OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 27 — Dec. 19, 2011
  • pp: 25854–25859
« Show journal navigation

Thermoluminescence at a heating rate threshold in stressed fused silica

Philippe Bouchut, Frédéric Milesi, and Céline Da Maren  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 27, pp. 25854-25859 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.025854


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (862 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

The emissive properties of proton implanted fused silica surfaces have been studied by laser beam annealing. When submitted to a high thermal step from a focused CO2 laser, an intense near infra-red transient incandescence (TI) peak rises from stressed silica. The TI presents the characteristics of a thermoluminescent (TL) emission that occurs above a thermal rate threshold. We show that TI rises at the stress relaxation.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

Thermoluminescence (TL) from wet synthetic silica has been explored by Guzzi et al. [1

1. M. Guzzi, G. Lucchini, M. Martini, F. Pio, A. Vedda, and E. Grilli, “Thermally stimulated luminescence above room temperature of amorphous SiO2,” Solid State Commun. 75(2), 75–79 (1990). [CrossRef]

]. They have shown that in this silica presenting a low level of impurities, only one small TL peak appears at 2.7 eV after neutron bombardment. The photoluminescence induced under proton bombardment also presents a smaller second peak at 1.9 eV [2

2. S. Nagata, S. Yamamoto, K. Toh, B. Tsuchiya, N. Ohtsu, T. Shikama, and H. Naramoto, “Luminescence in SiO2 induced by MeV energy proton irradiation,” J. Nucl. Mater. 329–333, 1507–1510 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. In both cases the luminescence from wet synthetic fused silica is very low after irradiation. The first peak is assigned to the oxygen deficient center and the second to the nonbridging oxygen hole center. These two peaks correspond to known and listed [3

3. L. Skuja, “Optically active oxygen-deficiency-related centers in amorphous silicon dioxide,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239(1-3), 16–48 (1998). [CrossRef]

] intrinsic silica defects having luminescent emission in the visible wavelengths range. In this paper we report on the intense, near infra-red Transient Incandescence (TI) emission from laser beam annealed fused silica samples implanted with protons. The TI peak presents the characteristics of a TL peak that occurs at a thermal rate threshold. We show that it rises at the stress relaxation.

2. Experimental set up and implantation conditions

When mapping the incandescence, the silica sample is moved in front of the laser beam at a constant speed of 2mm/s. The near infrared thermography diagnostic is fixed and collects radiatively emitted photons from the front surface plane through the transparent sample. The uncooled InGaAs detector’s spectral response, 0.9 to 1.65 µm is well suited for silica’s transparency window. This configuration enables a total filtering of the 10.59 µm excitation photons and an on-axis imagery. The temporal sampling of incandescence along the Y axis is at 20 Hertz which results in spatial resolution of 100 µm over a 40 mm line. Successive scanning lines are juxtaposed at a 200 µm pitch along the X axis, and finally create a 2D, (XY) plane, 40*40 mm2 TI mapping. The TI images are range-limited and coded over 8 bits, 256 grey levels.

Two fused silica samples, E1 and E2 have been implanted with protons at room temperature, with an Axcelis NV-8200P medium current ion implanter under the Table 1

Table 1. Implantation conditions

table-icon
View This Table
conditions.

The sample E1 has been used to observe the incandescence temporal behavior when sites are submitted to a thermal step and the sample E2 with the incandescence mapping technique. In E2, the three proton doses are implanted, at the maximum acceleration energy available with the ion implanter, in juxtaposed regions which are defined by masking tape. In each sample, the implanted protons induce a stoichiometry perturbation of less than 1% inside a small embedded layer of a few tens of nanometers. What is more important is the silica compaction induced by the lattice atom displacement. In bulk silica, the ion implantation induces a densification and a tensile stress below the surface [5

5. E. P. EerNisse, “Compaction of ion-implanted fused silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 45(1), 167–174 (1974). [CrossRef]

].

3. Results and discussion

The incandescence temporal behavior, from the E1 sample, is recorded at four adjacent sites submitted to a one second duration thermal step at a different laser power. In each temporal spectrum, obtained from a different site, Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Incandescence signal from juxtaposed sites in stressed silica with increased excitation power. The dotted lines represent the calculated background incandescence at each excitation power.
, the incandescence exhibits a peak, more intense and at shorter time as the laser power increases.

Below this heating rate threshold there is no TI but an incandescence background.

