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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 26 — Dec. 12, 2011
  • pp: B486–B495
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10-Gb/s transmission over 20-km single fiber link using 1-GHz RSOA by discrete multitone with multiple access

M-K. Hong, N. C. Tran, Y. Shi, J-M. Joo, E. Tangdiongga, S-K. Han, and A. M. J. Koonen  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 26, pp. B486-B495 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.00B486


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Abstract

We demonstrate a novel 10.5-Gbit/s transmission scheme over 20-km single fiber link by using a remotely fed 1-GHz reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA). Discrete multitone (DMT) modulation with adaptive bit-/power-loading is applied to overcome the bandwidth limitation of the RSOA. Transmission performance of the proposed scheme is analyzed in terms of various system parameters, such as the nonlinearity of the RSOA, optical signal-to-noise ratio of the optical seed carrier, the overhead size impact on dispersion, the number of DMT subcarriers, and the reflection noise from the single fiber link. We also report flexible-bandwidth-allocated multiple access operation based on the proposed scheme. The throughput for all cases is approximately 10 Gbit/s with BER < 10−3.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

Wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network (WDM PON) is a strong candidate for next-generation optical access networks due to various advantages such as a large bandwidth supported by individual optical carriers, transparency to data format, and robust security, ease of upgrading and maintenance [1

1. T. Miki and H. Ishio, “Viabilities of the wavelength-division-multiplexing transmission system over an optical fiber cable,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 26(7), 1082–1087 (1978). [CrossRef]

4

4. C. F. Lam, Passive Optical Networks: Principles and Practice (Academic Press, Burlington, MA, USA, 2007).

]. Unfortunately, most service providers are reluctant to realize WDM PON because it requires new and often costly investments. For example, replacing power splitters with WDM filters in the outside fiber plant is not straightforward for existing time division multiplexed passive optical networks (TDM PONs). Putting new optical transceivers in the optical network units (ONUs) is more cumbersome than in the optical line terminals (OLTs) because they have to be implemented at the subscriber’s premises and hence, the subscriber bears the implementation costs. Therefore, recent studies on WDM PON have focused on improving the cost-effectiveness of the transceivers at the ONUs [5

5. S. S. Wagner and H. L. Lemberg, “Technology and system issues for a WDM-based fiber loop architecture,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(11), 1759–1768 (1989). [CrossRef]

7

7. M. J. O’Mahony, C. Politi, D. Klonidis, R. Nejabati, and D. Simeonidou, “Future optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4684–4696 (2006). [CrossRef]

].

A colorless ONU is an inevitable solution required to relax the inventory costs of WDM PON because the same transceiver can be used for any ONU regardless of the wavelength channel [8

8. K. Iwatsuki, J.-I. Kani, H. Suzuki, and M. Fujiwara, “Access and metro networks based on WDM technologies,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(11), 2623–2630 (2004). [CrossRef]

11

11. K. Lee, S.-G. Mun, C.-H. Lee, and S. B. Lee, “Reliable wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network using novel protection scheme,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 679–681 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. It has been widely recognized that a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) is one of the most promising components for realizing colorless ONUs because of the wavelength-agnostic and modulation performance within C-band wavelengths. Therefore, individual optical sources at the ONUs are not required [12

12. M. D. Feuer, J. M. Wiesenfeld, J. S. Perino, C. A. Burrus, G. Raybon, S. C. Shunk, and N. K. Dutta, “Single-port laser-amplifier modulators for local access,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8(9), 1175–1177 (1996). [CrossRef]

17

17. M.-K. Hong, Y.-Y. Won, and S.-K. Han, “Gigabit optical access link for simultaneous wired and wireless signal transmission based on dual parallel injection-locked Fabry-Pérot laser diodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(15), 2725–2731 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. Since most commercially available RSOAs are bandwidth-limited to around 1 GHz, they are not suitable for the next-generation optical access network, which is based on 10-G PONs.

Several techniques have been recently investigated to overcome the bandwidth limitation of the RSOA [18

18. P. Chanclou, F. Payoux, T. Soret, N. Genay, R. Brenot, F. Blache, M. Goix, J. Landreau, O. Legouezigou, and F. Mallecot, “Demonstration of RSOA-based remote modulation at 2.5 and 5 Gbit/s for WDM PON,” in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper OWD1. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2007-OWD1

35

35. R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of real-time optical OFDM transmission at 7.5 Gb/s over 25-km SSMF using a 1-GHz RSOA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 745–747 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. They consist of four categories: electrical equalization [19

19. K. Y. Cho, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “10-Gb/s operation of RSOA for WDM PON,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1533–1535 (2008). [CrossRef]

27

27. I. Papagiannakis, M. Omella, D. Klonidis, J. A. Lazaro Villa, A. N. Birbas, J. Kikidis, I. Tomkos, and J. Prat, “Design characteristics for a full-duplex IM/IM bidirectional transmission at 10 Gb/s using low bandwidth RSOA,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(7), 1094–1101 (2010). [CrossRef]

