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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 27 — Dec. 19, 2011
  • pp: 25881–25890
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Criticality in single-distance phase retrieval

Ralf Hofmann, Julian Moosmann, and Tilo Baumbach  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 27, pp. 25881-25890 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.025881


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Abstract

We investigate why in free-space propagation single-distance phase retrieval based on a modified contrast-transfer function of linearized Fresnel theory yields good results for moderately strong pure-phase objects. Upscaling phase-variations in the exit plane, the growth of maxima of the modulus of the Fourier transformed intensity contrast dominates the minima. Cutting out small regions around the latter thus keeps information loss due to nonlocal, nonlinear effects negligible. This quasiparticle approach breaks down at a critical upscaling where the positions of the minima start to move rapidly. We apply our results to X-ray data of an early-stage Xenopus (frog) embryo.

© 2011 OSA

With the advent of 3rd-generation synchrotron light sources, producing highly intense and spatially coherent X-rays, the investigation of materials of low absorption but considerable phase-shifting capability can be and is routinely performed. This opens up the potential for the application of new, nondestructive imaging techniques relevant to in vivo investigation of biological samples. Moreover, satisfactory phase retrieval from a single-distance projection in free-space propagation in combination with the small exposure times due to large photon fluxes at synchrotron beamlines enable time resolved tomographic imaging for the study of evolution processes on the cellular and subcellular level. Therefore, in particular the field of developmental biology should benefit from the method discussed in this paper.

For monochromatic and parallel X-ray illumination (wave number k=2πλ=2πEhc, wave length λ, circular frequency ω, energy E, quantum of action h, speed of light in vacuum c) of a pure-phase object, which does not diminish the (ideal) spatial coherence properties of the incoming wavefront, we consider free-space propagation of the modulated exit wavefront ψz=0(r⃗) away from plane z = 0 to generate intensity contrast gzIzIz=0Iz=0 at distance z > 0 [1

1. A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, V. Kohn, S. Kuznetsov, and I. Schelokov, “On the possibilities of Xray phase contrast microimaging by coherent high-energy synchrotron radiation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 5486–5492 (1995). [CrossRef]

7

7. M. R. Teague, “Deterministic phase retrieval: a Greens function solution,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 1434–1441 (1983). [CrossRef]

]. Here Iz is the intensity measured in plane z, and Iz=0 ≡ const for a pure-phase object. In such a setting, we consider phase retrieval based on a projected version of the contrast-transfer function (CTF) [8

8. J.-P. Guigay, “Fourier transform analysis of Fresnel diffraction patterns and in-line holograms,” Optik 49, 121–125 (1977).

], which represents a linear and local [9

9. T. E. Gureyev, Y. Nesterets, D. Paganin, A. Pogany, and S. Wilkins, “Linear algorithms for phase retrieval in the Fresnel region. 2. partially coherent illumination,” Opt. Commun 259, 569–580 (2006). [CrossRef]

] relation between gz and the phase shift ϕz=0 exiting the object, when ϕz=0 violates the CTF criterion
|ϕz=0(rπzkξ)ϕz=0(r+πzkξ)|1.
(1)
Here ξ⃗ is a transverse-plane wave vector. Such a regularized form of CTF retrieval, named projected CTF, was proposed in [10

10. J. Moosmann, R. Hofmann, and T. Baumbach, “Single-distance phase retrieval at large phase shifts,” Opt. Express 19, 12066–12073 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and yields, via the local retrieval of an effective phase in the spirit of a quasiparticle model [11

11. L. D. Landau, “The theory of a Fermi liquid,” Sov. Phys. JETP 3, 920–925 (1957).

], remarkably good results for single-distance phase retrieval. The present paper aims at a deeper understanding of this situation.