If, instead of a thermal step on a fixed site, we scan dynamically the E2 sample, the thermal excitation on the spatially sampled sites changes to a thermal pulse [8

8. Y. I. Nissim, A. Lietoila, R. B. Gold, and J. F. Gibbons, “Temperature distributions produced in semiconductors by a scanning elliptical or circular cw laser beam,” J. Appl. Phys. 51(1), 274–279 (1980). [CrossRef]

]. The E2 sample has been line scanned first at a 0.8W laser power, below the thermal rate threshold, and then at a 1.4W laser power, above the thermal rate threshold, with a 0.1mm X spatial offset in order to probe the same sample on intertwined lines.

Three main radiation-induced effects are known to induce changes in the mechanical stress in bulk silica:

  • First, the ion bombardment induces compaction and the tensile stress increases linearly with the ion dose (at/cm2) up to a maximum dose [5

    5. E. P. EerNisse, “Compaction of ion-implanted fused silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 45(1), 167–174 (1974). [CrossRef]

    ].
  • Second, the radiation-induced Newtonian plastic flow [11

    11. W. Primak, “Stress relaxation of vitreous silica on irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 53(11), 7331–7342 (1982). [CrossRef]

    ] takes place, in which the stress relaxes at a rate that is proportional to the magnitude of the stress [12

    12. C. A. Volkert and A. Polman, “Radiation-enhanced plastic flow of covalent materials during ion irradiation,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 235, 3–14 (1992). [CrossRef]

    ].
  • Third, a nonsaturating anisotropic stress generating effect may occur in which an in-plane stress builds up perpendicular to the direction of the ion beam [13

    13. E. Snoeks, A. Polman, and C. A. Volkert, “Densification, anisotropic deformation, and plastic flow of SiO2 during MeV heavy ion irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(19), 2487–2489 (1994). [CrossRef]

    ].

Anomalous vibrational modes are soft modes with large transverse displacements like the bonded proton in silica which has twice the vibrational amplitude of the other lattice vibrations [17

17. A. Fontana, L. Orsingher, F. Rossi, and U. Buchenau, “Dynamics of a hydrogenated silica xerogel: A neutron scattering study,” Phys. Rev. B 74(17), 172304 (2006). [CrossRef]

] at the “boson peak,”. Theoretically, such anomalous modes should collapse under an internal compressive stress [18

18. M. Wyart, L. E. Silbert, S. R. Nagel, and T. A. Witten, “Effects of compression on the vibrational modes of marginally jammed solids,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(5), 051306 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. As the hyperquenched glass annealing is also characterized by a decrease in the vibrational density of state at the boson peak [19

19. C. A. Angell, Y. Yue, L.-M. Wang, J. R. D. Copley, S. Borick, and S. Mossa, “Potential energy, relaxation, vibrational dynamics and the boson peak, of hyperquenched glasses,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 15(11), S1051–S1068 (2003). [CrossRef]

], the origin of the stress relaxation might be found in the anomalous soft modes collapse. This hypothesis can be verified by monitoring the atomic exhaust from heated stressed fused silica under vacuum. As the plastic flow moves atoms toward the surface to relieve the in-plane stress [20

20. C. A. Volkert, “Stress and plastic flow in silicon during amorphization by ion bombardment,” J. Appl. Phys. 70(7), 3521–3527 (1991). [CrossRef]

], it may be possible to observe the simultaneous implanted ions exo-diffusion as well as the TI occurring at the thermal rate threshold. The TI relationship to the plastic flow would also explain its intensity because the plastic flow has very low or null activation energy [20

20. C. A. Volkert, “Stress and plastic flow in silicon during amorphization by ion bombardment,” J. Appl. Phys. 70(7), 3521–3527 (1991). [CrossRef]

]. The “Bose phonons,” can also be responsible for the lattice deformation which enables the radiative emission from point defect centers. Putting a name on the phonons that initiate the TL enables us to put a terahertz limit on the electron escape frequency in TL models [21

21. S. W. S. McKeever and R. Chen, “Luminescence models,” Radiat. Meas. 27(5–6), 625–661 (1997). [CrossRef]

].

Transient incandescence (TI) has been discovered through the very fast CO2 laser annealing of protons implanted fused silica surface. TI shows the characteristics of a thermoluminescence (TL) phenomenon that occurs at a thermal rate threshold. From the surface strain inversion occurring at the laser scanning between two differently stressed areas, we are able to conclude that TI rises at the stress relaxation.

Acknowledgments

P. B. acknowledges U. Buchenau for some discussions and a missing reference. The authors want to thank M. Plissonnier and R. Nelson for the manuscript corrections and J.-G. Coutard and M. Reymermier for technical assistance.

References and links

1.

