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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 25 — Dec. 5, 2011
  • pp: 25454–25464
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Ultra-high enhancement of the field concentration in Split Ring Resonators by azimuthally polarized excitation

Jacob Scheuer  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 25, pp. 25454-25464 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.025454


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Abstract

We study the field enhancement and resonance frequencies in split-ring resonators (SRR) illuminated by azimuthally polarized light. We find that compared to linearly polarized illumination, the azimuthally polarized illumination increase the intensity enhancement by more than an order of magnitude. We attribute the increase in the intensity enhancement to the improved overlap between the SRR geometry and the direction of the electric field vector at each point. In addition, we present and explore a method to tune the resonance frequency of the SRR (for azimuthal polarization) by introducing more gaps in the structure. This approach allows for simple and straightforward tuning of the resonance frequency with small impact on the intensity enhancement. The impact of the design parameters on the intensity enhancement under azimuthally polarized illumination is also studied in details, exhibiting clear differences compared to the case of linear polarized illumination.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

The ability to focus and concentrate high optical intensities in ultra-small, sub-diffraction limits, volumes using plasmonic devices and effects has attracted much attention during the last decade [1

1. J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9

9. V. Giannini, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, S. C. Heck, and S. A. Maier, “Plasmonic nanoantennas: fundamentals and their use in controlling the radiative properties of nanoemitters,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3888–3912 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In addition to its scientific importance, nanometer scale focusing is an enabling technology for numerous applications such as biochemical sensing and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) [10

10. T. H. Taminiau, R. J. Moerland, F. B. Segerink, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “λ/4 resonance of an optical monopole antenna probed by single molecule fluorescence,” Nano Lett. 7(1), 28–33 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13

13. A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009). [CrossRef]

], scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) [3

3. L. Novotny and N. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photonics 5(2), 83–90 (2011). [CrossRef]

5

5. P. Bharadwaj, B. Deutsch, and L. Novotny, “Optical antennas,” Adv. Opt. Photon 1(3), 438 (2009). [CrossRef]

], near-field nano-lithography [14

14. H. Xu and M. Käll, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced optical forces in silver nanoaggregates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(24), 246802 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,15

15. A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 355–360 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], novel light sources [2

2. E. Cubukcu, N. Yu, E. J. Smythe, L. Diehl, K. B. Croxier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antennas and related devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(6), 1448–1461 (2008). [CrossRef]

, 16

16. W. Cai, A. P. Vasudev, and M. L. Brongersma, “Electrically controlled nonlinear generation of light with plasmonics,” Science 333(6050), 1720–1723 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18

18. J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H.-J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, “Single quantum dot coupled to a scanning optical antenna: a tunable superemitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 017402 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], nonlinear optics [19

19. S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453(7196), 757–760 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21

21. T. Schumacher, K. Kratzer, D. Molnar, M. Hecntschel, H. Giessen, and M. Lippitz, “Nanoantenna-enhanced ultrafast nonlinear spectroscopy of a single gold nanoparticle,” Nat. Commun. 2, 333 (2011). [CrossRef]

], particle trapping [22

22. M. L. Juan, M. Righini, and R. Quidant, “Plasmon nano-optical tweezers,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 349–356 (2011). [CrossRef]

], detection [23

23. M. W. Knight, H. Sobhani, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Photodetection with active optical antennas,” Science 332(6030), 702–704 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], meta-materials [24

24. W. Cai and V. Shalaev, Optical Metamaterials: Fundamental and Applications (Springer, 2009).

], and many more.

The underlying physics, which is the heart of many of these applications, is the interaction of light with metallic nanostructures and the excitation of surface plasmon-polaritons. Throughout the last decade, the interaction of light with a wide variety of metallic nanostructures, such as nano-particles and shells [25

25. E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science 302(5644), 419–422 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], ellipsoids, triangular structures, dipoles, bowtie nano-antennas, crosses [26

26. P. Biagioni, J. S. Huang, L. Duò, M. Finazzi, and B. Hecht, “Cross resonant optical antenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(25), 256801 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], nano-rings, split-ring resonators and many more (for a complete review see ref [27

27. J. J. Mock, M. Barbic, D. R. Smith, D. A. Schultz, and S. Schultz, “Shape effects in plasmon resonance of individual colloidal silver nanoparticles,” J. Chem. Phys. 116(15), 6755–6759 (2002). [CrossRef]

] and references therein), has been thoroughly studied. More complex metallic structures such as plasmonic lenses [28

28. W. Srituravanich, L. Pan, Y. Wang, C. Sun, D. B. Bogy, and X. Zhang, “Flying plasmonic lens in the near field for high-speed nanolithography,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 733–737 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,29

29. G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, “Demonstration of nanofocusing by the use of plasmonic lens illuminated with radially polarized light,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 2139–2143 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], plasmonic mirrors [30

30. H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(10), 1762 (2002). [CrossRef]

,31

31. L. L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], nano-hole arrays [32

32. T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998). [CrossRef]

,33

33. H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998). [CrossRef]

], and tapered tips [34

34. M. I. Stockman, “Nanofocusing of optical energy in tapered plasmonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(13), 137404 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

36

36. P. Ginzburg, A. Nevet, N. Berkovitch, A. Normatov, G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, U. Levy, and M. Orenstein, “Plasmonic resonance effects for tandem receiving-transmitting nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 11(1), 220–224 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], have been proposed and studied as well for attaining nano-scale light focusing.

