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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 26 — Dec. 12, 2011
  • pp: B56–B63
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40 Gb/s W-band (75–110 GHz) 16-QAM radio-over-fiber signal generation and its wireless transmission

Atsushi Kanno, Keizo Inagaki, Isao Morohashi, Takahide Sakamoto, Toshiaki Kuri, Iwao Hosako, Tetsuya Kawanishi, Yuki Yoshida, and Ken-ichi Kitayama  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 26, pp. B56-B63 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.000B56


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Abstract

The generation of a 40-Gb/s 16-QAM radio-over-fiber (RoF) signal and its demodulation of the wireless signal transmitted over free space of 30 mm in W-band (75–110 GHz) is demonstrated. The 16-QAM signal is generated by a coherent polarization synthesis method using a dual-polarization QPSK modulator. A combination of the simple RoF generation and the versatile digital receiver technique is suitable for the proposed coherent optical/wireless seamless network.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

The generation of wireless signals, based on the radio-over-fiber (RoF) technology, is expected to be suitable for high-frequency wireless transmissions as well as in applications involving an optical/wireless seamless network. Generally, the RoF signal is a combination of a RoF local oscillator (LO) carrier component and an optically modulated baseband component. It is easy to convert the optical RoF signal to a wireless signal with a frequency up-conversion technique, which is the so-called direct optical up-conversion technique that utilizes high-speed photodetectors [8

8. T. Kuri, Y. Omiya, T. Kawanishi, S. Hara, and K. Kitayama, “Optical transmitter and receiver of 24-GHz ultra-wideband signal by direct photonic conversion techniques,” IEEE Intl. Topic. Meeting Microw. Photon. (MWP2006), Grenoble, France, W3-3, Oct. 2006.

]. This technique will provide a pure signal without spurious tones as compared to any optical to electrical (OE) signal conversion techniques. This is because the generated signal is directly obtained from the incident optical signals by photomixing; therefore, an additional device is not used for OE conversion. On the other hand, it is possible that the photodetector, whose frequency is less than the separation frequency between the RoF-LO component and the baseband component, can detect only the baseband components, as in the case as the conventional optical communication scheme. Therefore, the generated RoF signal would be available for the dual purpose of both optical and wireless communications.

2. Coherent optical/wireless seamless network

Figure 1 shows a schematic of our concept of coherent optical and wireless seamless network. This system is based on the RoF technology applicable to both the transmitter and the receiver. Both the optical and wireless signals are optically generated in the same transmitter. However, some optical bandwidth shaping must be implemented owing to the limitation of the assigned bandwidth of the wireless signal. The optically generated RoF signal is transmitted over the optical fiber. The transmitted signals will be received by an optical/wireless shared signal receiver. As mentioned above, for baseband (optical) signal detection, the bandwidth of the photodetector should be equal to or slightly less than that of the baseband signal. A digitally aided transmission technique such as optical coherent detection is one of the key features of the network. This is because the digital signal processing technique is a powerful tool for bandwidth optimization, for enhancement of the spectral efficiency of the signal, as well as for the compensation of fluctuations in the transmission media such as optical fibers and free space environments.

Fig. 1 Concept schematic of coherent optical and wireless seamless network.

Fig. 2 Block diagram of concept of Fig. 1.

We propose a digital receiver with a high-speed analog-to-digital converter (ADC) diverted from the optical digital coherent receiver such as a 100 GbE (Gigabit Ethernet). A sampling rate greater than 56 GSa/s is suitable for not only the conventional method of intermediate frequency (IF) component sampling but also the direct sampling of the radio-frequency (RF) component, i.e., for the full digital sampling of the wireless signals [11

11. I. Dedic, “56 GS/s ADC: Enabling 100GbE,” Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC 2010), San Diego, USA, OThT6, Mar. 2010.

]. The cost will decrease with the commercialization of the digital coherent technique. In this paper, we outline a demonstration of the capabilities of a digital wireless receiver with a RoF converter transmitter, as shown in Fig. 1.

