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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 26 — Dec. 12, 2011
  • pp: B736–B745
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Experimental demonstration of flexible bandwidth networking with real-time impairment awareness

David J. Geisler, Roberto Proietti, Yawei Yin, Ryan P. Scott, Xinran Cai, Nicolas K. Fontaine, Loukas Paraschis, Ori Gerstel, and S. J. B. Yoo  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 26, pp. B736-B745 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.00B736


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Abstract

We demonstrate a flexible-bandwidth network testbed with a real-time, adaptive control plane that adjusts modulation format and spectrum-positioning to maintain quality of service (QoS) and high spectral efficiency. Here, low-speed supervisory channels and field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) enabled real-time impairment detection of high-speed flexible bandwidth channels (flexpaths). Using premeasured correlation data between the supervisory channel quality of transmission (QoT) and flexpath QoT, the control plane adapted flexpath spectral efficiency and spectral location based on link quality. Experimental demonstrations show a back-to-back link with a 360-Gb/s flexpath in which the control plane adapts to varying link optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) by adjusting the flexpath’s spectral efficiency (i.e., changing the flexpath modulation format) between binary phase-shift keying (BPSK), quaternary phase-shift keying (QPSK), and eight phase-shift keying (8PSK). This enables maintaining the data rate while using only the minimum necessary bandwidth and extending the OSNR range over which the bit error rate in the flexpath meets the quality of service (QoS) requirement (e.g. the forward error correction (FEC) limit). Further experimental demonstrations with two flexpaths show a control plane adapting to changes in OSNR on one link by changing the modulation format of the affected flexpath (220 Gb/s), and adjusting the spectral location of the other flexpath (120 Gb/s) to maintain a defragmented spectrum.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

Typical network control and management planes of today’s optical networks assign network resources based on static data and adhere to established specifications. However, many PLIs are time varying as a result of temperature variations, component degradations, and network maintenance activities [3

3. Z. Pan, C. Yu, and A. E. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring for the next generation optical communication networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(1), 20–45 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. Furthermore, dynamic channel bandwidth allocation and release processes can potentially change network conditions. A network capable of customizing the instantiation of new adaptive connections (flexpaths) to account for expected PLIs, and adapt as necessary to time varying PLIs, improves efficiency while optimizing individual connections for changes in network conditions [4

4. A. E. Willner, “The optical network of the future: can optical performance monitoring enable automated, intelligent and robust systems?” Opt. Photonics News 17(3), 30–35 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. Quality of transmission (QoT) monitoring and impairment aware routing and wavelength assignment (IA-RWA) algorithms in traditional WDM networks have already attracted research interest [3

3. Z. Pan, C. Yu, and A. E. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring for the next generation optical communication networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(1), 20–45 (2010). [CrossRef]

,5

5. D. C. Kilper, R. Bach, D. J. Blumenthal, D. Einstein, T. Landolsi, L. Ostar, M. Preiss, and A. E. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(1), 294–304 (2004). [CrossRef]

7

7. M. Gagnaire and S. Zahr, “Impairment-aware routing and wavelength assignment in translucent networks: state of the art,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 47(5), 55–61 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. However, researchers now are facing the challenge of adapting these concepts to flexible bandwidth networking scenarios with potentially large bandwidth channels.

Optical performance monitoring of flexible bandwidth networks coupled with an adaptive control plane can provide a means to improve performance against time varying PLIs through impairment aware networking. In other words, the joint optimization of the routing and spectrum assignment (RSA) by the path computing element (PCE) nodes in such networks should consider the factor of time-varying impairments. For example, by incorporating impairment awareness using a simple and effective performance monitoring technique, flexible bandwidth networks can react to changes in the quality of transmission (QoT) of each channel [8

8. D. J. Geisler, R. Proietti, Y. Yin, R. P. Scott, X. Cai, N. K. Fontaine, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, and S. J. B. Yoo, “The first testbed demonstration of a flexible bandwidth network with a real-time adaptive control plane,” in 37th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper Th.13.K.2.

]. This requires an adaptive control plane that receives input from nodes regarding each channel’s QoT. If the QoT for a particular channel degrades below an acceptable threshold, the change in modulation format to a less spectrally efficient format would use more bandwidth, but has an increased resistance to the signal degradation.

2. Impairment awareness in flexible bandwidth networks

2.1 Flexible bandwidth networking with an adaptive control plane

Figure 1(b) shows three configurations for implementing the 360-Gb/s flexpath A in a scenario with 360 GHz of available bandwidth. In an ideal situation, flexpath A is implemented using 8PSK (state A), which ensures the highest spectral efficiency and lowest spectral utilization. In this example, the control plane monitors the OSNR on flexpath A with feedback from Nodes 2 and 3. If the BER of flexpath A degrades above the predetermined bit-error rate (BER) threshold, the control plane reconfigures the flexpath modulation format. Here, QPSK (state B) and BPSK (state C) are alternative modulation formats that less spectrally efficient, but more resistant to OSNR impairments. In principle, this technique can be extended to other higher order single- or multi-carrier modulation formats.

In most networking situations, multiple flexpaths will be present simultaneously. Figure 1(c) shows possible state configurations for a two-flexpath scenario. In this example, flexpath A experiences a time varying OSNR degradation and changes between BPSK and QPSK, depending on its QoT. In order to accommodate this change, the spectral location of flexpath B is adjusted to maintain a defragmented spectrum. To this extent, the adaptive control plane can adjust both the modulation format and spectral location of each of the flexpaths individually.

In order to react to changes in QoT of each flexpath, the control plane needs an efficient means of monitoring the potentially broadband flexpaths. One method involves using a low speed supervisory channel to monitor the high speed flexpaths, which enables the control plane to cheaply and efficiently react to network changes. In this way, the adaptive control plane maintains flexpath data rate by increasing or decreasing the flexpath spectral efficiency under conditions of decreasing or increasing QoT, respectively.

Figure 2(a)
Fig. 2 (a) Flexible bandwidth wavelength cross connect (WXC) node detail. (b) Quality of transmission (QoT) monitor detail. WSS: wavelength-selective switch. OAWG: optical arbitrary waveform generation. OAWM: optical arbitrary waveform measurement. OTP: optical transponder. PM: performance monitoring. FPGA: field programmable gate array.
details the flexible bandwidth wavelength cross connect (FB-WXC) node architecture. At each input to the node is a QoT monitor followed by an N × N WSS to route each flexpath to the desired output. The control plane configures the QoT monitors, WSS and OTP according to the current spectrum allocation map. Information sent from the QoT monitors to the control plane provides updates of the QoT of each flexpath allowing updates to the spectrum allocation map, if necessary. Figure 2(b) shows detail of a possible implementation of a QoT monitor based on a 1 × M wavelength selective switch (WSS), performance monitors and a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). By detecting a low speed supervisory channel on up to M flexpaths on an incoming link, the QoT monitor provides QoT information of high speed flexpaths through known correlation data.

An effective means of implementing the optical transponder (OTP) necessary for add/drop operations in each node (Fig. 2(a)) is to use dynamic optical arbitrary waveform generation (OAWG) and measurement (OAWM) [9

9. R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic optical arbitrary waveform generation and measurement,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18655–18670 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11

11. N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, L. Zhou, F. M. Soares, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Real-time full-field arbitrary optical waveform measurement,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 248–254 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. This is a bandwidth scalable technique capable of generating the variable bandwidth and arbitrary modulation format flexpaths necessary for flexible bandwidth transmissions. Dynamic OAWG and OAWM operates over broad bandwidth by relying on the parallel processing of many lower bandwidth spectral slices that are manageable with currently available electronics. This technique allows the generation of both single- and multi-carrier flexpaths over its operation bandwidth. In comparison, other techniques are restricted to only using many low speed orthogonal subcarriers to generate broadband flexpaths [12

12. B. Kozicki, H. Takara, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, K. Yonenaga, and M. Jinno, “Experimental demonstration of spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network (SLICE),” Opt. Express 18(21), 22105–22118 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

2.2 RWA considerations for implementing impairment aware flexible bandwidth networks

3. Single flexpath impairment awareness

3.1 Experimental arrangement

Figure 3
Fig. 3 (a) Experimental arrangement. Detail of (b) the receiver and (c) the performance monitor (PM). OFCG: optical frequency comb generator. OAWG: optical arbitrary waveform generation. MZM: Mach-Zehnder modulator. LEAF: low effective area fiber. WSS: wavelength selective switch. FPGA: field programmable gate array. OTP: optical transponder.
depicts the experimental arrangement that emulates parts of Fig. 1(a) for the single flexpath impairment aware experiment. In this example, the transmitter in node 1 relied on static OAWG (i.e., line-by-line pulse shaping) [15

15. D. J. Geisler, N. K. Fontaine, T. He, R. P. Scott, L. Paraschis, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Modulation-format agile, reconfigurable Tb/s transmitter based on optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15911–15925 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] to produce broadband (i.e., up to 360 GHz) waveforms (e.g., 8PSK, QPSK, and BPSK) that repeat at the inverse of the optical frequency comb (OFC) spacing. Specifically in Fig. 3(a), a 10 GHz, 36-line OFC was generated through a combination of amplitude and phase modulation of a cw laser using a dual-electrode Mach-Zehnder modulator [16

16. T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, and M. Izutsu, “Asymptotic formalism for ultraflat optical frequency comb generation using a Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Lett. 32(11), 1515–1517 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] followed by highly nonlinear fiber to further broaden the spectrum through self-phase modulation. Next, a 100-channel × 10-GHz spacing silica OAWG device individually modulated the amplitude and phase of each OFC line in order to generate the desired output waveforms. The amplitude and phase for each modulation format was stored in a lookup table and used to dynamically switch between modulation formats. A Mach-Zehnder modulator generated the supervisory channel by applying relatively a small overmodulation (17%) to the generated waveform. The supervisory channel consisted of a 231-1 pseudo-random bit sequence (PRBS) sequence from the Rocket I/O of a Virtex 5 FPGA, and resulted in a negligible impact on the high speed signal (see Fig. 4(a)
Fig. 4 State (A), state (B), and state (C) BER curves for the 360 Gb/s flexpath taken back-to-back with (*) and without the supervisory channel. Insets show constellation diagrams taken at an OSNR of 40 dB @ 0.1 nm noise bandwidth. State (A) (8PSK)
).

Node 2 consisted of a WSS that served to filter and route the flexpath to node 3. Also shown is the potential to perform performance monitoring of the supervisory channel at node 2 using a second WSS and performance monitoring (PM) blocks. The OSNR impairment consisted of a variable attenuator situated between nodes 2 and 3. At node 3, constant monitoring of the supervisory channel BER using a 1 GHz photodiode and an FPGA (Fig. 3(c)) informed the PC based control plane of the supervisory channel BER.

For the proof-of-principle demonstrations in this paper, all flexpaths were generated with static OAWG, in which the modulations on each comb line were constant. This produced output waveforms that repeated at the inverse of the OFC spacing. At node 3, these high 360 Gb/s flexpaths measurements using linear optical sampling [17

17. C. Dorrer, C. R. Doerr, I. Kang, R. Ryf, J. Leuthold, and P. J. Winzer, “Measurement of eye diagrams and constellation diagrams of optical sources using linear optics and waveguide technology,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(1), 178–186 (2005). [CrossRef]

] provided full-field (i.e., amplitude and phase) samples of the high speed waveform (Fig. 3(b)). The reference signal used for sampling was a second OFCG with 36 comb lines at a 10.01 GHz spacing generated from amplitude and phase modulation of a cw laser followed by additional phase modulations to increase the number of lines. Performing Q-factor based BER estimation on constellation diagrams generated from the linear optical sampling traces yielded the flexpath BER. This provided a good metric for signal integrity despite the use of repetitive waveforms [17

17. C. Dorrer, C. R. Doerr, I. Kang, R. Ryf, J. Leuthold, and P. J. Winzer, “Measurement of eye diagrams and constellation diagrams of optical sources using linear optics and waveguide technology,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(1), 178–186 (2005). [CrossRef]

].

3.2 Initial tests

Figure 4 shows BER results for the generation of the 8PSK, QPSK, and BPSK waveforms with and without the supervisory channel. The BER curves show a < 1 dB penalty from the inclusion of the supervisory channel. The 3-dB penalty between the 360 Gb/s BPSK and QPSK waveforms agrees with expected results. The 5–6-dB penalty between the 360 Gb/s QPSK and 8PSK is slightly larger than the expected 5 dB due to slight errors in waveform shaping.

3.3 Dynamic OSNR test

In order to implement the adaptive control plane, it was necessary to correlate the 1.25 Gb/s supervisory channel BER to the 360 Gb/s flexpath BER. Figure 5(a)
Fig. 5 (a) Correlation between BPSK, QPSK, and 8PSK BER of the flexpath and supervisory channel BER. Gray arrows indicate transition points between modulation formats and letters indicate supervisory channel BER regions. (b) Signal BER over time with time varying OSNR. Color changes for the flexpath indicate changes in modulation format state. Gray arrows indicate path of BER change of the signal over time. Inset constellation diagrams correspond to flexpath (A) BER points outlined in green.
shows the measured correlation between the supervisory channel and flexpath in 8PSK, QPSK, and BPSK modulation formats. Transition points between modulation formats for the adaptive control plane to use were chosen (gray arrows) in order to ensure successful transmission below the FEC BER limit of 10−3 for Reed-Solomon (255,239) code. Additionally, an offset between adjacent modulation format transition points helped to avoid situations of rapid switching.

4. Demonstration of two flexpath impairment awareness

4.1 Experimental arrangement

Figure 6
Fig. 6 (a) Experimental arrangement. Detail of (b) the receiver and (c) the performance monitor (PM). OFCG: optical frequency comb generator. OAWG: optical arbitrary waveform generation. MZM: Mach-Zehnder modulator. LEAF: low effective area fiber. LCP: local control plane. WSS: wavelength selective switch. FPGA: field programmable gate array. OTP: optical transponder.
shows the experimental arrangement used for the two flexpath experiment that includes the key elements of Fig. 1(a). This experiment builds on the back-to-back experimental arrangement from Fig. 3 by including low effective area fiber (LEAF) between the nodes. Here, the NC&M together with the LCPs at each node functioned to implement the adaptive control plane. Additionally, the waveforms generated by the OAWG device included precompensation for the chromatic dispersion incurred on each flexpaths from the addition of the LEAF fiber. Due to the different lengths of fiber traveled by the two flexpaths, the OAWG transmitter applied different amounts of chromatic dispersion precompensation to each one. Also, a supervisory channel implemented using an only 11% overmodulation ensured minimal penalty.

4.2 Initial tests

4.3 Dynamic OSNR test

5. Conclusions

Acknowledgments

This work was supported in part by DARPA and SPAWAR under OAWG contract HR0011-05-C-0155, under NSF ECCS grant 1028729, and under the CISCO University Research Program. The authors thank Nistica for the loan of the WSS units.

References and links

1.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, Y. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(8), 138–145 (2010). [CrossRef]

2.

C. V. Saradhi and S. Subramaniam, “Physical layer impairment aware routing (PLIAR) in WDM optical networks: issues and challenges,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tutorials 11(4), 109–130 (2009). [CrossRef]

3.

Z. Pan, C. Yu, and A. E. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring for the next generation optical communication networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(1), 20–45 (2010). [CrossRef]

4.

A. E. Willner, “The optical network of the future: can optical performance monitoring enable automated, intelligent and robust systems?” Opt. Photonics News 17(3), 30–35 (2006). [CrossRef]

5.

D. C. Kilper, R. Bach, D. J. Blumenthal, D. Einstein, T. Landolsi, L. Ostar, M. Preiss, and A. E. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(1), 294–304 (2004). [CrossRef]

6.

S. Azodolmolky, J. Perello, M. Angelou, F. Agraz, L. Velasco, S. Spadaro, Y. Pointurier, A. Francescon, C. V. Saradhi, P. Kokkinos, E. A. Varvarigos, S. Al Zahr, M. Gagnaire, M. Gunkel, D. Klonidis, and I. Tomkos, “Experimental demonstration of an impairment aware network planning and operation tool for transparent/translucent optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(4), 439–448 (2011). [CrossRef]

7.

M. Gagnaire and S. Zahr, “Impairment-aware routing and wavelength assignment in translucent networks: state of the art,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 47(5), 55–61 (2009). [CrossRef]

8.

D. J. Geisler, R. Proietti, Y. Yin, R. P. Scott, X. Cai, N. K. Fontaine, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, and S. J. B. Yoo, “The first testbed demonstration of a flexible bandwidth network with a real-time adaptive control plane,” in 37th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper Th.13.K.2.

9.

R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic optical arbitrary waveform generation and measurement,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18655–18670 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

D. J. Geisler, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Demonstration of a flexible bandwidth optical transmitter/receiver system scalable to terahertz bandwidths,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 1013–1022 (2011). [CrossRef]

11.

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, L. Zhou, F. M. Soares, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Real-time full-field arbitrary optical waveform measurement,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 248–254 (2010). [CrossRef]

12.

B. Kozicki, H. Takara, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, K. Yonenaga, and M. Jinno, “Experimental demonstration of spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network (SLICE),” Opt. Express 18(21), 22105–22118 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

F. Paolucci, N. Sambo, F. Cugini, A. Giorgetti, and P. Castoldi, “Experimental demonstration of impairment-aware PCE for multi-bit-rate WSONs,” J. Opt. Commun. Networking 3(8), 610–619 (2011). [CrossRef]

14.

Y. Lee, G. Bernstein, D. Li, and G. Martinelli, “A framework for the control of wavelength switched optical networks (WSON) with impairments,” IETF Internet Draft (Nov. 23, 2011).

15.

D. J. Geisler, N. K. Fontaine, T. He, R. P. Scott, L. Paraschis, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Modulation-format agile, reconfigurable Tb/s transmitter based on optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15911–15925 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, and M. Izutsu, “Asymptotic formalism for ultraflat optical frequency comb generation using a Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Lett. 32(11), 1515–1517 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

C. Dorrer, C. R. Doerr, I. Kang, R. Ryf, J. Leuthold, and P. J. Winzer, “Measurement of eye diagrams and constellation diagrams of optical sources using linear optics and waveguide technology,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(1), 178–186 (2005). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.1155) Fiber optics and optical communications : All-optical networks
(060.4264) Fiber optics and optical communications : Networks, wavelength assignment

ToC Category:
Backbone and Core Networks

History
Original Manuscript: November 2, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: November 18, 2011
Published: December 6, 2011

Virtual Issues
European Conference on Optical Communication 2011 (2011) Optics Express

Citation
David J. Geisler, Roberto Proietti, Yawei Yin, Ryan P. Scott, Xinran Cai, Nicolas K. Fontaine, Loukas Paraschis, Ori Gerstel, and S. J. B. Yoo, "Experimental demonstration of flexible bandwidth networking with real-time impairment awareness," Opt. Express 19, B736-B745 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-26-B736


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References

  1. M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, Y. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag.48(8), 138–145 (2010). [CrossRef]
  2. C. V. Saradhi and S. Subramaniam, “Physical layer impairment aware routing (PLIAR) in WDM optical networks: issues and challenges,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tutorials11(4), 109–130 (2009). [CrossRef]
  3. Z. Pan, C. Yu, and A. E. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring for the next generation optical communication networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol.16(1), 20–45 (2010). [CrossRef]
  4. A. E. Willner, “The optical network of the future: can optical performance monitoring enable automated, intelligent and robust systems?” Opt. Photonics News17(3), 30–35 (2006). [CrossRef]
  5. D. C. Kilper, R. Bach, D. J. Blumenthal, D. Einstein, T. Landolsi, L. Ostar, M. Preiss, and A. E. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring,” J. Lightwave Technol.22(1), 294–304 (2004). [CrossRef]
  6. S. Azodolmolky, J. Perello, M. Angelou, F. Agraz, L. Velasco, S. Spadaro, Y. Pointurier, A. Francescon, C. V. Saradhi, P. Kokkinos, E. A. Varvarigos, S. Al Zahr, M. Gagnaire, M. Gunkel, D. Klonidis, and I. Tomkos, “Experimental demonstration of an impairment aware network planning and operation tool for transparent/translucent optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol.29(4), 439–448 (2011). [CrossRef]
  7. M. Gagnaire and S. Zahr, “Impairment-aware routing and wavelength assignment in translucent networks: state of the art,” IEEE Commun. Mag.47(5), 55–61 (2009). [CrossRef]
  8. D. J. Geisler, R. Proietti, Y. Yin, R. P. Scott, X. Cai, N. K. Fontaine, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, and S. J. B. Yoo, “The first testbed demonstration of a flexible bandwidth network with a real-time adaptive control plane,” in 37th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper Th.13.K.2.
  9. R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic optical arbitrary waveform generation and measurement,” Opt. Express18(18), 18655–18670 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. J. Geisler, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Demonstration of a flexible bandwidth optical transmitter/receiver system scalable to terahertz bandwidths,” IEEE Photonics J.3(6), 1013–1022 (2011). [CrossRef]
  11. N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, L. Zhou, F. M. Soares, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Real-time full-field arbitrary optical waveform measurement,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 248–254 (2010). [CrossRef]
  12. B. Kozicki, H. Takara, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, K. Yonenaga, and M. Jinno, “Experimental demonstration of spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network (SLICE),” Opt. Express18(21), 22105–22118 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. F. Paolucci, N. Sambo, F. Cugini, A. Giorgetti, and P. Castoldi, “Experimental demonstration of impairment-aware PCE for multi-bit-rate WSONs,” J. Opt. Commun. Networking3(8), 610–619 (2011). [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Lee, G. Bernstein, D. Li, and G. Martinelli, “A framework for the control of wavelength switched optical networks (WSON) with impairments,” IETF Internet Draft (Nov. 23, 2011).
  15. D. J. Geisler, N. K. Fontaine, T. He, R. P. Scott, L. Paraschis, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Modulation-format agile, reconfigurable Tb/s transmitter based on optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Express17(18), 15911–15925 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, and M. Izutsu, “Asymptotic formalism for ultraflat optical frequency comb generation using a Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Lett.32(11), 1515–1517 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. C. Dorrer, C. R. Doerr, I. Kang, R. Ryf, J. Leuthold, and P. J. Winzer, “Measurement of eye diagrams and constellation diagrams of optical sources using linear optics and waveguide technology,” J. Lightwave Technol.23(1), 178–186 (2005). [CrossRef]

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