It is interesting to note that although the impact of the geometry of the nanostructures and the material composing them on the field enhancement was studied thoroughly, relatively little efforts were devoted to the impact of the properties of the impinging light. In most studies, the excitation field was either a plane wave or a focused Gaussian beam which were either linearly or circularly polarized. Recently, it was shown that radially polarized light can be coupled more efficiently to plasmonic lenses and produce brighter “hot-spot” than those produced by linearly polarized light [29

29. G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, “Demonstration of nanofocusing by the use of plasmonic lens illuminated with radially polarized light,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 2139–2143 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Radially polarized beams belong to an interesting family of beams known as circular vector beams (CVBs). CVBs [37

37. Q. Zhan, “Cylindrical vector beams: from mathematical concepts to applications,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1(1), 1 (2009). [CrossRef]

] are unique beams which exhibit spatially dependent polarization state. Such beams exhibit linear polarization at each point across the beam profile but with varying orientation according to the beam type [37

37. Q. Zhan, “Cylindrical vector beams: from mathematical concepts to applications,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1(1), 1 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. CVBs are formal solution of the vector wave equation in cylindrical coordinates, and are often categorized as either radially or azimuthally polarized.

CVBs have been the focus of intense studies due to their unique properties and diverse applications. In addition to efficient excitation of plasmons, radially polarized light is highly useful for plasmonic imaging [38

38. K. J. Moh, X. C. Yuan, J. Bu, S. W. Zhu, and B. Z. Gao, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging of cell-substrate contacts with radially polarized beams,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20734–20741 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 39

39. N. Lindlein, S. Quabis, U. Peschel, and G. Leuchs, “High numerical aperture imaging with different polarization patterns,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5827–5842 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], focusing beyond the diffraction limit [40

40. R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(23), 233901 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

42

42. K. J. Moh, X. C. Yuan, J. Bu, S. W. Zhu, and B. Z. Gao, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging of cell-substrate contacts with radially polarized beams,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20734–20741 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and optical trapping [43

43. Q. Zhan, “Trapping metallic Rayleigh particles with radial polarization,” Opt. Express 12(15), 3377–3382 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. There are several methods for producing CVBs such as birefringent masks converting linear polarization beams into CVBs [44

44. U. Levy, C. H. Tsai, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, “Engineering space-variant inhomogeneous media for polarization control,” Opt. Lett. 29(15), 1718–1720 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], sub wavelength dielectric gratings [45

45. Z. Bomzon, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Formation of radially and azimuthally polarized light using space-variant subwavelength metal stripe gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(11), 1587 (2001). [CrossRef]

], etc. More recently it was shown that radial Bragg lasers can spontaneously emit such beam [46

46. O. Weiss and J. Scheuer, “Emission of cylindrical and elliptical vector beams from radial Bragg Lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 251108 (2010). [CrossRef]

].

In this paper, we study theoretically, using finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations, the enhancement of the field in the gap of Au split-ring resonators (SRRs – see Fig. 1(a)
Fig. 1 (a) The SRR structure and parameters definitions; (b) The intensity and field profiles of azimuthally polarized beam.
) illuminated by azimuthally polarized beams, i.e. beams in which the electric field at each point is oriented orthogonally to the radius vector from the beam axis (see Fig. 1(b)). We find that when illuminated by azimuthally polarized beam, the intensity enhancement in the gaps of the SRR can be increased by more than an order of magnitude compared to that attained by linearly polarized beam. In addition, we find that the resonance of the SRR under azimuthal polarization is red-shifted (see also section 2) and that its bandwidth is narrower compared to that of identical structure under linear polarization illumination. Note, however that the Q-factor of the SRR does not depend on the polarization of the excitation and, therefore, cannot explain the dramatic increase in the intensity enhancement.

Figure 1(a) depicts a schematic of the SRR structure studied here as well as the definition of the geometrical parameters. SRR based structures have been studied by several groups and have been proposed and demonstrated for various applications. SRR [see 47

47. C. Debus and P. H. Bolivar, “Frequency selective surfaces for high sensitivity terahertz sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 184102 (2007). [CrossRef]

-53

53. K. Aydin, I. M. Pryce, and H. A. Atwater, “Symmetry breaking and strong coupling in planar optical metamaterials,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13407–13417 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

and references therein] have been studied extensively as building blocks for metamaterials, sensing, transmission enhancement through metal films, slow light and, in particular, for attaining sharp spectral response similar to the phenomenon of electromagnetically induced transparency [54

54. S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in a terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153103 (2009). [CrossRef]

56

56. P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Planar designs for electromagnetically induced transparency in metamaterials,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5595–5605 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

The SRR studied here consist of an Au ring, positioned on a SiO2 substrate, from which two identical sections positioned on the opposite sides of a ring diameter are removed (see Fig. 1(a)). The structure is illuminated from the top by a Gaussian shaped beam with a spot size of ~0.5μm, which is either linearly or azimuthally polarized. The intensity of the field at the gap center, as a function of the frequency, is compared to its level without the SRR in order to evaluate the intensity enhancement. The rest of the paper is organized as follows: in section 2 we study the field enhancement and spectral properties of SRR illuminated by azimuthally polarized beams and compare them to those of linearly polarized beam illuminated structures. In section 3 we discuss the impact of the design parameters and in section 4 we present a method for tuning the SRR resonance frequency without changing its size by introducing additional gaps. In section 5 we study the impact of structure-beam registration errors on the SRR response and in section 6 we summarize the results and conclude.