3. Experimental setup for W-band RoF transmission

Figure 3 shows our experimental setup of the RoF transmitter and the wireless receiver. Our transmitter consisted of a two-tone optical signal source and an optical 16-QAM generator based on a DP-QPSK modulator. Details of the two-tone optical signal generator and an overview of the wireless receiver have already been reported [12

12. A. Kanno, K. Inagaki, I. Morohashi, T. Sakamoto, T. Kuri, I. Hosako, T. Kawanishi, Y. Yoshida, and K. Kitayama, “20-Gb/s QPSK W-band (75–110 GHz) wireless link in free space using radio-over-fiber technique,” IEICE Electron. Express 8(5), 612–617 (2011). [CrossRef]

14

14. A. Kanno, K. Inagaki, I. Morohashi, T. Kuri, I. Hosako, and T. Kawanishi, “Frequency-stabilized W-band two-tone optical signal generation for high-speed RoF and radio transmission,” Proc. IEEE Photon. Conf. (IPC11), Arlington, USA, TuJ4, Oct. 2011.

]. The frequency separation between the two tones was 92.5 GHz. The two-tone signal was split by an optical arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) through an Er-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA). The upper frequency component was used as the optical reference signal of the RoF signal for the direct optical up-conversion. The lower frequency was used by the DP-QPSK modulator that is connected to four channels of a 10 Gb/s pulse pattern generator (PPG). We used a pseudo random bit stream with a length of 215–1. A polarization coherent synthesis method was used for the 16-QAM, where two optical QPSK signals were combined within a polarizer that is placed behind the modulator [9

9. I. Morohashi, M. Sudo, T. Sakamoto, A. Kanno, A. Chiba, J. Ichikawa, T. Kawanishi, and I Hosako, “16 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Using Polarization-Multiplexing QPSK Modulator,” IEICE Trans. Commun. E94-B(7), 1809–1814 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. The advantage of this method for the generation of a 16-QAM signal is the ease of control of the bias voltage of the modulator. The method used to control the bias voltage must be considered for such nested Mach-Zehnder modulators, because of the large number of electrodes. In this DP-QPSK scheme, only two independent QPSK bias controllers were required to generate two QPSK signals that are orthogonally polarized with respect to each other; such polarization of two coherent signals will generate the 16-QAM signal.

Fig. 3 Experimental setup.

The reference signal and the generated 16-QAM signal, combined by a 3-dB optical coupler, were fed to a uni-traveling carrier photodiode (UTC-PD) working as a W-band photomixer [10

10. H. Ito, T. Furuta, T. Ito, Y. Muramoto, K. Tsuzuki, K. Yoshino, and T. Ishibashi, “W-band uni-travelling-carrier photodiode module for high-power photonic millimetre-wave generation,” Electron. Lett. 38(22) 1376–1377 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. A W-band horn antenna with an antenna gain of approximately 20 dBi would, when directly connected to the UTC-PD, transmit a W-band 16-QAM signal whose central frequency should be equal to that of the frequency separation of the two-tone signal. The RoF signal consisting of the reference and the 16-QAM signal can be also used for digital baseband transmission. When the signal is fed to a photodetector with a bandwidth that is less than the W-band frequency, an optical coherent receiver acts as a baseband optical receiver. To demonstrate this dual-purpose capability, we used the coherent receiver with a 1-nm band-pass filter.

On the receiver side, we used a combination of a W-band heterodyne and digital frequency down-conversion with IQ separation [12

12. A. Kanno, K. Inagaki, I. Morohashi, T. Sakamoto, T. Kuri, I. Hosako, T. Kawanishi, Y. Yoshida, and K. Kitayama, “20-Gb/s QPSK W-band (75–110 GHz) wireless link in free space using radio-over-fiber technique,” IEICE Electron. Express 8(5), 612–617 (2011). [CrossRef]

, 13

13. A. Kanno, K. Inagaki, I. Morohashi, T. Sakamoto, T. Kuri, I. Hosako, T. Kawanishi, Y. Yoshida, and K. Kitayama, “40 Gb/s W-band (75–110 GHz) 16-QAM radio-over-fiber signal generation and its wireless transmission,” European Conf. Optic. Commun. (ECOC), Geneva, Switzerland, We.10.P1.112, Sep. 2011.

]. The received signal was down-converted to an IF signal by the broadband W-band mixer. The IF band extended from 0 to 35 GHz when the W-band signal bandwidth increased from 75 to 110 GHz. Thus, the received IF signal was centered at 17.5 GHz, with a bandwidth of 20 GHz. Amplified IF signals were observed using a real-time digital oscilloscope with a bandwidth of 30 GHz and a sampling rate of 80 GSa/s. For phase detection, the digitized and carrier-recovered signal was multiplied with a complex sinusoidal signal, so that the in-phase (I) and the quadrature phase (Q) components could be separated. Processing schemes such as frequency domain equalization and symbol decision can be applied for both the I and the Q components in the same manner as an optical digital coherent detection technique. We set the receiver horn antenna at a distance of 30 mm from the transmitter antenna.