Scaling symmetry of the spectrum is exact in the trivial limit ϕz=0α ≡ const. According to Eq. (2), then (ℱIz)(ξ⃗) ≡ δ(2)(ξ⃗)Iz=0, thus (ℱgz)(ξ⃗) ≡ 0, and the right-hand side of Eq. (3) is δ(1)(ξ2)2πsin(2π2zξ2/k)(α+iα2+O(α3)). That is, the only state that occurs is the “vacuum” (state of zero “energy”) at ξ⃗ = 0. (The impossibility of retrieving α from this relation is due to a global U(1) or constant-phase-shift symmetry of Fresnel theory.) When ϕz=0 starts to vary, infinitely many CTF “vacua” appear at |ξ⃗|n, and excitations of finite “energy” occur in between these “vacua”. Explicit violations of scaling symmetry are introduced by the nonlinear and nonlocal terms in Eq. (3) starting at O((ℱϕz=0)2). These cause CTF “vacua” to become “finite-energy” minima of |ℱgz|.

Let us now exemplarily investigate the effect in Eq. (3) of the quadratic, nonlocal correction to the CTF “dispersion law”. To do so, we appeal to a 2D isotropic Gaussian model (GM) of the exit phase map, ϕz=0GM(r)=er22σ2, where σ denotes the Gaussian’s width, and the maximal, relative phase variation is unity. It is straight-forward to derive an expression for the right-hand side of Eq. (3) when evaluated in this model after letting ϕz=0GMSϕz=0GM (or ϕz=0GMSϕz=0GM):
(gzGM)(ξ)=σ2π[4sin(2π2zkξ2)e2π2σ2ξ2Seπ2σ2ξ2(cos(2π2zkξ2)eπ2z2k2σ2ξ2)S2].
(4)
Let us compare the rates of change π2σ2 and π2z2k2σ2 in the two exponentials appearing at order S2. Their ratio is σ4k2z2. For λ = 10−10 m, σ = 10−6 m, z = 1m this yields a value of π225001. Thus the exponential in the round brackets can be neglected. On the other hand, the ratio of the rates of change of the argument of the sine (and cosine) and the exponential factor e−2π2σ2ξ⃗2 is zkσ2. For the above-assumed parameter values this yields a value of 50π1. Thus the sine and cosine factors vary much faster than the exponential factors, and we can treat the latter as constants as far as the investigation of a phase shift φ of the sine function (order S) as induced by the cosine correction (order S2) in the vicinity of |ξ|12=ξ12=k2πz is concerned. Using asinx+bcosx=a2+b2sin(x+φ), where φ=arcsinba2+b2, we have at ξ12 to linear order in S and with the above parameter values a phase shift φ of the sine function in Eq. (4) given as
φ14S1e2π2σ2ξ2+S216|ξ2=ξ12=k2πz14S.
(5)
Thus, for sufficiently small values of S, the shift of the first zero of the sine function as introduced by the quadratic, nonlocal corrections in Eq. (3) is negligible for the Gaussian model considered. We demonstrate below in a full numerical treatment of the Fresnel forward propagation for a generic, that is, realistically complex situation that the position of the first minima |ξ⃗|min,1 does not move away from |ξ|1k/(2πz) at all for a wide range of S values that upscale the regime where linear CTF retrieval is applicable. A critical increase of |ξ⃗|min,1 sets in rather late at a maximal relative phase variation larger than unity. Therefore, the entirety of higher-order corrections to the right-hand side of Eq. (3) actually stabilizes our perturbative, Gaussian-model finding of a slow variation of |ξ⃗|1 for small S to a situation of no variation at all up to Sc. Moreover, the all-order result changes a polynomial dependence of |ξ⃗|1 on S, as it is obtained in finite-order perturbation theory, to a fractional power of SSc for 0<SScSc1.

The fact that the minima of the modulus of ℱgz are not moving for 0 < SSc indicates that explicit scaling-symmetry violation is not supplemented by dynamical breaking all the way up to Sc. Recall that explicit symmetry breaking refers to the fact that finite as opposed to vanishing values of the “energy” (ℱgz)(ξ⃗) are no longer invariant under the symmetry. On the other hand, for the symmetry to be broken dynamically the locations, where minimal “energy” is attained, are shifted under the symmetry. For a continuous symmetry such as scaling symmetry the latter situation changes the spectrum drastically: It introduces new degrees of freedom (Goldstone bosons [12