], optical filter detuning [24

24. I. Papagiannakis, M. Omella, D. Klonidis, A. N. Birbas, J. Kikidis, I. Tomkos, and J. Prat, “Investigation of 10-Gb/s RSOA-based upstream transmission in WDM-PONs utilizing optical filtering and electronic equalization,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2168–2170 (2008). [CrossRef]

29

29. H. Kim, “Transmission of 10-Gb/s Directly Modulated RSOA Signals in Single-Fiber Loopback WDM PONs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(14), 965–967 (2011). [CrossRef]

], specifically designed RSOA modules and driving circuits [23

23. K. Y. Cho, B. S. Choi, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “25.78-Gb/s operation of RSOA for next-generation optical access networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 495–497 (2011). [CrossRef]

,30

30. H.-S. Kim, B.-S. Choi, K.-S. Kim, D. C. Kim, O.-K. Kwon, and D.-K. Oh, “High modulation bandwidth of multisection RSOA,” in Proceedings of 9th International Conference on Optical Internet (2010), pp. 1–3. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5546570&isnumber=5546327

33

33. G. de Valicourt, D. Make, C. Fortin, A. Enard, F. Van Dijk, and R. Brenot, “10 Gbit/s modulation of reflective SOA without any electronic processing,” in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OThT2. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2011-OThT2

], and employing optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and its baseband version, discrete multitone (DMT) techniques [34

34. T. Duong, N. Genay, P. Chanclou, B. Charbonnier, A. Pizzinat, and R. Brenot, “Experimental demonstration of 10 Gbit/s upstream transmission by remote modulation of 1 GHz RSOA using adaptively modulated optical OFDM for WDM-PON single fiber architecture,” in Proceedings of 34th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2008), pp. 1–2. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4729576&isnumber=4729060

,35

35. R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of real-time optical OFDM transmission at 7.5 Gb/s over 25-km SSMF using a 1-GHz RSOA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 745–747 (2010). [CrossRef]

].

Electrical equalization techniques are commonly used to solve the bandwidth limitation. By employing multi-tap electrical equalizers at the OLT, digital-to-analog converters (DACs) are avoided to simplify the ONU. On the other hand, since the electrical equalization is based on a single carrier transmission system it can lead to significant frequency chirping when directly modulating the RSOA. Therefore, it needs to be carefully tuned to chromatic dispersion.

In addition, several equalization techniques applied to RSOAs have been demonstrated in an optical back-to-back or in a dual-fiber link, where the RSOA is separately fed by a continuous wave (CW) light source locally or through a separate fiber. These implementations are fairly costly for realistic implementations.

Some techniques have proposed specially designed RSOA package and driving circuits to minimize the use of complex signal processing [30

30. H.-S. Kim, B.-S. Choi, K.-S. Kim, D. C. Kim, O.-K. Kwon, and D.-K. Oh, “High modulation bandwidth of multisection RSOA,” in Proceedings of 9th International Conference on Optical Internet (2010), pp. 1–3. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5546570&isnumber=5546327

,33

33. G. de Valicourt, D. Make, C. Fortin, A. Enard, F. Van Dijk, and R. Brenot, “10 Gbit/s modulation of reflective SOA without any electronic processing,” in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OThT2. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2011-OThT2

]. However, complicated fabrication and integration steps are required with respect to commercially available RSOAs.

Recently, advanced and spectrally efficient modulation techniques such as OFDM and DMT have been widely used for bandwidth limited systems, such as digital subscriber line (xDSL), power line communications and plastic optical fiber systems [36

36. H. Yang, S. C. J. Lee, E. Tangdiongga, C. Okonkwo, H. P. A. van den Boom, F. Breyer, S. Randel, and A. M. J. Koonen, “47.4 Gb/s transmission over 100 m graded-index plastic optical fiber based on rate-adaptive discrete multitone modulation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 352–359 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. With respect to RSOA, 7.5-Gbit/s was demonstrated for a locally fed 1-GHz RSOA using OFDM [35

35. R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of real-time optical OFDM transmission at 7.5 Gb/s over 25-km SSMF using a 1-GHz RSOA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 745–747 (2010). [CrossRef]

].

2. Proof of concept of the proposed scheme

3. Experimental setup

The adaptively loaded DMT signal was generated by MATLAB®. The number of DMT subcarriers was 512, ranging from DC to 2.5 GHz, and the fast Fourier transform (FFT) size was 1024 according to Hermitian symmetry. An arbitrary waveform generator (AWG: Tektronix 7122B) sampling at 5 GS/s was employed to modulate the RSOA. For full modulation amplitude, the magnitude of the DMT signal from the AWG was optimized using a variable electrical attenuator (VEA) and an electrical amplifier.