4. Results

The optical spectrum measured at the UTC-PD input is shown in Fig. 4(a). The optical reference component at a wavelength of 1551.9 nm and the 10-Gbaud modulated signals at a wavelength of around 1552.7 nm were clearly observed with a marked separation of approximately 0.8 nm, which corresponds to an optical frequency of 92.5 GHz. The IF electric spectrum was obtained by performing a fast Fourier transformation of the temporal IF signal detected by the oscilloscope (Fig. 4(b)). The observed main lobe of the 10-Gbaud modulated signal centered at 17.5 GHz had some parasitic peaks, which originated from the noise caused by the oscilloscope and the W-band components owing to the absence of the corresponding peak in the optical spectrum. Some spectrum distortions were reflected in the frequency response of the W-band components. The periodic structure in the main lobe is attributed to the interference between the transmitted wireless signals between the antennas. Although the optical signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was greater than 30 dB, the electrical SNR was less than 20 dB.

Fig. 4 Spectra of (a) optical RoF signal and (b) FFT-transformed IF signal of the receiver mixer

The constellation diagrams observed using the optical coherent receiver and the digital wireless receiver are shown in Fig. 5. For an optical signal, the bit error rate (BER) was measured to be 4.22 × 10−4. The difference in symbol separation in the optical and wireless signals and the distortions of the constellation of the wireless signal could be caused by noise generated in the W-band electrical components, as well as the loss attributed to transmission in free space.

Fig. 5 Constellation diagrams of (a) optical 16-QAM signal and (b) received wireless signal.

The BERs of the transmitted wireless signals are shown in Fig. 6. This figure shows the BERs of not only 40-Gb/s 16-QAM signals but also 20-Gb/s QPSK signals measured with the same setup. Adaptive modulation by adjusting the polarizer in the transmitter was also successfully demonstrated. For the QPSK signal, the observed BERs were much less than the FEC limit of 2×10−3, with the clear constellation shown in the inset of the figure. In the case of the 16-QAM, the BER was calculated to be 1.90 ×10−3 when the radio power of the output port of the UTC-PD was −8 dBm. It should be noted that the differences between the QPSK and QAM results might depend on signal processing. Simple algorithms for the reduction of phase noise, such as the so-called M-th power algorithm, can be effective for QPSK, but cannot be easily applied for 16-QAM, because the QAM signal includes phase changes as well as intensity changes. The optimization of the algorithm and reduction of noise owing to the electronic components in the receiver can help improve the received signal quality.

Fig. 6 Bit error rates dependence on received wireless power for 16-QAM and QPSK [12].

The results of this experiment showed that the transmission distance of 30 mm was in the intermediate region between the near-field and the far-field region, because the wavelength of the wireless signal was approximately 3.24 mm. In order to extend the transmission distance to demonstrate the concept shown in Fig. 1, it is necessary to increase the transmitter output power. It has been reported that 120-GHz RoF and wireless transmission experiments were performed with 10-Gb/s on-off keying modulation using high-power millimeter-wave integrated circuits at a distance of several kilometers [6

6. A. Hirata, R. Yamaguchi, T. Kosugi, H. Takahashi, K. Murata, T. Nagatsuma, N. Kukutsu, Y. Kado, L. Iai, S. Okabe, S. Kimura, H. Ikegawa, H. Nishikawa, T. Nakayama, and T. Inada, “10-Gbit/s Wireless Link Using InP HEMT MMICs for Generating 120-GHz-Band Millimeter-Wave Signal,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 57(5), 1102–1109 (2009). [CrossRef]

, 15

15. A. Hirata, T. Kosugi, H. Takahashi, R. Yamaguchi, F. Nakajima, T. Furuta, H. Ito, H. Sugahara, Y. Sato, and T. Nagatsuma, “120-GHz-Band Millimeter-Wave Photonic Wireless Link for 10-Gb/s Data Transmission,” Trans. Micorow. Theory Tech. 54(5), 1937–1944 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. In addition, high-power amplifiers for the 90-GHz-band with an output power of 5 W have been developed [16

16. J. Schellenberg, E. Watkins, M. Micovic, B. Kim, and K. Han, “W-Band, 5W Solid-State Power Amplifier/Combiner,” Tech. Dig. IEEE Intl. Microw. Symp. (IMS 2010) , 240–243 (2010).