2. Field enhancement and spectral properties: Azimuthally vs. linearly polarized beam

Figure 1(a) depicts a schematic of the SRR structure as well as the geometrical parameters defining it: R – the SRR mid radius, W – the SRR width, h – the Au layer thickness and α, which is the angular gap (actual gap is given by R⋅α). Figure 1(b) depicts a representative image of the intensity and field distributions of an azimuthally polarized beam. At each point, the electric field is linearly polarized but its vector is pointing orthogonally to the radius vector from the beam axis. Thus, in contrast to linearly or circularly polarized beam, the polarization state is inhomogeneous.

The fundamental azimuthally polarized beam, which is the one pertaining to this paper, has the following form [57

57. D. G. Hall, “Vector-beam solutions of Maxwell’s wave equation,” Opt. Lett. 21(1), 9–11 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]:
E(ρ,z)=φ^F(ρ,z)exp[i(kzωt)]
(1)
where k and ω are respectively the wavenumber and angular frequency and F is given by:
F(ρ,z)=AJ1(βρ1+iz/L)f(ρ,z)Q(ρ,z)
(2)
where A is a constant, β is an arbitrary scale factor, f is the fundamental Gaussian profile defined in Eq. (3), L is the Rayleigh length given by L = 02/2 (ω0 is the waist) and J1 is the order 1 Bessel function of the first kind. Q is a phase term defined by Eq. (4).
f(ρ,z)=ω0ω(z)exp[iΦ(z)]exp(ρ2/ω021+iz/L)
(3)
Q(z)=exp(iβ2z/2k1+iz/L)
(4)
where ω2(z) = ω0[1+(z/L)2] is the beam width as a function of z and Φ(z)=tan−1(z/L).

Figure 2
Fig. 2 Spectral intensity enhancement in SRRs with 14nm gaps for (a) linearly and (b) azimuthally polarized excitations.
depicts the spectral intensity enhancement, calculated by 3D FDTD simulation tool, in the gaps of SRRs with various radii for linearly (Fig. 2(a)) and azimuthally (Fig. 2(b)) polarized Gaussian beams. The SRR cross-section is 30nm×20nm and the mid-radius is varied between 80nm to 140nm. The angular gap is 10° for the 80nm radius SRR (corresponding to actual size of 14nm) where the actual gap is maintained constant for each SRR [i.e. the angular gap is α(R)=10⋅80/R degrees]. Figure 3
Fig. 3 Intensity pattern (log scale) in a 100nm radius SRR for (a) linear polarization excitation and (b) azimuthal polarization excitation.
depicts the intensity pattern (in logarithmic scale) in the 100nm radius SRR when excited on resonance with a linearly (Fig. 3(a)) and azimuthally (Fig. 3(b)) polarized light. As can be expected, in both cases the intensity is maximal in the gaps. However, for the linearly polarized excitation, there are also relatively strong fields in the sections of the SRR which are orthogonal to the gaps. This is because of currents which are excited along the narrow dimension of the ring for the y polarized field. For the azimuthally polarized excitation, the intensity is concentrated in the gaps (and the vicinity) because the currents excited in each section of the SRR are in the same direction (azimuthal) and contribute to the build up of the intensity in the gaps.

Referring to Fig. 2, the comparison between the two excitation polarizations shows two eminent differences: (1) the intensity enhancement in the gap under azimuthally polarized light is larger by an order of magnitude than that for linearly polarized light; (2) the resonance wavelength of the SRR for azimuthally polarized beam is substantially longer than the resonance for linearly polarized light. The second property can be understood quite intuitively. Because of the curvature of the metallic SRR, the linearly polarized beam can efficiently excite currents only in parts of the metallic structure. Thus, for linearly polarized light the SRR acts as split-dipole antenna with an effective length which is determined primarily by the radius. For larger radii, the effective length of the dipole is longer which is manifested by a longer resonance wavelength – as can be seen in Fig. 2(a). On the other hand, azimuthally polarized light can efficiently excite currents throughout the whole SRR structure, thus effectively “seeing” a longer effective dipole length (approximately half the perimeter of the SRR).

Because of the SRR geometry, under azimuthally polarized illumination it can be intuitively considered similar to an infinite 1D array of metallic nano-wires, (π-α)⋅R long, which are separated by αR air gaps. Figure 4
Fig. 4 Spectral intensity enhancement for nano-wire arrays which are “equivalent” to the SRRs of Fig. 2(b) (solid). The dashed lines spectra are identical to Fig. 2(b).
depicts the spectral intensity enhancement for nano-wire arrays which are “equivalent” to the SRRs of Fig. 2(b). The resonance frequencies of the SRRs and the “equivalent” arrays are almost identical where the small deviations can be easily understood by the fact that the approximation becomes less appropriate for smaller radii (note that the deviation is smaller for larger radii). Thus, it is clear that the red-shift of the resonance frequencies for azimuthal polarization stems from the effectively longer metallic structures.

The second property (the substantially larger field enhancement) is less obvious. It has been shown that dense arrays of coupled metallic nano-resonators and antennas can modify the resonance wavelength and exhibit larger field enhancement than that of an isolated unit-cell [58

58. N. Félidj, G. Laurent, J. Aubard, G. Lévi, A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Grating-induced plasmon mode in gold nanoparticle arrays,” J. Chem. Phys. 123(22), 221103 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,59

59. G. Vecchi, V. Giannini, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Shaping the fluorescent emission by lattice resonances in plasmonic crystals of nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(14), 146807 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Although the “equivalent” arrays exhibit larger field enhancements than that of the isolated structure, this simplified model does not provide a complete insight to the much larger increase in the field enhancement observed in the azimuthal polarization illuminated SRR. We attribute this additional, unexpected, field enhancement to the better overlap between the spatial beam profile of the azimuthally polarized Gaussian beam (Fig. 1(b)) and the SRR structure. In particular, the formation of the null in the center of the beam (necessitated by the continuity of the fields) pushes the maximum of the field from the beam center towards the SRR metallic nano-wires, thus allowing more efficient collection and focusing of the beam power.

3. Impact of the SRR geometry

In addition to the SRR radius, the important design parameters are the ring width and the size of the gap. Intuitively, based on the known results of simple dipoles it can be expected that smaller gaps will produce larger field enhancements. The impact of the width is somewhat more complex but relying on the common knowledge that smaller features tend to produce larger enhancements one may expect to obtain stronger fields from narrower SRR.

Figure 5
Fig. 5 Resonance frequencies and intensity enhancement in SRRs with 8.4nm and 14nm gaps for (a) linearly and (b) azimuthally polarized excitations.
depicts the resonance frequencies and intensity enhancements for SRRs of various radii with 8.4nm gaps (corresponding to α = 6° for the 80nm radius SSR). Compared to the 14nm gaps SRRs of Fig. 2, the smaller gap induces larger field enhancement (by approximately a factor of 4 for the azimuthally polarized beams and only by a factor of 2.5 for linearly polarized beam) and a resonance shift of 7-10% for the azimuthal beam and 4-5% for the linear beam. Note, that the increase in the intensity enhancement due to the narrower gap is substantially larger for the SRR illuminated by azimuthally polarized beam.

Figure 6
Fig. 6 Resonance frequencies and intensity enhancement in 20nm and 40nm wide SRRs with 14nm gaps for (a) linearly and (b) azimuthally polarized excitations.
depicts the spectral responses and intensity enhancements for SRRs of various radii with 14nm gaps where the width of the ring was increased to 40nm. In contrast to the impact of the gap size, here there is a clear distinction between the azimuthal and the linear excitations. Compared to the response of the structure depicted in Fig. 2, the wider SRRs exhibit a clear blue-shift of their resonance for both polarization excitation types (approximately 10%). On the other hand, the impact of the SRR width on the intensity enhancement is completely different for the two types of the excitations. While the linearly excited SRRs exhibit larger intensity enhancement for the narrower structures (by approximately a factor of 2.3), the azimuthally excited structure exhibit larger enhancement for the wider SRR (by a factor of 2). This is a rather surprising result which is completely opposite to the intuitive expectation and the common knowledge. Similarly to the unexpected field enhancement, we attribute it to the better overlap between the spatial beam profile of the azimuthally polarized Gaussian beam and the SRR structure.

4. Tuning the SRR resonance wavelength

Although the azimuthal polarization illumination provides a substantially lager field enhancement, it also induces a dramatic red-shift in the SRR resonance frequency. This is because of the longer effective length of the structure which interacts with the radiation. In order to re-tune the resonance frequency back to shorter wavelengths (which is desired in many cases) the length of the interacting metal structure should be reduced. However, in order to shift the resonance from, e.g. 130THz (for the 100nm SRR) towards 300THz the radius of the SRR should be decreased to approximately 30nm, thus making it practically extremely difficult to fabricate.

Alternatively, it is possible to modify the resonance frequency without changing the SRR radius by introducing additional gaps to the structure (inset of Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Spectral intensity enhancement for a 100nm radius SRR with 4 gaps for azimuthal (blue) and linear (red) polarization. Inset – SRR geometry.
) [60

60. K. Aydin, I. Bulu, K. Guven, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, “Investigation of magnetic resonances for different split-ring resonator parameters and designs,” New J. Phys. 7, 168 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. Figure 7(a) depicts the spectral intensity enhancement for a 100nm radius SRR with 4 gaps of 6nm. Note, that the resonance frequency shifts to 260THz due to the shorter arms of the nano-wires comprising the SRR. The intensity enhancement, however, is lower by approximately a factor of 2 as can be expected by the fact that the number of gaps (or focal energy points) is doubled. Figure 7(b) shows the spectral enhancement for a linear polarization excitation exhibiting negligible shift in the resonance frequency.

Thus, by modifying the number of gaps in the SRR and their sizes, it is possible to tune the resonance frequency of the structure (for azimuthal illumination) without necessitating any changes in the SRR radius or in any of the critical dimensions of the structure.

5. The impact of the beam-structure registration errors

It is clear that in order to attain the maximal field enhancement from SRR illuminated by azimuthally polarized beam, it is desired that the beam center overlaps with that of the SRR. However, at nanometer scales such registration is quite difficult and it is expected that in practice some deviations might occur. The objective of this section is to study the impact of such deviations on the field enhancement in the SRR gaps.

Figure 8
Fig. 8 The dependence of the intensity enhancement in the gap of a 100nm radius SRR on the beam-SRR centers registration error.
depicts the intensity enhancement in the gaps of a 100nm SRR with 4 gaps as a function of the difference between the beam and SRR centers. As shown in the figure, the enhancement drops when the beam and the SRR are not perfectly aligned. Nevertheless, the reduction in the enhancement is not dramatic – for a difference of 50nm (which is half the radius of the SRR) the intensity enhancement drop by merely 26%. We attribute this insensitivity to the beam-SRR registration to the fact that at resonance, the effective collection cross-section of the SRR is substantially larger than its physical dimensions, thus enabling the concentration of most of the optical power.

6. Conclusions

We study the response of metallic split-ring resonator illuminated by azimuthally polarized beam. Compared to linearly polarized illumination, the intensity enhancement under azimuthal polarization is larger by more than an order of magnitude. We attribute this improvement in the intensity enhancement to two mechanisms: (1) The improved overlap between the electric field vector and the metallic resonator structure; (2) The improved overlap between beam profile the structure with enhances the effective absorption cross-section of the SRR.

The first mechanism increases the intensity enhancement by taking advantage of the complete perimeter of the SRR. Linearly polarized light induces current only in the SRR sections which are approximately parallel to the electric field. On the other hand, the azimuthally polarized light excites currents along the whole SRR which in turn result in a larger field in the gaps. The second mechanism increases the enhancement because of the intensity profile of the azimuthally polarized beam, which has an annular shape. Consequently, the SRR structure is capable of absorbing and focusing more power from the azimuthally polarized Gaussian beam which, again, results in larger field in the gaps.

Additionally, we studied the impact of the SRR geometrical parameters, specifically the size of the gaps and the width of the SRR, on the intensity enhancement. Interestingly, although smaller gaps result in large intensity enhancement (as can be expected), the increase in the enhancement is substantially larger when the SRR is illuminated by an azimuthally polarized beam. Another surprising result is the impact of the SRR width. While for structures illuminated by linear polarized beam, wider SRR results in smaller intensity enhancement, this trend is reversed when azimuthal polarization is employed.

We also present and study a simple approach to tune the resonance frequency of the SRR under azimuthally polarized illumination by introducing more gaps into the structure. The additional gaps basically decrease the effective length of the nano-wire sections comprising the SRR and consequently reduce the resonance wavelength. The intensity enhancement in each gap, however, decreases approximately linearly with the number of gaps, simply because the power is focused into more points. Nevertheless, it is possible to circumvent this drawback by designing an SRR with non-identical sections such as an SRR with three gaps, having two identical sections and a longer/shorter one. Such SRR is expected to exhibit three resonant modes with unequal intensities in the gaps. In particular, because of symmetry issues, one of these modes is expected to exhibit high intensity in one of the gaps and relatively low intensity in the other two. However, a complete study of such asymmetric structures is beyond the scope of this paper.

Practically, a perfect alignment between the beam and the SRR is difficult to attain. Therefore, we studied the sensitivity of the intensity enhancement in the gaps to misalignment between the axes of the azimuthally polarized beam and the SRR. We found that even for relatively large misalignments, the enhancement of the intensity does not drop rapidly and no change is observed in the resonance frequency and the bandwidth. Therefore, large intensity enhancements can still be attained even if the beam and the SRR are not perfectly aligned, thus rendering the proposed scheme practical and useful. The ability to substantially increase the field enhancement simply by tailoring the polarization property of the beam to the geometry of the structure is highly attractive for several applications such as SERS and NSOM.

Acknowledgment

The authors thank the Israeli Department of Defense and the Ministry of Science and Technology for partially supporting this research.

References and links

1.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

E. Cubukcu, N. Yu, E. J. Smythe, L. Diehl, K. B. Croxier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antennas and related devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(6), 1448–1461 (2008). [CrossRef]

3.

L. Novotny and N. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photonics 5(2), 83–90 (2011). [CrossRef]

4.

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

P. Bharadwaj, B. Deutsch, and L. Novotny, “Optical antennas,” Adv. Opt. Photon 1(3), 438 (2009). [CrossRef]

6.

K. Li, M. I. Stockman, and D. J. Bergman, “Self-similar chain of metal nanospheres as an efficient nanolens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(22), 227402 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

D. A. Genov, A. K. Sarychev, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Wei, “Resonant field enhancement from metal nanoparticle arrays,” Nano Lett. 4(1), 153–158 (2004). [CrossRef]

8.

K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, “Optical antenna: resonators for local field enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(7), 4632 (2003). [CrossRef]

9.

V. Giannini, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, S. C. Heck, and S. A. Maier, “Plasmonic nanoantennas: fundamentals and their use in controlling the radiative properties of nanoemitters,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3888–3912 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

T. H. Taminiau, R. J. Moerland, F. B. Segerink, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “λ/4 resonance of an optical monopole antenna probed by single molecule fluorescence,” Nano Lett. 7(1), 28–33 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235420 (2005). [CrossRef]

12.

L. Yang, B. Yan, W. R. Premasiri, L. D. Ziegler, L. D. Negro, and B. M. Reinhard, “Engineering nanoparticle cluster arrays for bacterial biosensing: The role of the building block in multiscale SERS substrates,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(16), 2619–2628 (2010). [CrossRef]

13.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009). [CrossRef]

14.

H. Xu and M. Käll, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced optical forces in silver nanoaggregates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(24), 246802 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 355–360 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

W. Cai, A. P. Vasudev, and M. L. Brongersma, “Electrically controlled nonlinear generation of light with plasmonics,” Science 333(6050), 1720–1723 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, “Lasing spaser,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 351–354 (2008). [CrossRef]

18.

J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H.-J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, “Single quantum dot coupled to a scanning optical antenna: a tunable superemitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 017402 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453(7196), 757–760 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

M. Lippitz, M. A. van Dijk, and M. Orrit, “Third-harmonic generation from single gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 5(4), 799–802 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

T. Schumacher, K. Kratzer, D. Molnar, M. Hecntschel, H. Giessen, and M. Lippitz, “Nanoantenna-enhanced ultrafast nonlinear spectroscopy of a single gold nanoparticle,” Nat. Commun. 2, 333 (2011). [CrossRef]

22.

M. L. Juan, M. Righini, and R. Quidant, “Plasmon nano-optical tweezers,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 349–356 (2011). [CrossRef]

23.

M. W. Knight, H. Sobhani, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Photodetection with active optical antennas,” Science 332(6030), 702–704 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

W. Cai and V. Shalaev, Optical Metamaterials: Fundamental and Applications (Springer, 2009).

25.

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science 302(5644), 419–422 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

P. Biagioni, J. S. Huang, L. Duò, M. Finazzi, and B. Hecht, “Cross resonant optical antenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(25), 256801 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27.

J. J. Mock, M. Barbic, D. R. Smith, D. A. Schultz, and S. Schultz, “Shape effects in plasmon resonance of individual colloidal silver nanoparticles,” J. Chem. Phys. 116(15), 6755–6759 (2002). [CrossRef]

28.

W. Srituravanich, L. Pan, Y. Wang, C. Sun, D. B. Bogy, and X. Zhang, “Flying plasmonic lens in the near field for high-speed nanolithography,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 733–737 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

29.

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, “Demonstration of nanofocusing by the use of plasmonic lens illuminated with radially polarized light,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 2139–2143 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

30.

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(10), 1762 (2002). [CrossRef]

31.

L. L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

32.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998). [CrossRef]

33.

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998). [CrossRef]

34.

M. I. Stockman, “Nanofocusing of optical energy in tapered plasmonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(13), 137404 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

35.

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, “Grating-coupling of surface plasmons onto metallic tips: a nanoconfined light source,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2784–2788 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

36.

P. Ginzburg, A. Nevet, N. Berkovitch, A. Normatov, G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, U. Levy, and M. Orenstein, “Plasmonic resonance effects for tandem receiving-transmitting nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 11(1), 220–224 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

37.

Q. Zhan, “Cylindrical vector beams: from mathematical concepts to applications,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1(1), 1 (2009). [CrossRef]

38.

K. J. Moh, X. C. Yuan, J. Bu, S. W. Zhu, and B. Z. Gao, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging of cell-substrate contacts with radially polarized beams,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20734–20741 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

39.

N. Lindlein, S. Quabis, U. Peschel, and G. Leuchs, “High numerical aperture imaging with different polarization patterns,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5827–5842 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

40.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(23), 233901 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

41.

P. Wróbel, J. Pniewski, T. J. Antosiewicz, and T. Szoplik, “Focusing radially polarized light by a concentrically corrugated silver film without a hole,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(18), 183902 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

42.

K. J. Moh, X. C. Yuan, J. Bu, S. W. Zhu, and B. Z. Gao, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging of cell-substrate contacts with radially polarized beams,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20734–20741 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

43.

Q. Zhan, “Trapping metallic Rayleigh particles with radial polarization,” Opt. Express 12(15), 3377–3382 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

44.

U. Levy, C. H. Tsai, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, “Engineering space-variant inhomogeneous media for polarization control,” Opt. Lett. 29(15), 1718–1720 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

45.

Z. Bomzon, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Formation of radially and azimuthally polarized light using space-variant subwavelength metal stripe gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(11), 1587 (2001). [CrossRef]

46.

O. Weiss and J. Scheuer, “Emission of cylindrical and elliptical vector beams from radial Bragg Lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 251108 (2010). [CrossRef]

47.

C. Debus and P. H. Bolivar, “Frequency selective surfaces for high sensitivity terahertz sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 184102 (2007). [CrossRef]

48.

