Luminescence in YbPO4,” Phys. Rev. Lett.25(25), 1710–1712 (1970). [CrossRef]
  8. S. Magne, Y. Ouerdane, M. Druetta, J. P. Goure, P. Ferdinand, and G. Monnom, “Cooperative luminescence in an ytterbium-doped silica fiber,” Opt. Commun.111(3-4), 310–316 (1994). [CrossRef]
  9. R. S. Brown, W. S. Brocklesby, W. L. Barnes, and J. E. Townsend, “Cooperative energy transfer in silica fibres doped with ytterbium and terbium,” J. Lumin.63(1-2), l–7 (1995). [CrossRef]
  10. B. Schaudel, P. Goldner, M. Prassas, and F. Auzel, “Cooperative luminescence as a probe of clustering in Yb3+ doped glasses,” J. Alloy. Comp.300–301, 443–449 (2000). [CrossRef]
  11. S. Yoo, C. Basu, A. J. Boyland, C. Sones, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, and D. Payne, “Photodarkening in Yb-doped aluminosilicate fibers induced by 488 nm irradiation,” Opt. Lett.32(12), 1626–1628 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. P. D. Dragic, C. G. Carlson, and A. Croteau, “Characterization of defect luminescence in Yb doped silica fibers: part I NBOHC,” Opt. Express16(7), 4688–4697 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. D. Guzman Chávez, A. V. Kir’yanov, Y. O. Barmenkov, and N. N. Il’ichev, “Reversible photo-darkening and resonant photobleaching of Ytterbium-doped silica fiber at in-core 977-nm and 543-nm irradiation,” Laser Phys. Lett.4(10), 734–739 (2007). [CrossRef]
  14. L. Dong, “Advanced Specialty Fibers for Applications in Fiber Lasers,” Advanced solid-state photonics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper JWA1.
  15. S. Jetschke, M. Leich, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, and J. Kirchhof, “Influence of Tm- or Er-codoping on the photodarkening kinetics in Yb fibers,” Opt. Express19(15), 14473–14478 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. S. Taccheo, H. Gebavi, A. Monteville, O. Le Goffic, D. Landais, D. Mechin, D. Tregoat, B. Cadier, D. Milanese, and T. Robin, “Concentration dependence and self-similarity of photodarkening losses induced in Yb-doped fibers by comparable excitation,” Opt. Express19, 19340–19345 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. T. G. Ryan and S. D. Jackson, “Cooperative luminescence and absorption in ytterbium doped aluminosilicate glass optical fibres and preforms,” Opt. Commun.273(1), 159–161 (2007). [CrossRef]
  18. S. Jetschke, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, M. Leich, and J. Kirchhof, “Efficient Yb laser fibers with low photodarkening by optimization of the core composition,” Opt. Express16(20), 15540–15545 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. Y. G. Choi, Y. B. Shin, H. S. Seo, and K. H. Kim, “Spectral evolution of cooperative luminescence in an Yb3+-doped silica optical fiber,” Chem. Phys. Lett.364(1-2), 200–205 (2002). [CrossRef]
  20. A. V. Kir’yanov, Y. O. Barmenkov, I. L. Martinez, A. S. Kurkov, and E. M. Dianov, “Cooperative luminescence and absorption in Ytterbium-doped silica fiber and the fiber nonlinear transmission coefficient at λ=980 nm with a regard to the Ytterbium ion-pairs’ effect,” Opt. Express14(9), 3981–3992 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. S. Jetschke, S. Unger, U. Röpke, and J. Kirchhof, “Photodarkening in Yb doped fibers: experimental evidence of equilibrium states depending on the pump power,” Opt. Express15(22), 14838–14843 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, S. Jetschke, A. Schwuchow, M. Leich, and V. Reichel, “Yb doped silica based fibers: Correlation of photodarkening kinetics and related optical properties with the glass composition,” Proc. SPIE7195, 71950S (2009). [CrossRef]
  23. C. G. Carlson, K. E. Keister, P. D. Dragic, A. Croteau, and J. G. Eden, “Photoexcitation of Yb-doped aluminosilicate fibers at 250 nm: evidence for excitation transfer from oxygen deficiency centers to Yb3+,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B27(10), 2087–2094 (2010). [CrossRef]

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