]. Atmospheric attenuation is an important issue that must be considered for extending the transmission distance. The estimated and observed values of attenuation in the W-band are less than 1 dB/km and are approximately 10 times less than those in the 60 GHz band [17

17. Recommendation ITU-R P.676-5, “Attenuation of atmospheric gases,” 2001.

]. Therefore, an extension of the distance to several 100 m will be possible with these high-power electrical devices for a demonstration of the proof of our proposed concept.

5. Conclusion

We have successfully demonstrated a 40-Gb/s W-band RoF signal generation and its demodulation over a distance of 30 mm using the W-band electric receiver. These transmitter and receiver configurations are suitable for our proposed coherent optical/wireless seamless network, which has a capacity greater than 40 Gb/s. The generated RoF signal can also be demodulated by an optical coherent receiver designed for optical baseband transmission, thus making the generated signal suitable for the dual purposes of optical and wireless communication.

Acknowledgments

The authors are highly grateful to Dr. Issei Watanabe of NICT, Japan for his encouragement.

References and links

1.

D. Qian, M.-F. Huang, E. Ip, Y.-K. Huang, Y. Shao, J. Hu, and T. Wang, “101.7-Tb/s (370×294-Gb/s) PDM-128QAM-OFDM transmission over 3×55-km SSMF using pilot-based phase noise mitigation,” Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC2011), Los Angeles, USA, PDPB5, Mar. 2011.

2.

J. Sakaguchi, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, T. Hayashi, T. Taru, T. Kobayashi, and M. Watanabe, “109-Tb/s (7×97×172-Gb/s SDM/WDM/PDM) QPSK transmission through 16.8-km homogeneous multi-core fiber,” Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC2011), Los Angeles, USA, PDPB6, Mar. 2011.

3.

IEEE 802.15 WPAN TG3c Millimeter Wave Alternative PHY. http://ieee802.org/15/pub/TG3c.html

4.

M. Weiss, A. Stöhr, F. Lecoche, and B. Charbonnier, “27 Gbit/s Photonic Wireless 60 GHz Transmission System using 16-QAM OFDM,” IEEE Intl. Topic. Meeting Microw. Photon. (MWP2009), Valencia, Spain, postdeadline, Oct. 2009.

5.

D. Zibar, R. Sambaraju, A. C. Jambrina, J. Herrera, and I. T. Monroy,“Carrier recovery and equalization for photonic-wireless links with capacities up to 40 Gb/s in 75–110 GHz Band,” Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC 2011), Los Angeles, USA, OThJ4, Mar. 2011.

6.

A. Hirata, R. Yamaguchi, T. Kosugi, H. Takahashi, K. Murata, T. Nagatsuma, N. Kukutsu, Y. Kado, L. Iai, S. Okabe, S. Kimura, H. Ikegawa, H. Nishikawa, T. Nakayama, and T. Inada, “10-Gbit/s Wireless Link Using InP HEMT MMICs for Generating 120-GHz-Band Millimeter-Wave Signal,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 57(5), 1102–1109 (2009). [CrossRef]

7.

H.-J. Song, K. Ajito, A. Wakatsuki, Y. Muramoto, N. Kukutsu, Y. Kado, and T. Nagatsuma, “Terahertz Wireless Communication Link at 300 GHz,” IEEE Intl. Topic. Meeting Microw. Photon. (MWP2010), Montreal, Canada, WE3-2, Oct. 2010.

8.

T. Kuri, Y. Omiya, T. Kawanishi, S. Hara, and K. Kitayama, “Optical transmitter and receiver of 24-GHz ultra-wideband signal by direct photonic conversion techniques,” IEEE Intl. Topic. Meeting Microw. Photon. (MWP2006), Grenoble, France, W3-3, Oct. 2006.

9.

I. Morohashi, M. Sudo, T. Sakamoto, A. Kanno, A. Chiba, J. Ichikawa, T. Kawanishi, and I Hosako, “16 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Using Polarization-Multiplexing QPSK Modulator,” IEICE Trans. Commun. E94-B(7), 1809–1814 (2011). [CrossRef]

10.