M. Guzzi, G. Lucchini, M. Martini, F. Pio, A. Vedda, and E. Grilli, “Thermally stimulated luminescence above room temperature of amorphous SiO2,” Solid State Commun. 75(2), 75–79 (1990). [CrossRef]

2.

S. Nagata, S. Yamamoto, K. Toh, B. Tsuchiya, N. Ohtsu, T. Shikama, and H. Naramoto, “Luminescence in SiO2 induced by MeV energy proton irradiation,” J. Nucl. Mater. 329–333, 1507–1510 (2004). [CrossRef]

3.

L. Skuja, “Optically active oxygen-deficiency-related centers in amorphous silicon dioxide,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239(1-3), 16–48 (1998). [CrossRef]

4.

P. Bouchut, D. Decruppe, and L. Delrive, “Fused silica thermal conductivity dispersion at high temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(6), 3221–3227 (2004). [CrossRef]

5.

E. P. EerNisse, “Compaction of ion-implanted fused silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 45(1), 167–174 (1974). [CrossRef]

6.

J. L. Lawless and D. Lo, “Thermoluminescence for nonlinear heating profiles with application to laser heated emissions,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(11), 6145–6152 (2001). [CrossRef]

7.

J. L. Lawless, S. K. Lam, and D. Lo, “Nondestructive in situ thermoluminescence using CO(2) laser heating,” Opt. Express 10(6), 291–296 (2002). [PubMed]

8.

Y. I. Nissim, A. Lietoila, R. B. Gold, and J. F. Gibbons, “Temperature distributions produced in semiconductors by a scanning elliptical or circular cw laser beam,” J. Appl. Phys. 51(1), 274–279 (1980). [CrossRef]

9.

J. Gasiot, P. Braunlich, and J. P. Fillard, “Laser heating in thermoluminescence dosimetry,” J. Appl. Phys. 53(7), 5200–5209 (1982). [CrossRef]

10.

The 1000K temperature bound is obtained by the downscaling of the temperature determined in [4] for a larger beam waist and lower power.

11.

W. Primak, “Stress relaxation of vitreous silica on irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 53(11), 7331–7342 (1982). [CrossRef]

12.

C. A. Volkert and A. Polman, “Radiation-enhanced plastic flow of covalent materials during ion irradiation,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 235, 3–14 (1992). [CrossRef]

13.

E. Snoeks, A. Polman, and C. A. Volkert, “Densification, anisotropic deformation, and plastic flow of SiO2 during MeV heavy ion irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(19), 2487–2489 (1994). [CrossRef]

14.

A. Wootton, B. Thomas, and P. Harrowell, “Radiation-induced densification in amorphous silica: A computer simulation study,” J. Chem. Phys. 115(7), 3336–3341 (2001). [CrossRef]

15.

L. Huang and J. Kieffer, “Anomalous thermomechanical properties and laser-induced densification of vitreous silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141915 (2006). [CrossRef]

16.

M. Fujimaki, Y. Nishihara, Y. Ohki, J. L. Brebner, and S. Roorda, “Ion-implantation-induced densification in silica-based glass for fabrication of optical fiber gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(10), 5534–5537 (2000). [CrossRef]

17.

A. Fontana, L. Orsingher, F. Rossi, and U. Buchenau, “Dynamics of a hydrogenated silica xerogel: A neutron scattering study,” Phys. Rev. B 74(17), 172304 (2006). [CrossRef]

18.

M. Wyart, L. E. Silbert, S. R. Nagel, and T. A. Witten, “Effects of compression on the vibrational modes of marginally jammed solids,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(5), 051306 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

C. A. Angell, Y. Yue, L.-M. Wang, J. R. D. Copley, S. Borick, and S. Mossa, “Potential energy, relaxation, vibrational dynamics and the boson peak, of hyperquenched glasses,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 15(11), S1051–S1068 (2003). [CrossRef]

20.

C. A. Volkert, “Stress and plastic flow in silicon during amorphization by ion bombardment,” J. Appl. Phys. 70(7), 3521–3527 (1991). [CrossRef]

21.