K. Aydin, A. O. Cakmak, L. Sahin, Z. Li, F. Bilotti, L. Vegni, and E. Ozbay, “Split-ring-resonator-coupled enhanced transmission through a single subwavelength aperture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(1), 013904 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

49.

B. Lahiri, A. Z. Khokhar, R. M. De La Rue, S. G. McMeekin, and N. P. Johnson, “Asymmetric split ring resonators for optical sensing of organic materials,” Opt. Express 17(2), 1107–1115 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

50.

H. Guo, N. Liu, L. Fu, T. P. Meyrath, T. Zentgraf, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Resonance hybridization in double split-ring resonator metamaterials,” Opt. Express 15(19), 12095–12101 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

51.

B. Lahiri, S. G. McMeekin, A. Z. Khokhar, R. M. De La Rue, and N. P. Johnson, “Magnetic response of split ring resonators (SRRs) at visible frequencies,” Opt. Express 18(3), 3210–3218 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

52.

V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Sharp trapped-mode resonances in planar metamaterials with a broken structural symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(14), 147401 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

53.

K. Aydin, I. M. Pryce, and H. A. Atwater, “Symmetry breaking and strong coupling in planar optical metamaterials,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13407–13417 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

54.

S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in a terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153103 (2009). [CrossRef]

55.

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, Th. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Low-loss metamaterials based on classical electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(5), 053901 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

56.

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Planar designs for electromagnetically induced transparency in metamaterials,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5595–5605 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

57.

D. G. Hall, “Vector-beam solutions of Maxwell’s wave equation,” Opt. Lett. 21(1), 9–11 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

58.

N. Félidj, G. Laurent, J. Aubard, G. Lévi, A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Grating-induced plasmon mode in gold nanoparticle arrays,” J. Chem. Phys. 123(22), 221103 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

59.

G. Vecchi, V. Giannini, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Shaping the fluorescent emission by lattice resonances in plasmonic crystals of nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(14), 146807 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

60.

K. Aydin, I. Bulu, K. Guven, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, “Investigation of magnetic resonances for different split-ring resonator parameters and designs,” New J. Phys. 7, 168 (2005). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(140.4780) Lasers and laser optics : Optical resonators
(240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
(260.3910) Physical optics : Metal optics
(160.3918) Materials : Metamaterials
(280.4788) Remote sensing and sensors : Optical sensing and sensors
(250.5403) Optoelectronics : Plasmonics

ToC Category:
Optics at Surfaces

History
Original Manuscript: October 14, 2011
Revised Manuscript: November 16, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: November 18, 2011
Published: November 29, 2011

Citation
Jacob Scheuer, "Ultra-high enhancement of the field concentration in Split Ring Resonators by azimuthally polarized excitation," Opt. Express 19, 25454-25464 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-25-25454