H. Ito, T. Furuta, T. Ito, Y. Muramoto, K. Tsuzuki, K. Yoshino, and T. Ishibashi, “W-band uni-travelling-carrier photodiode module for high-power photonic millimetre-wave generation,” Electron. Lett. 38(22) 1376–1377 (2002). [CrossRef]

11.

I. Dedic, “56 GS/s ADC: Enabling 100GbE,” Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC 2010), San Diego, USA, OThT6, Mar. 2010.

12.

A. Kanno, K. Inagaki, I. Morohashi, T. Sakamoto, T. Kuri, I. Hosako, T. Kawanishi, Y. Yoshida, and K. Kitayama, “20-Gb/s QPSK W-band (75–110 GHz) wireless link in free space using radio-over-fiber technique,” IEICE Electron. Express 8(5), 612–617 (2011). [CrossRef]

13.

A. Kanno, K. Inagaki, I. Morohashi, T. Sakamoto, T. Kuri, I. Hosako, T. Kawanishi, Y. Yoshida, and K. Kitayama, “40 Gb/s W-band (75–110 GHz) 16-QAM radio-over-fiber signal generation and its wireless transmission,” European Conf. Optic. Commun. (ECOC), Geneva, Switzerland, We.10.P1.112, Sep. 2011.

14.

A. Kanno, K. Inagaki, I. Morohashi, T. Kuri, I. Hosako, and T. Kawanishi, “Frequency-stabilized W-band two-tone optical signal generation for high-speed RoF and radio transmission,” Proc. IEEE Photon. Conf. (IPC11), Arlington, USA, TuJ4, Oct. 2011.

15.

A. Hirata, T. Kosugi, H. Takahashi, R. Yamaguchi, F. Nakajima, T. Furuta, H. Ito, H. Sugahara, Y. Sato, and T. Nagatsuma, “120-GHz-Band Millimeter-Wave Photonic Wireless Link for 10-Gb/s Data Transmission,” Trans. Micorow. Theory Tech. 54(5), 1937–1944 (2006). [CrossRef]

16.

J. Schellenberg, E. Watkins, M. Micovic, B. Kim, and K. Han, “W-Band, 5W Solid-State Power Amplifier/Combiner,” Tech. Dig. IEEE Intl. Microw. Symp. (IMS 2010) , 240–243 (2010).

17.

Recommendation ITU-R P.676-5, “Attenuation of atmospheric gases,” 2001.

OCIS Codes
(060.1660) Fiber optics and optical communications : Coherent communications
(060.5625) Fiber optics and optical communications : Radio frequency photonics

ToC Category:
Access Networks and LAN

History
Original Manuscript: October 3, 2011
Revised Manuscript: November 2, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: November 2, 2011
Published: November 16, 2011

Virtual Issues
European Conference on Optical Communication 2011 (2011) Optics Express

Citation
Atsushi Kanno, Keizo Inagaki, Isao Morohashi, Takahide Sakamoto, Toshiaki Kuri, Iwao Hosako, Tetsuya Kawanishi, Yuki Yoshida, and Ken-ichi Kitayama, "40 Gb/s W-band (75–110 GHz) 16-QAM radio-over-fiber signal generation and its wireless transmission," Opt. Express 19, B56-B63 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-26-B56


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References

  1. D. Qian, M.-F. Huang, E. Ip, Y.-K. Huang, Y. Shao, J. Hu, and T. Wang, “101.7-Tb/s (370×294-Gb/s) PDM-128QAM-OFDM transmission over 3×55-km SSMF using pilot-based phase noise mitigation,” Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC2011), Los Angeles, USA, PDPB5, Mar. 2011.
  2. J. Sakaguchi, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, T. Hayashi, T. Taru, T. Kobayashi, and M. Watanabe, “109-Tb/s (7×97×172-Gb/s SDM/WDM/PDM) QPSK transmission through 16.8-km homogeneous multi-core fiber,” Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC2011), Los Angeles, USA, PDPB6, Mar. 2011.
  3. IEEE 802.15 WPAN TG3c Millimeter Wave Alternative PHY. http://ieee802.org/15/pub/TG3c.html
  4. M. Weiss, A. Stöhr, F. Lecoche, and B. Charbonnier, “27 Gbit/s Photonic Wireless 60 GHz Transmission System using 16-QAM OFDM,” IEEE Intl. Topic. Meeting Microw. Photon. (MWP2009), Valencia, Spain, postdeadline, Oct. 2009.
  5. D. Zibar, R. Sambaraju, A. C. Jambrina, J. Herrera, and I. T. Monroy,“Carrier recovery and equalization for photonic-wireless links with capacities up to 40 Gb/s in 75–110 GHz Band,” Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC 2011), Los Angeles, USA, OThJ4, Mar. 2011.
  6. A. Hirata, R. Yamaguchi, T. Kosugi, H. Takahashi, K. Murata, T. Nagatsuma, N. Kukutsu, Y. Kado, L. Iai, S. Okabe, S. Kimura, H. Ikegawa, H. Nishikawa, T. Nakayama, and T. Inada, “10-Gbit/s Wireless Link Using InP HEMT MMICs for Generating 120-GHz-Band Millimeter-Wave Signal,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.57(5), 1102–1109 (2009). [CrossRef]
  7. H.-J. Song, K. Ajito, A. Wakatsuki, Y. Muramoto, N. Kukutsu, Y. Kado, and T. Nagatsuma, “Terahertz Wireless Communication Link at 300 GHz,” IEEE Intl. Topic. Meeting Microw. Photon. (MWP2010), Montreal, Canada, WE3-2, Oct. 2010.
  8. T. Kuri, Y. Omiya, T. Kawanishi, S. Hara, and K. Kitayama, “Optical transmitter and receiver of 24-GHz ultra-wideband signal by direct photonic conversion techniques,” IEEE Intl. Topic. Meeting Microw. Photon. (MWP2006), Grenoble, France, W3-3, Oct. 2006.
  9. I. Morohashi, M. Sudo, T. Sakamoto, A. Kanno, A. Chiba, J. Ichikawa, T. Kawanishi, and I Hosako, “16 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Using Polarization-Multiplexing QPSK Modulator,” IEICE Trans. Commun.E94-B(7), 1809–1814 (2011). [CrossRef]
  10. H. Ito, T. Furuta, T. Ito, Y. Muramoto, K. Tsuzuki, K. Yoshino, and T. Ishibashi, “W-band uni-travelling-carrier photodiode module for high-power photonic millimetre-wave generation,” Electron. Lett.38(22) 1376–1377 (2002). [CrossRef]
  11. I. Dedic, “56 GS/s ADC: Enabling 100GbE,” Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC 2010), San Diego, USA, OThT6, Mar. 2010.
  12. A. Kanno, K. Inagaki, I. Morohashi, T. Sakamoto, T. Kuri, I. Hosako, T. Kawanishi, Y. Yoshida, and K. Kitayama, “20-Gb/s QPSK W-band (75–110 GHz) wireless link in free space using radio-over-fiber technique,” IEICE Electron. Express8(5), 612–617 (2011). [CrossRef]
  13. A. Kanno, K. Inagaki, I. Morohashi, T. Sakamoto, T. Kuri, I. Hosako, T. Kawanishi, Y. Yoshida, and K. Kitayama, “40 Gb/s W-band (75–110 GHz) 16-QAM radio-over-fiber signal generation and its wireless transmission,” European Conf. Optic. Commun. (ECOC), Geneva, Switzerland, We.10.P1.112, Sep. 2011.
  14. A. Kanno, K. Inagaki, I. Morohashi, T. Kuri, I. Hosako, and T. Kawanishi, “Frequency-stabilized W-band two-tone optical signal generation for high-speed RoF and radio transmission,” Proc. IEEE Photon. Conf. (IPC11), Arlington, USA, TuJ4, Oct. 2011.
  15. A. Hirata, T. Kosugi, H. Takahashi, R. Yamaguchi, F. Nakajima, T. Furuta, H. Ito, H. Sugahara, Y. Sato, and T. Nagatsuma, “120-GHz-Band Millimeter-Wave Photonic Wireless Link for 10-Gb/s Data Transmission,” Trans. Micorow. Theory Tech.54(5), 1937–1944 (2006). [CrossRef]
  16. J. Schellenberg, E. Watkins, M. Micovic, B. Kim, and K. Han, “W-Band, 5W Solid-State Power Amplifier/Combiner,” Tech. Dig. IEEE Intl. Microw. Symp. (IMS 2010), 240–243 (2010).
  17. Recommendation ITU-R P.676-5, “Attenuation of atmospheric gases,” 2001.

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