The DMT-encoded optical signal from the RSOA was reflected back over the same 20-km SMF link. After passing through OC 1, this signal was delivered to a preamplifier, realized by an erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) and optical isolators. Using an optical power meter (PM), the input optical power of the preamplifier was also monitored. In order to minimize amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise, an optical bandpass filter (OBPF) with the center wavelength of 1550 nm was used after the preamplifier. The input optical power of an optical receiver (HP 11982A) was also monitored. At this point, its input optical power was maintained at −2 dBm. The optical receiver had a −3 dB electrical bandwidth of 11 GHz. The received DMT signal was captured by a digital phosphor oscilloscope (DPO: Tektronix 72004B) with sampling speed of 50 GS/s. Finally, it was processed and evaluated offline in MATLAB®.

4. Results and discussions

The proposed scheme could be sensitive to the system parameters, such as the number of DMT subcarriers, the magnitude of the modulating DMT signal, and the overhead size including the cyclic prefix. There was a small performance improvement observed when the number of DMT subcarriers increased, as the available bandwidth is fragmented into more subchannels. Nonetheless, its enhancement (about 1 Gbit/s) was negligible with respect to the maximum achievable data rate as shown in Fig. 6 (a) and (b)
Fig. 6 Performance analyses of the proposed scheme as a function of; the number of DMT subcarriers with (a) the input optical power of the preamplifier, (b) the input optical power of the RSOA; (c) the magnitude of the modulating DMT signal, and (d) the cyclic prefix.
. The evaluated channel characteristic of the proposed scheme, mostly based on the SMF link, was almost flat.

The performance was analyzed in terms of the DMT magnitude to estimate the nonlinear modulation effect of the RSOA. For experimental consistency, modulation index of the DMT signal was maintained at 1 (“full modulation”). As described in Fig. 6 (c), the maximum achievable data rate was improved when increasing the DMT magnitude because the optical SNR of the modulated signal from the RSOA was proportional to the DMT magnitude as well as to the input optical power of the RSOA. However, it was saturated when the DMT signal had a peak-to-peak voltage higher than 4 V. Above this level, the undesired signal components such as 3rd order intermodulation distortion products, which were generated from the nonlinear property of the RSOA, increased steeply compared to the DMT signal, and reduced the performance improvement.

The symbol rate of the DMT signal was 4.883 Msymbol/s in the case of 512 DMT subcarriers. Hence, the impact of chromatic dispersion was much smaller than that of the systems based on the electrical equalization techniques. Therefore, the cyclic prefix, which played a role of a buffer, was negligible to mitigate the dispersion effect as shown in Fig. 6 (d).

Multiple access was implemented by allocating the parallel-mapped data into a pre-determined number of DMT subcarriers. In addition, the data capacity provided for each ONU could be flexibly adjusted by modifying the number of occupied subcarriers per ONU. The number of DMT subcarriers for a certain ONU should be carefully selected even in the case of a 50:50 capacity distribution. It was caused by the asymmetric bit-loading profile among the entire set of DMT subcarriers. Nevertheless, it was possible to accomplish a flexible bandwidth allocation for multiple access operation by using the proposed scheme as illustrated in Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Flexible bandwidth allocated multiple access measurements: bit-loading profiles and power spectral densities for (a) 50:50 (4.56:4.53Gbit/s) and (b) 75:25 (6.89:2.21Gbit/s) distribution scenario; (c) signal constellations for 50:50 allocation (top: ONU1-16QAM, bottom: ONU2-8QAM).
. We successfully demonstrated it for the 50:50 and 75:25 bandwidth-split. In this operation, 10 subcarriers (around 80 MHz width) were chosen as a guard band to prevent interference between the ONUs.

Colorless operation of the proposed scheme was also validated in terms of total throughput as represented in Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Validation of the colorless operation in terms of maximum achievable total throughput via various bandwidth allocation scenarios (measured at the input optical power of the RSOA and the preamplifier, −10 dBm and −15 dBm, respectively).
. At the applied optical carrier wavelength from 1532.5 nm to 1567.5 nm, equivalent to almost the entire C band, the total throughput of 10 Gbit/s was consistently accomplished at the input optical RSOA and preamplifier power of −10 dBm and −15 dBm, respectively, regardless which bandwidth split the proposed scheme employed (symmetric and asymmetric). This throughput was slightly reduced at a wavelength beyond 1567.5 nm because those wavelengths lie at the edge of the preamplifier.

5. Conclusion

Acknowledgments

This work has been supported by the European Commission FP7 program ICT-212352 ALPHA, ICT-224402 EUROFOS, and Yonsei University Institute of TMS Information Technology, a Brain Korea 21 program, Korea.

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36.

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OCIS Codes
(060.2330) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics communications
(060.2360) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics links and subsystems
(060.4080) Fiber optics and optical communications : Modulation

ToC Category:
Access Networks and LAN

History
Original Manuscript: September 30, 2011
Revised Manuscript: October 30, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: October 30, 2011
Published: November 28, 2011

Virtual Issues
European Conference on Optical Communication 2011 (2011) Optics Express

Citation
M-K. Hong, N. C. Tran, Y. Shi, J-M. Joo, E. Tangdiongga, S-K. Han, and A. M. J. Koonen, "10-Gb/s transmission over 20-km single fiber link using 1-GHz RSOA by discrete multitone with multiple access," Opt. Express 19, B486-B495 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-26-B486


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