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References

  1. J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 193–204 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. E. Cubukcu, N. Yu, E. J. Smythe, L. Diehl, K. B. Croxier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antennas and related devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14(6), 1448–1461 (2008). [CrossRef]
  3. L. Novotny and N. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photonics5(2), 83–90 (2011). [CrossRef]
  4. P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. Bharadwaj, B. Deutsch, and L. Novotny, “Optical antennas,” Adv. Opt. Photon1(3), 438 (2009). [CrossRef]
  6. K. Li, M. I. Stockman, and D. J. Bergman, “Self-similar chain of metal nanospheres as an efficient nanolens,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(22), 227402 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. A. Genov, A. K. Sarychev, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Wei, “Resonant field enhancement from metal nanoparticle arrays,” Nano Lett.4(1), 153–158 (2004). [CrossRef]
  8. K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, “Optical antenna: resonators for local field enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys.94(7), 4632 (2003). [CrossRef]
  9. V. Giannini, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, S. C. Heck, and S. A. Maier, “Plasmonic nanoantennas: fundamentals and their use in controlling the radiative properties of nanoemitters,” Chem. Rev.111(6), 3888–3912 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. T. H. Taminiau, R. J. Moerland, F. B. Segerink, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “λ/4 resonance of an optical monopole antenna probed by single molecule fluorescence,” Nano Lett.7(1), 28–33 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B71(23), 235420 (2005). [CrossRef]
  12. L. Yang, B. Yan, W. R. Premasiri, L. D. Ziegler, L. D. Negro, and B. M. Reinhard, “Engineering nanoparticle cluster arrays for bacterial biosensing: The role of the building block in multiscale SERS substrates,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(16), 2619–2628 (2010). [CrossRef]
  13. A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics3(11), 654–657 (2009). [CrossRef]
  14. H. Xu and M. Käll, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced optical forces in silver nanoaggregates,” Phys. Rev. Lett.89(24), 246802 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.6(3), 355–360 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. W. Cai, A. P. Vasudev, and M. L. Brongersma, “Electrically controlled nonlinear generation of light with plasmonics,” Science333(6050), 1720–1723 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, “Lasing spaser,” Nat. Photonics2(6), 351–354 (2008). [CrossRef]
  18. J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H.-J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, “Single quantum dot coupled to a scanning optical antenna: a tunable superemitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(1), 017402 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature453(7196), 757–760 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. M. Lippitz, M. A. van Dijk, and M. Orrit, “Third-harmonic generation from single gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.5(4), 799–802 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. T. Schumacher, K. Kratzer, D. Molnar, M. Hecntschel, H. Giessen, and M. Lippitz, “Nanoantenna-enhanced ultrafast nonlinear spectroscopy of a single gold nanoparticle,” Nat. Commun.2, 333 (2011). [CrossRef]
  22. M. L. Juan, M. Righini, and R. Quidant, “Plasmon nano-optical tweezers,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 349–356 (2011). [CrossRef]
  23. M. W. Knight, H. Sobhani, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Photodetection with active optical antennas,” Science332(6030), 702–704 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. W. Cai and V. Shalaev, Optical Metamaterials: Fundamental and Applications (Springer, 2009).
  25. E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science302(5644), 419–422 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. P. Biagioni, J. S. Huang, L. Duò, M. Finazzi, and B. Hecht, “Cross resonant optical antenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(25), 256801 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. J. J. Mock, M. Barbic, D. R. Smith, D. A. Schultz, and S. Schultz, “Shape effects in plasmon resonance of individual colloidal silver nanoparticles,” J. Chem. Phys.116(15), 6755–6759 (2002). [CrossRef]
  28. W. Srituravanich, L. Pan, Y. Wang, C. Sun, D. B. Bogy, and X. Zhang, “Flying plasmonic lens in the near field for high-speed nanolithography,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(12), 733–737 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, “Demonstration of nanofocusing by the use of plasmonic lens illuminated with radially polarized light,” Nano Lett.9(5), 2139–2143 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(10), 1762 (2002). [CrossRef]
  31. L. L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett.5(7), 1399–1402 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature391(6668), 667–669 (1998). [CrossRef]
  33. H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B58(11), 6779–6782 (1998). [CrossRef]
  34. M. I. Stockman, “Nanofocusing of optical energy in tapered plasmonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93(13), 137404 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, “Grating-coupling of surface plasmons onto metallic tips: a nanoconfined light source,” Nano Lett.7(9), 2784–2788 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. P. Ginzburg, A. Nevet, N. Berkovitch, A. Normatov, G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, U. Levy, and M. Orenstein, “Plasmonic resonance effects for tandem receiving-transmitting nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.11(1), 220–224 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. Q. Zhan, “Cylindrical vector beams: from mathematical concepts to applications,” Adv. Opt. Photon.1(1), 1 (2009). [CrossRef]
  38. K. J. Moh, X. C. Yuan, J. Bu, S. W. Zhu, and B. Z. Gao, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging of cell-substrate contacts with radially polarized beams,” Opt. Express16(25), 20734–20741 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. N. Lindlein, S. Quabis, U. Peschel, and G. Leuchs, “High numerical aperture imaging with different polarization patterns,” Opt. Express15(9), 5827–5842 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(23), 233901 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. P. Wróbel, J. Pniewski, T. J. Antosiewicz, and T. Szoplik, “Focusing radially polarized light by a concentrically corrugated silver film without a hole,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(18), 183902 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. K. J. Moh, X. C. Yuan, J. Bu, S. W. Zhu, and B. Z. Gao, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging of cell-substrate contacts with radially polarized beams,” Opt. Express16(25), 20734–20741 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  43. Q. Zhan, “Trapping metallic Rayleigh particles with radial polarization,” Opt. Express12(15), 3377–3382 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. U. Levy, C. H. Tsai, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, “Engineering space-variant inhomogeneous media for polarization control,” Opt. Lett.29(15), 1718–1720 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  45. Z. Bomzon, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Formation of radially and azimuthally polarized light using space-variant subwavelength metal stripe gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(11), 1587 (2001). [CrossRef]
  46. O. Weiss and J. Scheuer, “Emission of cylindrical and elliptical vector beams from radial Bragg Lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(25), 251108 (2010). [CrossRef]
  47. C. Debus and P. H. Bolivar, “Frequency selective surfaces for high sensitivity terahertz sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 184102 (2007). [CrossRef]
  48. K. Aydin, A. O. Cakmak, L. Sahin, Z. Li, F. Bilotti, L. Vegni, and E. Ozbay, “Split-ring-resonator-coupled enhanced transmission through a single subwavelength aperture,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(1), 013904 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  49. B. Lahiri, A. Z. Khokhar, R. M. De La Rue, S. G. McMeekin, and N. P. Johnson, “Asymmetric split ring resonators for optical sensing of organic materials,” Opt. Express17(2), 1107–1115 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  50. H. Guo, N. Liu, L. Fu, T. P. Meyrath, T. Zentgraf, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Resonance hybridization in double split-ring resonator metamaterials,” Opt. Express15(19), 12095–12101 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  51. B. Lahiri, S. G. McMeekin, A. Z. Khokhar, R. M. De La Rue, and N. P. Johnson, “Magnetic response of split ring resonators (SRRs) at visible frequencies,” Opt. Express18(3), 3210–3218 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  52. V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Sharp trapped-mode resonances in planar metamaterials with a broken structural symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99(14), 147401 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  53. K. Aydin, I. M. Pryce, and H. A. Atwater, “Symmetry breaking and strong coupling in planar optical metamaterials,” Opt. Express18(13), 13407–13417 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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