12. J. Goldstone, “Field theories with superconductor solutions,” Nuovo Cimento 19, 154–164 (1961). [CrossRef]

14

14. Y. Nambu, “Quasiparticles and gauge invariance in the theory of superconductivity,” Phys. Rev. 117, 648–663 (1960). [CrossRef]

]), and the description in terms of the old spectrum is lost. In our case, this happens for SSc. (The quasiparticle concept leading to an effective CTF phase then is as useless as the description of an atomic crystal in terms of moderately interacting atoms which, however, applies to the liquid phase.) If condition (1) is sufficiently well satisfied then limited resolution in transverse Fourier space in any discretized formulation does not resolve the small-residue poles of CTF retrieval that appear in ℱϕz=0 at |ξ⃗|n, and numerical Fourier inversion yields satisfactory phase retrieval. We define ϕmax ≡ max{ϕz=0(r⃗)} with the convention that 0 ≤ ϕz=0(r⃗). With our pixel resolution of Δx = 1.1μm, E = 10keV, and z = 0.5m we are in this CTF scaling regime when setting ϕmax = 0.01 for the phase map ϕz=0 in Fig. 1(a) which serves as an input to Fresnel forward propagation. In this case we refer to the phase map as ϕz=0,CTF. In Fig. 1(b) we show angular averages gz¯(|ξ|)12π02πdθ|gz|(|ξ|(cosθ,sinθ)) (modulo a suitable treatment of truncation rods) as functions of |ξ⃗| obtained for two inputs ϕz=0 = z=0,CTF with S = 200 < Sc = 356 and S = 450 > Sc. (S = 1 corresponds to ϕz=0,CTF) While for S = 200 the position of |ξ⃗|min,1 coincides with the CTF “vacuum” |ξ⃗|1 this is not true for S = 450. “Finite-energy” minima at S = 200 introduce poles in Fourier space and thus quasiperiodic artifacts [10

10. J. Moosmann, R. Hofmann, and T. Baumbach, “Single-distance phase retrieval at large phase shifts,” Opt. Express 19, 12066–12073 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] into position-space CTF retrieval. To cope with this, the following projection is applied [10

10. J. Moosmann, R. Hofmann, and T. Baumbach, “Single-distance phase retrieval at large phase shifts,” Opt. Express 19, 12066–12073 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]
(gz)(ξ)Θ(|sin(2π2zkξ2)|ɛ)×(gz)(ξ),
(6)
where 2π2zkξ2>π2, Θ denotes the Heaviside step function, and ɛ is a threshold (0 < ɛ < 1) such that minima are centrally cut about the CTF “vacua”. Applying CTF retrieval to the projected intensity contrast on the right-hand side of replacement (6) yields good results even for very small values of ɛ.

Fig. 1 (a): transverse position-space phase map at z = 0 (zero padded test pattern Lena), (b): gz¯(|ξ|)(Δx)2 at E = 10keV, z = 0.5m and for S = 200 and S = 450, see text. The solid line is a plot of 100|sin(2π2z|ξ⃗|2/k)|. Dots and crosses indicate the respective “data”, dashed-dotted and dashed lines are respective fits to F(t) ≡ c1ec2t2c3t |sin(t2)| + c4 + c5t + c6t2 + c7t3 + c8t4 + c9t5, where tπ2zξ2k and c1, …, c9 are real constants. The actual argument in the plots is the pixel number pξ = L|ξ⃗| in Fourier space where L = px,maxΔx, L2 is area of the field of view, and px,max, Δx denote the maximal pixel number, resolution in transverse position space, respectively.

To show how scaling symmetry is increasingly broken in an explicit way within the window 1 ≤ SSc, where no dynamical breaking occurs, we have investigated in Fig. 2 the behavior of the transfer function of the CTF approximation in dependence of S for the phase map of Fig. 1(a). Observing a smooth sinusoidal shape for S = 1 justifies the above-mentioned consideration of ϕmax = 0.01 as a representative of the linear scaling regime. Notice the increasingly dramatic and nervous deviations from this sinusoidal dependence for S = 100 and S = 200. Therefore, we conclude that even for maximal phase shifts well below Sc × 0.01 ∼ 3.6 (moderately strong maximal phase variation) the assumed linearity of CTF retrieval fails judging by the behavior of the associated transfer function.

Fig. 2 Plot of the angular average of the modulus of the transfer function of the linear CTF approximation |gzϕz=0| for various values of upscaling, S = 1 (solid black dots), S = 100 (blue crosses), and S = 200 (red circles), where S = 1 is associated with the phase map ϕz=0,CTF (compare with Fig. 1(a)) at ϕmax = 0.01.

Let us now spell out the reasons for why projected CTF retrieval is good within the window 1 ≤ SSc. Figure 3 shows how the position of the first minimum |ξ⃗|min,1 changes with increasing S. At Sc = 356, which corresponds to ϕmax ∼ 3.6 and thus to a profound violation of condition (1), a critical increase of |ξ⃗|min,1 away from the first CTF “vacuum” |ξ⃗|1 takes place. A fit to A|SSc|ν + B (A,B,ν real, S > Sc) of this critical behavior, which resembles a second-order phase transition, yields an exponent ν ∼ 0.15 ± 0.1, the large error being associated with instabilities w.r.t. the length of the fitting interval. (|ξ⃗|min,1 – |ξ⃗|1 is only a pseudo-order parameter for dynamical scaling-symmetry breaking since the latter occurs on top of explicit breaking. For a discrete-symmetry analog, consider an Ising model with magnetic field H. For H = 0 the model is Z2 invariant, for H ≠ 0 not. For TTc ferromagnetic ordering occurs, and, given moderate values of H, it makes sense to consider mean magnetization a pseudo-order parameter for dynamical Z2 breaking.)

Fig. 3 Plot of pixel number pξ, which belongs to |ξ⃗|min,1, as a function of S. Notice the onset of critical behavior (second-order like phase transition) to the right of Sc = 356. Notice also that the variance of |ξ⃗|min,1 for S < Sc practically is zero.

Figure 4 depicts the ratio R of vmax,1dgz¯(|ξ|max,1)dS and vmin,1dgz¯(|ξ|min,1)dS as a function of S for 1 ≤ SSc = 356. Notice that for all such S the growth of the first maximum by far outraces that of the first minimum. This can be understood as follows. While, according to Eq. (3), the growth of the minima solely is due to the nonlocal terms at quadratic and higher order in ℱϕz=0 there is a local component in the growth of the maxima (scaling proportional to S due to the linear and local CTF order in Eq. (3)). For reasonably “nervous” ℱϕz=0 and for sufficiently moderate S successive n-fold autoconvolutions of ℱϕz=0 (n ≥ 2) tend to homogenize the nonlinear corrections, which are proportional to Sn, to small values. Thus, in this regime the dominantly linearly and locally driven growth of the maxima outraces the growth of the minima, and little information is lost if for 1 ≤ SSc thin rings centered at |ξ⃗|n are cut out to enable singularity-free phase retrieval [10

10. J. Moosmann, R. Hofmann, and T. Baumbach, “Single-distance phase retrieval at large phase shifts,” Opt. Express 19, 12066–12073 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], see Eq. (6).

Fig. 4 Plot of function R(S)vmax,1vmin,1. (The “data” gz¯(|ξ|max,1)(S) and gz¯(|ξ|min,1)(S) was fitted to 9th-degree polynomials, and the derivatives defining vmax,1 and vmin,1 were taken of these polynomials.)

Figures 5 and 6 show the results of an analysis of experimental data for phase contrast from the four-cell stage of a Xenopus embryo. Figure 5 indicates the uselessness of CTF retrieval in view of the considerable phase variations introduced by the object, and Fig. 6 points out the higher resolving power of projected CTF versus retrieval using the linearized transport-of-intensity equation (yolk particles clearly can be tracked in former case).

Fig. 5 The CTF situation: (a) phase retrieval of a projection through the four-cell stage of a Xenopus embryo. The size of the projection is 1725 × 1338 pixel2, or 1.3 × 1.0 mm2. (b) 2-D slice of the tomographic reconstruction of the electron density. The data, compare with Fig. 6(a),(d), was taken at the ID19 beamline at ESRF with E = 20keV (monochromatized to ΔEE=104 using double Si 111 crystals), 1599 projections per tomogram, an exposure time per frame of 2 s, an effective pixel size of 0.745μm, and an object-detector distance of z = 0.945m. The size of the slice is 1532 × 1691 pixel2, or 1.14 × 1.25 mm2. In both images large-scale variations were subtracted for better visibility.
Fig. 6 Same object and experimental conditions as in Fig. 5. Shown is a 2-D slice of a tomographic reconstruction based on (a) intensity contrast, and on the phase retrieved according to (b) linearized TIE and (c) projected CTF with ɛ = 0.01. The images in the second row depict the quadratic regions of interest (ROIs) selected from the images in the first row. The width of the ROIs is 150 pixel, or 112 μm. In all images large-scale variations (mainly arising from small absorptive effects) were subtracted for better visibility.

The following self-consistency test for projected CTF can be devised in applications to nearly pure-phase objects. Retrieve the phase ϕz=0pCTF(r) according to projected CTF (including a subtraction of large-scale variations arising from small absorption effects) from the measured intensity contrast gz(r⃗), let ϕz=0pCTFSϕz=0pCTF with a moderate value of S, say, S = 2, Fresnel propagate Sϕz=0pCTF to z to generate the new intensity contrast gzS(r) and investigate whether, compared to gz¯(|ξ|)=gzS=1¯(|ξ|), the minima |ξ⃗|min,1 have moved in gzS¯(|ξ|). In Fig. 7 gzS¯(|ξ|) (S = 1,2) are depicted for projected CTF applied to the Xenopus data of Fig. 6(a),(d), and it is obvious that |ξ⃗|min,1 did not move. Thus we conclude that projected CTF retrieval self-consistently operates within its regime of validity for this particular experiment.

Fig. 7 Plots of function gzS¯(|ξ|) in dependence of pξ. The black solid line is a fit (same fit function as in Fig. 1) to the data associated with Fig. 6(a),(d) (S = 1, data are black dots), and the dashed blue line is a fit to gzS¯(|ξ|), obtained by an S = 2 (data are blue crosses) upscaling of retrieved phase using projected CTF, and a subsequent Fresnel forward propagation.

To summarize, we have in a quite generic way shown why the local (quasiparticle) approach to single-distance phase retrieval yields robust and good results. Specifically, we have considered the behavior of the angular averaged modulus of the Fourier transform of the intensity contrast gz¯(|ξ|) which emerges at distance z under Fresnel propagation from a pure-phase induced exit-plane test map of realistic complexity. On one hand, an investigation was performed of the response of the position of the first minimum |ξ⃗|min,1 of gz¯(|ξ|) to upscaling of the test map (scale factor S). For S = 1 phase variations were prepared to lie within the Fresnel scaling regime (symmetry under moderate upscaling, linearity). For a large range 1 ≤ SSc the value of |ξ⃗|min,1 is observed to be indifferent to upscaling: It stays at the first CTF “vacuum” |ξ⃗|1. At Sc = 356, which corresponds to a maximal phase variation of about 3.6, critical behavior sets in which resembles a second-order like phase transition of critical exponent ν = 0.15±0.1. (At Sc = 356 explicit breaking is supplemented by a dynamical breakdown of scaling symmetry, and |ξ⃗|min,1 – |ξ⃗|1 is the associated pseudo-order parameter.) We have not in detail investigated other minima of gz¯(|ξ|), but, qualitatively, we see similar behavior. Therefore, cutting out thin rings around |ξ⃗|n (n = 1, 2,3,...) from the Fourier transform of the intensity contrast, as is done in projected CTF to enable regular phase retrieval at large values of S, works all the way up to Sc. On the other hand, we have shown that under upscaling the growth of the first maximum of gz¯(|ξ|) outraces the growth of the first minimum for 1 ≤ SSc. This can be understood by the fact that the growth of maxima is generated linearly in S and locally in the Fourier transformed phase map ℱϕz=0 while the growth of minima, albeit subject to higher powers in S, is due to successive autoconvolutions of ℱϕz=0 which yield small coefficients generically. As a consequence, the omission of thin rings around |ξ⃗|n (n = 1, 2,3,...) from the Fourier transform of the intensity contrast keeps information loss at a low level. Therefore, it seems that below Sc the use of projected CTF for the retrieval of moderately strong phases is justified. We have applied projected CTF to the phase retrieval from single-distance intensity induced by an early-stage Xenopus embryo under coherent X-ray illumination. Moreover, we have shown self-consistency of projected CTF in this case by a moderate upscaling of the retrieved phase and subsequent Fresnel forward propagation, and we have performed a tomographic reconstruction of the biological sample.

Notice that in philosophy projected CTF is similar to Zernike phase contrast where a bias on the spectrum of the wave field is introduced at locations in Fourier space with no relevant information content [15

15. F. Zernike, “Phase-contrast, a new method for microscopic observation of transparent objects. Part I.,” Physica 9, 686–698 (1942). [CrossRef]

, 16

16. F. Zernike, “Phase-contrast, a new method for microscopic observation of transparent objects. Part II.,” Physica 9, 974–986 (1942). [CrossRef]

]. In Zernike phase-contrast microscopy this gives rise to useful intensity contrast. As we have shown in the present work, to retrieve phase in a local way in Fourier space from a single-distance intensity-contrast map, projected CTF may introduce a bias on the spectrum of the latter at fixed locations because the associated information loss is minimal.

Since projected CTF is single-distance and applicable to a wide range of relative phase variations it should be useful for real-time tomographic in vivo or in vitro phase-contrast imaging of compact developmental stages of optically opaque biological model systems such as Xenopus embryos [17

17. J. Moosmann, V. Altapova, D. Hänschke, R. Hofmann, and T. Baumbach, “Nonlinear, noniterative, single-distance phase retrieval and developmental biology,” submitted to AIP Proceedings, ICXOM 21.

].

Acknowledgments

We acknowledge the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility for provision of synchrotron radiation facilities, and we would like to thank Lukas Helfen for assistance in using beamline ID19. We are grateful to L. Waller and H. Suhonen for useful conversations and to V. Altapova and D. Hänschke for the measurement of the Xenopus data. Finally, we would like to thank an anonymous Referee for constructive suggestions, leading, among other changes, to the implementation of Eqs. (4, 5) and Figs. 2, 7. We believe that theses suggestions have improved the paper substantially.

References and links

1.

A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, V. Kohn, S. Kuznetsov, and I. Schelokov, “On the possibilities of Xray phase contrast microimaging by coherent high-energy synchrotron radiation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 5486–5492 (1995). [CrossRef]

2.

S. W. Wilkins, T. E. Gureyev, D. Gao, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, “Phase-contrast imaging using polychromatic hard X-rays,” Nature 384, 335–338 (1996). [CrossRef]

3.

K. A. Nugent, T. E. Gureyev, D. F. Cookson, D. M. Paganin, and Z. Barnea, “Quantitative phase imaging using hard X rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2961–2964 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

P. Cloetens, “Contribution to phase contrast imaging, reconstruction and tomography with hard synchrotron radiation,” PhD dissertation, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (1999).

5.

P. Cloetens, W. Ludwig, J. Baruchel, J.-P. Guigay, P. Rejmankova-Pernot, M. Salome, M. Schlenker, J. Y. Buffiere, E. Maire, and G. Peix, “Hard X-ray phase imaging using simple propagation of a coherent synchrotron radiation beam,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 32, A145–A151 (1999). [CrossRef]

6.

S. Zabler, P. Cloetens, J.-P. Guigay, J. Baruchel, and M. Schlenker, “Optimization of phase contrast imaging using hard X rays,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 073705 (2005). [CrossRef]

7.

M. R. Teague, “Deterministic phase retrieval: a Greens function solution,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 1434–1441 (1983). [CrossRef]

8.

J.-P. Guigay, “Fourier transform analysis of Fresnel diffraction patterns and in-line holograms,” Optik 49, 121–125 (1977).

9.

T. E. Gureyev, Y. Nesterets, D. Paganin, A. Pogany, and S. Wilkins, “Linear algorithms for phase retrieval in the Fresnel region. 2. partially coherent illumination,” Opt. Commun 259, 569–580 (2006). [CrossRef]

10.

J. Moosmann, R. Hofmann, and T. Baumbach, “Single-distance phase retrieval at large phase shifts,” Opt. Express 19, 12066–12073 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

L. D. Landau, “The theory of a Fermi liquid,” Sov. Phys. JETP 3, 920–925 (1957).

12.

J. Goldstone, “Field theories with superconductor solutions,” Nuovo Cimento 19, 154–164 (1961). [CrossRef]

13.

J. Goldstone, A. Salam, and S. Weinberg, “Broken symmetries,” Phys. Rev. 127, 965–970 (1962). [CrossRef]

14.

Y. Nambu, “Quasiparticles and gauge invariance in the theory of superconductivity,” Phys. Rev. 117, 648–663 (1960). [CrossRef]

15.

F. Zernike, “Phase-contrast, a new method for microscopic observation of transparent objects. Part I.,” Physica 9, 686–698 (1942). [CrossRef]

16.

F. Zernike, “Phase-contrast, a new method for microscopic observation of transparent objects. Part II.,” Physica 9, 974–986 (1942). [CrossRef]

17.

J. Moosmann, V. Altapova, D. Hänschke, R. Hofmann, and T. Baumbach, “Nonlinear, noniterative, single-distance phase retrieval and developmental biology,” submitted to AIP Proceedings, ICXOM 21.

OCIS Codes
(100.2960) Image processing : Image analysis
(100.3010) Image processing : Image reconstruction techniques
(100.5070) Image processing : Phase retrieval
(340.7440) X-ray optics : X-ray imaging

ToC Category:
Image Processing

History
Original Manuscript: September 16, 2011
Revised Manuscript: October 21, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: October 26, 2011
Published: December 5, 2011

Virtual Issues
Vol. 7, Iss. 2 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Ralf Hofmann, Julian Moosmann, and Tilo Baumbach, "Criticality in single-distance phase retrieval," Opt. Express 19, 25881-25890 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-27-25881


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References

  1. A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, V. Kohn, S. Kuznetsov, and I. Schelokov, “On the possibilities of Xray phase contrast microimaging by coherent high-energy synchrotron radiation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.66, 5486–5492 (1995). [CrossRef]
  2. S. W. Wilkins, T. E. Gureyev, D. Gao, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, “Phase-contrast imaging using polychromatic hard X-rays,” Nature384, 335–338 (1996). [CrossRef]
  3. K. A. Nugent, T. E. Gureyev, D. F. Cookson, D. M. Paganin, and Z. Barnea, “Quantitative phase imaging using hard X rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.77, 2961–2964 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. Cloetens, “Contribution to phase contrast imaging, reconstruction and tomography with hard synchrotron radiation,” PhD dissertation, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (1999).
  5. P. Cloetens, W. Ludwig, J. Baruchel, J.-P. Guigay, P. Rejmankova-Pernot, M. Salome, M. Schlenker, J. Y. Buffiere, E. Maire, and G. Peix, “Hard X-ray phase imaging using simple propagation of a coherent synchrotron radiation beam,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.32, A145–A151 (1999). [CrossRef]
  6. S. Zabler, P. Cloetens, J.-P. Guigay, J. Baruchel, and M. Schlenker, “Optimization of phase contrast imaging using hard X rays,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.76, 073705 (2005). [CrossRef]
  7. M. R. Teague, “Deterministic phase retrieval: a Greens function solution,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.73, 1434–1441 (1983). [CrossRef]
  8. J.-P. Guigay, “Fourier transform analysis of Fresnel diffraction patterns and in-line holograms,” Optik49, 121–125 (1977).
  9. T. E. Gureyev, Y. Nesterets, D. Paganin, A. Pogany, and S. Wilkins, “Linear algorithms for phase retrieval in the Fresnel region. 2. partially coherent illumination,” Opt. Commun259, 569–580 (2006). [CrossRef]
  10. J. Moosmann, R. Hofmann, and T. Baumbach, “Single-distance phase retrieval at large phase shifts,” Opt. Express19, 12066–12073 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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