S. W. S. McKeever and R. Chen, “Luminescence models,” Radiat. Meas. 27(5–6), 625–661 (1997). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(000.6850) General : Thermodynamics
(160.6030) Materials : Silica
(260.3800) Physical optics : Luminescence

ToC Category:
Materials

History
Original Manuscript: June 29, 2011
Revised Manuscript: July 25, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: July 26, 2011
Published: December 5, 2011

Citation
Philippe Bouchut, Frédéric Milesi, and Céline Da Maren, "Thermoluminescence at a heating rate threshold in stressed fused silica," Opt. Express 19, 25854-25859 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-27-25854


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. M. Guzzi, G. Lucchini, M. Martini, F. Pio, A. Vedda, and E. Grilli, “Thermally stimulated luminescence above room temperature of amorphous SiO2,” Solid State Commun.75(2), 75–79 (1990). [CrossRef]
  2. S. Nagata, S. Yamamoto, K. Toh, B. Tsuchiya, N. Ohtsu, T. Shikama, and H. Naramoto, “Luminescence in SiO2 induced by MeV energy proton irradiation,” J. Nucl. Mater.329–333, 1507–1510 (2004). [CrossRef]
  3. L. Skuja, “Optically active oxygen-deficiency-related centers in amorphous silicon dioxide,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids239(1-3), 16–48 (1998). [CrossRef]
  4. P. Bouchut, D. Decruppe, and L. Delrive, “Fused silica thermal conductivity dispersion at high temperature,” J. Appl. Phys.96(6), 3221–3227 (2004). [CrossRef]
  5. E. P. EerNisse, “Compaction of ion-implanted fused silica,” J. Appl. Phys.45(1), 167–174 (1974). [CrossRef]
  6. J. L. Lawless and D. Lo, “Thermoluminescence for nonlinear heating profiles with application to laser heated emissions,” J. Appl. Phys.89(11), 6145–6152 (2001). [CrossRef]
  7. J. L. Lawless, S. K. Lam, and D. Lo, “Nondestructive in situ thermoluminescence using CO(2) laser heating,” Opt. Express10(6), 291–296 (2002). [PubMed]
  8. Y. I. Nissim, A. Lietoila, R. B. Gold, and J. F. Gibbons, “Temperature distributions produced in semiconductors by a scanning elliptical or circular cw laser beam,” J. Appl. Phys.51(1), 274–279 (1980). [CrossRef]
  9. J. Gasiot, P. Braunlich, and J. P. Fillard, “Laser heating in thermoluminescence dosimetry,” J. Appl. Phys.53(7), 5200–5209 (1982). [CrossRef]
  10. The 1000K temperature bound is obtained by the downscaling of the temperature determined in [4] for a larger beam waist and lower power.
  11. W. Primak, “Stress relaxation of vitreous silica on irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys.53(11), 7331–7342 (1982). [CrossRef]
  12. C. A. Volkert and A. Polman, “Radiation-enhanced plastic flow of covalent materials during ion irradiation,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.235, 3–14 (1992). [CrossRef]
  13. E. Snoeks, A. Polman, and C. A. Volkert, “Densification, anisotropic deformation, and plastic flow of SiO2 during MeV heavy ion irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.65(19), 2487–2489 (1994). [CrossRef]
  14. A. Wootton, B. Thomas, and P. Harrowell, “Radiation-induced densification in amorphous silica: A computer simulation study,” J. Chem. Phys.115(7), 3336–3341 (2001). [CrossRef]
  15. L. Huang and J. Kieffer, “Anomalous thermomechanical properties and laser-induced densification of vitreous silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(14), 141915 (2006). [CrossRef]
  16. M. Fujimaki, Y. Nishihara, Y. Ohki, J. L. Brebner, and S. Roorda, “Ion-implantation-induced densification in silica-based glass for fabrication of optical fiber gratings,” J. Appl. Phys.88(10), 5534–5537 (2000). [CrossRef]
  17. A. Fontana, L. Orsingher, F. Rossi, and U. Buchenau, “Dynamics of a hydrogenated silica xerogel: A neutron scattering study,” Phys. Rev. B74(17), 172304 (2006). [CrossRef]
  18. M. Wyart, L. E. Silbert, S. R. Nagel, and T. A. Witten, “Effects of compression on the vibrational modes of marginally jammed solids,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.72(5), 051306 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. C. A. Angell, Y. Yue, L.-M. Wang, J. R. D. Copley, S. Borick, and S. Mossa, “Potential energy, relaxation, vibrational dynamics and the boson peak, of hyperquenched glasses,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter15(11), S1051–S1068 (2003). [CrossRef]
  20. C. A. Volkert, “Stress and plastic flow in silicon during amorphization by ion bombardment,” J. Appl. Phys.70(7), 3521–3527 (1991). [CrossRef]
  21. S. W. S. McKeever and R. Chen, “Luminescence models,” Radiat. Meas.27(5–6), 625–661 (1997). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Figures

Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
 
Fig. 4
 

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited