OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 27 — Dec. 19, 2011
  • pp: 26044–26055
« Show journal navigation

Dark-field digital holographic microscopy for 3D-tracking of gold nanoparticles

F. Verpillat, F. Joud, P. Desbiolles, and M. Gross  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 27, pp. 26044-26055 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.026044


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1054 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We present a new technique that combines off-axis Digital Holography and Dark Field Microscopy to track 100nm gold particles diffusing in water. We show that a single hologram is sufficient to localize several particles in a thick sample with a localization accuracy independent of the particle position. From our measurements we reconstruct the trajectories of the particles and derive their 3D diffusion coefficient. Our results pave the way for quantitative studies of the motion of single nanoparticle in complex media.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

The study of cellular processes at the single-molecule level is a flourishing field of research in Biology. Individual molecules labeled with sub-micron markers can now be tracked in a cellular environment, and quantitative information about their dynamics can be obtained by reconstructing their trajectory. One of the most used techniques for this purpose is single-molecule fluorescence microscopy (SMFM), which relies on a labeling with nanometer-sized fluorescent markers such as organic dyes or quantum dots. But standard SMFM provides no information on the axial position of the marker, limiting this technique to 2D tracking. Recent improvements of SMFM such as astigmatism optic [1

1. B. Huang, W. Wang, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Three-dimensional super-resolution imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy,” Science 319, 810 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], 4Pi microscopy [2

2. J. Bewersdorf, B.T. Bennett, and K.L. Knight, “H2AX chromatin structures and their response to DNA damage revealed by 4Pi microscopy,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 18137 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], double-helix PSF [3

3. S.R. Pavani, M.A. Thompson, J.S. Biteen, S.J. Lord, N. Liu, R.J. Twieg, R. Piestun, and W.E. Moerner, “Three-dimensional, single-molecule fluorescence imaging beyond the diffraction limit by using a double-helix point spread function,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 2995 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], or multi-planes detection [4

4. M.F Juette, T.J. Gould, M.D. Lessard, M.J. Mlodzianoski, B.S. Nagpure, B.T. Bennett, S.T. Hess, and J. Bewersdorf, “Three-dimensional sub–100 nm resolution fluorescence microscopy of thick samples,” Nat. Methods 5, 527–529 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 5

5. S. Ram, P. Prabhat, J. Chao, E.S. Ward, and R.J. Ober, “High Accuracy 3D Quantum Dot Tracking with Multi-focal Plane Microscopy for the Study of Fast Intracellular Dynamics in Live Cells,” Biophys. J. 95, 6025 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] have made possible 3D tracking. Since the depth of field of these techniques is limited to a few microns, 3D tracking of molecules that explore larger distances in the thickness of a sample requires to continuously adjust the position of the focal plane of the microscope objective, which strongly limits the time resolution. Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM) [6

6. U. Schnars and W. Jüptner, “Direct recording of holograms by a CCD target and numerical reconstruction,” Appl. Opt. 33, 179–181 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,7

7. E. Leith and J. Upatniek, “Wavefront Reconstruction Photography,” Phys. Today 18, 26 (1965). [CrossRef]

] circumvents this drawback. In DHM, a CCD camera records the interference pattern between the light scattered by the sample and a reference wave, and a single shot is sufficient to determine the 3D positions of scatterers embedded in a non-diffusing environment, over a depth of typically a hundred of microns.

As the scattering cross section of a particle scales as the sixth power of its radius [8

8. H.C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles, (Dovers Publications Inc, 1957).

], how easily and accurately a particle can be detected strongly depends on its size. Several publications demonstrate the tracking of micron-sized colloids by using in-line holography [9

9. F.C. Cheong, B. Sun, R. Dreyfus, J. Amato-Grill, K. Xiao, L. Dixon, and D.G. Grier, “Flow visualization and flow cytometry with holographic video microscopy,” Opt. Express 17, 13071–13079 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15

15. M. Speidel, L. Friedrich, and A. Rohrbach, “Interferometric 3D tracking of several particles in a scanning laser focus,” Opt. Express 17, 1003–1015 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], with a localization accuracy in the nanometer range through the use of high Numerical Aperture (NA) microscope objectives. For example, with a 100× NA 1.4 oil immersion objective, Cheong et al. [10

10. F.C. Cheong, S. Duarte, S.H. Lee, and D.G. Grier, “Holographic microrheology of polysaccharides from Streptococcus mutans biofilms” Rheol. Acta 48, 109–115 (2009). [CrossRef]

] reported lateral and axial localization accuracies of 4 and 20 nm respectively. This result was obtained with polystyrene spheres of diameter d = 1.5 μm, whose scattering cross section is quite large. The tracking of d ≤ 100 nm particles, whose scattering cross section is extremely low, is much more difficult, and, as far as we know, has not been demonstrated using in-line holography. Yet the detection of such small particles is possible using DHM in a off-axis geometry [16

16. E. Leith and J. Upatnieks, “Microscopy by wavefront reconstruction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 569–570 (1965). [CrossRef]

, 17

17. E. Cuche, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Spatial filtering for zero-order and twin-image elimination in digital off-axis holography,” Appl. Opt. 39, 4070–4075 (2000). [CrossRef]

] with a noise level as low as possible [18

18. M. Gross and M. Atlan, “Digital holography with ultimate sensitivity” Opt. Lett. 32, 909–911 (2007) [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and using good light scatterers, such as gold nanobeads [19

19. P.K. Jain, K.S. Lee, I.H. El-Sayed, and M.A. El-Sayed, “Calculated absorption and scattering properties of gold nanoparticles of different size, shape, and composition: applications in biological imaging and biomedicine,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 7238–7248 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. By this way, d = 50 to 200 nm gold particles embedded in an agarose gel have been detected and localized [20

20. M. Atlan, M. Gross, P. Desbiolles, É. Absil, G. Tessier, and M. Coppey-Moisan, “Heterodyne holographic microscopy of gold particles,” Opt. Express 33, 500–502 (2008).

]. Since gold particles are not toxic for cells, they can be used as markers in biology [21

21. L. Cognet, C. Tardin, D. Boyer, D. Choquet, P. Tamarat, and B. Lounis, “Single metallic nanoparticle imaging for protein detection in cells,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 11350 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and d = 40 nm gold nanobeads fixed on the membrane receptors of a living cell have been localized [22

22. N. Warnasooriya, F. Joud, F. Bun, G. Tessier, M. Coppey-Moisan, P. Desbiolles, M. Atlan, M. Abboud, and M. Gross, “Imaging gold nanoparticles in living cell environments using heterodyne digital holographic microscopy,” Opt. Express 18, 3264–3273 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. More recently, 3D tracking of BaTiO3 particles with second harmonic generation DHM was also demonstrated [23

23. E. Shaffer, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Real time, nanometric 3D-tracking of nanoparticles made possible by second harmonic generation digital holographic microscopy,” Opt. Express 18, 17392–17403 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Here, the main advantage of DHM, with respect to in-line holography, is the possibility to independently adjust the intensity of the illumination and reference beams in order to get the best detection sensitivity, by adjusting the reference beam intensity [24

24. F. Verpillat, F. Joud, M. Atlan, and M. Gross, “Digital holography at shot noise level,” J. Disp. Technol. 6, 455–464 (2010) [CrossRef]

], and the largest signal, by adjusting the illumination beam intensity. Combining DHM with dark field illumination allows then to detect nanometer-sized particles, as the sample can be illuminated with an intensity as large as possible, while avoiding a saturation of the camera [20

20. M. Atlan, M. Gross, P. Desbiolles, É. Absil, G. Tessier, and M. Coppey-Moisan, “Heterodyne holographic microscopy of gold particles,” Opt. Express 33, 500–502 (2008).

]. For example, Atlan et al. and Warnasooriya et al. uses Total Internal Reflection (TIR) to detect and localize d = 50 nm and d = 40 nm particles [20

20. M. Atlan, M. Gross, P. Desbiolles, É. Absil, G. Tessier, and M. Coppey-Moisan, “Heterodyne holographic microscopy of gold particles,” Opt. Express 33, 500–502 (2008).

, 22

22. N. Warnasooriya, F. Joud, F. Bun, G. Tessier, M. Coppey-Moisan, P. Desbiolles, M. Atlan, M. Abboud, and M. Gross, “Imaging gold nanoparticles in living cell environments using heterodyne digital holographic microscopy,” Opt. Express 18, 3264–3273 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. But the TIR configuration used in these experiments yield a standing wave which does not allow to track moving particles : when a moving particle crosses a node, the illumination (and thus the signal) goes down to zero, and the particle is lost. Dubois et al. uses another dark field illumination configuration that focuses the illumination on a mask [25

25. F. Dubois and P. Grosfils, “Dark-field digital holographic microscopy to investigate objects that are nanosized or smaller than the optical resolution,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2605–2607 (2008) [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Since the illumination is parallel to the optical axis, no standing wave can appear, but since the illumination passes through the microscope objective, one expects parasitic reflections of the illumination beam.

In this paper, we present a Digital Holographic Microscopy technique which makes possible to track d = 100 nm gold particles 3D diffusing in water. The illumination is parallel to the optical axis to prevent the formation of standing waves, and the holographic signal is collected by a NA=0.5 dark field reflecting microscope objective. With such objective, the illumination beam is masked before the microscope objective and parasitic reflections are avoided. This yields high dynamic dark field illumination, which makes possible to detect, localize and track d = 100 nm particles. First we describe the setup, which combines dark-field microscopy and off-axis holography. Then we present the algorithm of reconstruction, our procedure to localize the beads, and describe how we can reach a real-time localization by performing calculations on a graphic card. Finally we show that our setup allows us to track gold nanoparticles in motion with a lateral (x,y) resolution of ∼ 3 nm and an axial (z) resolution of ∼ 70 nm. Since NA=0.5, the resolution (especially in z) is lower than with NA=1.4 in-line holography [10

10. F.C. Cheong, S. Duarte, S.H. Lee, and D.G. Grier, “Holographic microrheology of polysaccharides from Streptococcus mutans biofilms” Rheol. Acta 48, 109–115 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. We also show that the depth of field of our holographic microscope is made two orders of magnitude larger than in optical microscopy.

2. Digital holography setup

Our DHM experimental setup, depicted in Fig. 1, is designed to investigate the Brownian motion of 100nm diameter gold particles diffusing in a 17 × 3.8 × 0.4mm (length × width × height) cell chamber (Ibidi ©μ–Slide) filled with water. The concentration of nanoparticles is adjusted to 5.6 103 particles/mm3 to have a few particles per field of view.

Fig. 1 Experimental setup. The sample is located in the X,Y plane. Z is the optical axis of the microscope objective

The light source is a 660nm Diode Pump Solid State laser (Crystal Laser ©) with a short coherence length (∼ 600μm) to avoid parasitic interferences raising from reflexions between the optical elements. The laser beam is split into two beams by a Polarizing Beam Splitter (PBS), a half-wave plate before the PBS setting the ratio of energy between the emerging beams. The reference beam passes through a dove prism fixed on a micrometer translation stage to adjust the length of the optical path. This beam is spatially filtered through a 35μm diameter pinhole and then expanded as to uniformly cover the CCD chip of the camera (512 × 512 pixels, Andor Luca R ©). The illumination beam is focalized on the sample with a plano-convex lens of focal length 12.5 cm (waist diameter ∼ 200μm, laser intensity ∼ 250 W/cm2). The light scattered by the beads is collected in transmission with a dark-field reflecting objective (Edmund Optics ©, ReflX series) of NA= 0.5 and 36X magnification. A small mask on the input of the objective limits the collection of light between NA= 0.2 and NA= 0.5, so the illumination beam is totally blocked after passing through the sample. This dark-field configuration prevents the saturation of the CCD chip. A non-polarizing 50/50 beam splitter behind the objective combines the scattered light with the reference beam. The CCD camera records the interference pattern on 16bits frames with a 22.5Hz rate. The last beam-splitter is tilted by few degrees to be in off-axis configuration.

3. Numerical reconstruction

3.1. Reconstruction of the scattering field

In digital holography, the CCD sensor records an intensity Iccd which is the interference of the reference beam with the light scattered by the nano-objects. Iccd is thus a sum of 4 terms:
Iccd=Iref+Iscatt+ErefEscatt*+EscattEref*
(1)
where Iref is the intensity of the reference beam, Iscatt the intensity of the scattered light and Eref, Escatt are the electric fields for the reference beam and the scattered light respectively. As the scattering cross section of a 100nm diameter gold particle calculated with the Rayleigh-Mie scattering model is about 0.015μm2 at 660nm [8

8. H.C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles, (Dovers Publications Inc, 1957).

], the integration over the collection solid angle of the objective (0.2 ≤ NA ≤ 0.5) gives Iscatt ≃ 3×10−8 × Iillumination for a single particle. Thus Iscatt can be neglected compared to the other terms of Eq. (1). The field Escatt, the amplitude of which is about Iscatt, contains the phase of the scattered light necessary to a 3D localization of the particle. In the Fourier space, the tilted beam splitter adds a spatial frequency on the two conjugates terms of interference, and thus the different terms of Iccd are spatially separated, i.e. Iref remains centered on the zero frequency of the Fourier plane while the two cross terms of interference are centered on the spatial frequency induced by the off-axis geometry.

For each hologram, the steps (v) and (vi) are repeated in order to get a stack of the scattered field at different depths, with a propagation step δz = 100nm:
H(x,y,nδz)=FFT1[H˜(kx,ky)×K˜(kx,ky,nδz)],
(6)
where n is an integer.

Fig. 2 a: Intensity |(kx, ky)| in logarithmic scale. The zero-order term appears as a red square distorted by the multiplication with the phase matrix M. The term of interest is located in the down-right corner. b: |H̃(kx, ky)| when the average of the ten previous holograms is subtracted before calculating the FFT. The zero-order term is largely removed, so the recovery between this term and the region of interest in the down-right corner is reduced. c: Two-dimensional reconstruction at a fixed depth of the sample. A gold nanobead (1) is localized in this plan and the shape of the intensity of the field scattered by other beads at other depths (2 and 3) is visible. d: Intensity |(kx, ky)| in logarithmic scale when the sample is replaced by a diffusive paper. The area of the output pupil of the objective is sharply defined. The white-dotted circle shows the mask of the numerical filter used for the reconstruction.

An example of reconstruction is shown in Fig. 2(c). We can see a nanoparticle (1) localized in the considered plane and the intensity of the field scattered by two particles at different depths (2 and 3). The reconstruction of a 50μm thick volume requires to calculate one FFT to reconstruct the hologram in the output pupil plane, then to calculate 500 inverse FFTs for the slices of the stack. These 501 FFTs typically require one minute when the calculation is performed on the CPU, even with a recent multi-cores computer. We reduce this time by a factor of 30 when the calculation is parallelized on the graphic card.

3.2. Method of localization

Once the three dimensional map of the scattered field is calculated, the beads are localized by pointing the local maxima of the field’s intensity. Figure 3 shows the field’s intensity in the X,Y and Z directions. The Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) is about 1μm in lateral direction, and 14μm in the axial direction as expected for the Point Spread Function associated with our microscope objective [34

34. M. J. Nasse and J. C. Woehl, “Realistic modeling of the illumination point spread function in confocal scanning optical microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, 295–302 (2010). [CrossRef]

, 35]. In order to reach a sub-pixel size resolution, the intensity is fitted by a Gaussian curve in X and Y using the pixel for which the intensity is maximum and the two adjacent pixels. As the intensity profile in Z is not gaussian and 10 times larger than in X and Y, we fit the maximum of the peak with a parabola using the pixel i for which the intensity is maximum and the two adjacent pixels i – 2 and i + 2 (Fig. 3(d)). We chose this simple localization method because programming a more elaborate fit, as T-Matrix theory based computation [9

9. F.C. Cheong, B. Sun, R. Dreyfus, J. Amato-Grill, K. Xiao, L. Dixon, and D.G. Grier, “Flow visualization and flow cytometry with holographic video microscopy,” Opt. Express 17, 13071–13079 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], with CUDA (programming language of the graphic card) is more complicated and would considerably slow down the process. Our method shows good performance (see Fig. 4 and Fig. 5), but a better resolution may be achieved using T-Matrix theory.

Fig. 3 PSF of the field’s intensity for a 100nm nanobead, (a) in X, (b) Y, (c) and in the Z direction. (d) shows the top of the curve (c) (blue points) and the polynomial fit (green solid line).
Fig. 4 Localization accuracy as a function of the distance between the bead and the focal plane. (a) Lateral localization accuracy in X (blue line) and Y (red line). (b) Axial localization accuracy.
Fig. 5 Mean axial position of an embedded particle, estimated using the reconstruction algorithm, as a function of the mechanical displacement of the sample along Z.

4. Results

4.1. Embedded particles in a gel

To evaluate the lateral and axial localization accuracy of our setup, we localize a single 100nm diameter gold particle embedded in a 1% agarose gel. The localization accuracy is evaluated by calculating the standard deviation of 200 positions of the bead obtained from successive frames, with an exposure time for each frame δt = 1ms. For a particle in the focal plane of the objective, we found a lateral localization accuracy of ∼ 3nm and an axial localization accuracy of ∼ 150nm (Fig. 4(a) and 4(b)). Then the distance between the particle and the focal plane was increased by steps of 20μm. For each step we recorded 200 holograms and determined the mean position of the bead as well as the lateral and axial accuracy. The Fig. 5 compares the mean axial position of the particle with the mechanical displacement along Z of the sample, which are in excellent agreement. The localization accuracy in X,Y and Z as a function of the axial position of the bead is shown in Fig. 4(a) and 4(b). While the lateral accuracy is constant (∼ 3nm) for |Z| < 250 nm, the axial accuracy slightly depends on Z. It is about ∼ 150nm around Z = 0, then decreases to ∼ 70nm for |Z| < 250 nm. This accuracy strongly increases for |Z| > 250μm, and for Z > 400μm, the localization of the particle is not possible because the scattered signal level reaches the noise level. The local maximum at Z = 0 observed on the axial accuracy curve (Fig. 4(b)) shows that the localization is not optimal when the gold particle is the focal plane of the objective. In this case the particle is imaged on a small area of the CCD chip, so that the interference pattern spreads on a small number of pixels, which degrades the quality of the reconstruction [36

36. C. Fournier, L. Denis, and T. Fournel, “On the single point resolution of on-axis digital holography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, 1856–1862 (2010). [CrossRef]

].

In the case of particle tracking, the position of the focal plane in the sample has to be fixed. To minimize the spherical aberrations due to the presence of the coverslip, the focal plane should coincide with the sample-coverslip interface. In this configuration, a moving particle cannot cross the focal plane, so that the localization accuracy remains optimal and constant over a depth of 250μm, that corresponds to the part between abscissa 0 and abscissa 250 in Fig. 4(a) and 4(b). Yet tracking particles remains possible when the focal plane is set above the sample-coverslip interface as demonstrated below, as the cost of a slightly worse axial localization accuracy.

4.2. Particles in Brownian motion

We now consider gold particles in Brownian motion. According to the Stokes-Einstein equation, the diffusion coefficient D of the particles is given by:
D=kBT6πηr=4.2±0.2μm2s1,
(7)
where kB is the Boltzmann constant, T the room temperature (20 °C), η the viscosity of water (1.0 mPa.s at 20°C) and r = 50 ± 2 nm the radius of the nanobead (size dispersity given by the provider BBInternational). The exposure time is δt = 1ms and the time between two frames Δt = 44ms. The mean distance traveled along one direction by a Brownian particle during δt is 90nm, which is smaller than the lateral size of the magnified pixels (160nm). Consequently, the signal from a particle is not blurred over several pixels during δt. The mean distance covered along a given axis during Δt is 620nm, which corresponds to approximately 5 pixels.

As shown in Fig. 6, our method allows us to simultaneously track several particles. A volume of 80×80×250μm (X × Y × Z), i.e. 512×512×400 pixels, can be reconstructed from a single hologram, and the localization method described in the section 3.2 can be performed to localize several beads with a sub-pixel accuracy. By repeating the algorithm for successive frames, we could for instance reconstruct the trajectories of 3 gold particles diffusing in water (Fig. 6). We were able to track particles during up to 10 s (∼ 200 frames). Since the time needed to reconstruct a volume of 512 × 512 × 400 pixels is about 0.5 s (i.e. much larger than Δt = 44 ms), reconstruction is necessarily a post-processing process in this case.

Fig. 6 3D trajectories of 3 particles (red, green, blue) reconstructed from 200 successive frames. The focal plane (Z = 0) was set at about 150μm above the coverslip. Although this setting is not optimal for tracking a particle diffusing around the focal plane, as explained in section 4.1, trajectory reconstruction is still possible (red trajectory).

To evidence the Brownian motion, we calculated the 3D Mean Square Displacement (MSD) of a bead from the red trajectory plotted in Fig. 6:
MSD(nΔt)=1Nn(i=1nN(xi+nxi)2+(yi+nyi)2+(zi+nzi)2),
(8)
where N = 200 is the total number of positions, as well as the 1D MSD along the directions X, Y, and Z. For a Brownian motion with a diffusion constant D, the MSD curve depends linearly on time, and the slope of the curve is 2nd D, where nd = 3 for the 3D MSD (Fig. 7(a)) and nd = 1 for 1D MSD (Fig. 7(b), (c) and (d)). As expected for a Brownian motion, experimental 3D and 1D MSD depend linearly on time, and a fit of the first six points of the curves gives D = 4.3 ± 0.5μm2s−1 along X, D = 5.0 ± 0.3μm2s−1 along Y, D = 2.9 ± 0.5μm2s−1 along Z and D = 4.1±0.5μm2s−1 for the 3D motion. These values are in agreement with the theoretical value D = 4.2 ± 0.2μm2s−1 predicted by Eq. (7).

Fig. 7 Mean Square Displacement curves derived from the trajectory of a nanoparticle in Brownian motion (200 points, time step Δt = 44 ms). (a) 3D MSD, (b) MSD along X, (c) MSD along Y and (d) MSD along Z. Blue line: linear fit over the first 6 points of the MSD.

5. Conclusion

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by funds from the French National Research Agency ( ANR SIMI 10 and ANR 3D BROM), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and École normale supérieure (ENS). The authors thank Mathieu Coppey, Fred Etoc and Jasmina Dikic for their suggestions and careful reading.

References and links

1.

B. Huang, W. Wang, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Three-dimensional super-resolution imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy,” Science 319, 810 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

J. Bewersdorf, B.T. Bennett, and K.L. Knight, “H2AX chromatin structures and their response to DNA damage revealed by 4Pi microscopy,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 18137 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

S.R. Pavani, M.A. Thompson, J.S. Biteen, S.J. Lord, N. Liu, R.J. Twieg, R. Piestun, and W.E. Moerner, “Three-dimensional, single-molecule fluorescence imaging beyond the diffraction limit by using a double-helix point spread function,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 2995 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

M.F Juette, T.J. Gould, M.D. Lessard, M.J. Mlodzianoski, B.S. Nagpure, B.T. Bennett, S.T. Hess, and J. Bewersdorf, “Three-dimensional sub–100 nm resolution fluorescence microscopy of thick samples,” Nat. Methods 5, 527–529 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

S. Ram, P. Prabhat, J. Chao, E.S. Ward, and R.J. Ober, “High Accuracy 3D Quantum Dot Tracking with Multi-focal Plane Microscopy for the Study of Fast Intracellular Dynamics in Live Cells,” Biophys. J. 95, 6025 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

U. Schnars and W. Jüptner, “Direct recording of holograms by a CCD target and numerical reconstruction,” Appl. Opt. 33, 179–181 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

E. Leith and J. Upatniek, “Wavefront Reconstruction Photography,” Phys. Today 18, 26 (1965). [CrossRef]

8.

H.C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles, (Dovers Publications Inc, 1957).

9.

F.C. Cheong, B. Sun, R. Dreyfus, J. Amato-Grill, K. Xiao, L. Dixon, and D.G. Grier, “Flow visualization and flow cytometry with holographic video microscopy,” Opt. Express 17, 13071–13079 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

F.C. Cheong, S. Duarte, S.H. Lee, and D.G. Grier, “Holographic microrheology of polysaccharides from Streptococcus mutans biofilms” Rheol. Acta 48, 109–115 (2009). [CrossRef]

11.

F.C. Cheong, B.J. Krishnatreya, and D.G. Grier, “Strategies for three-dimensional particle tracking with holographic video microscopy,” Opt. Express 18, 13563–13573 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

W. Xu, M.H. Jericho, H.J. Kreuzer, and I.A. Meinertzhagen, “Tracking particles in four dimensions with in-line holographic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 28, 164–166 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

J. Sheng, E. Malkiel, and J. Katz, “Digital holographic microscope for measuring three-dimensional particle distributions and motions,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3893–3901 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

S.H Lee, Y. Roichman, G.R. Yi, S.H. Kim, S.M. Yang, A. Van Blaaderen, P. Van Oostrum, and D.G. Grier, “Characterizing and tracking single colloidal particles with video holographic microscopy,” Opt. Express 15, 18275–18282 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

M. Speidel, L. Friedrich, and A. Rohrbach, “Interferometric 3D tracking of several particles in a scanning laser focus,” Opt. Express 17, 1003–1015 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

E. Leith and J. Upatnieks, “Microscopy by wavefront reconstruction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 569–570 (1965). [CrossRef]

17.

E. Cuche, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Spatial filtering for zero-order and twin-image elimination in digital off-axis holography,” Appl. Opt. 39, 4070–4075 (2000). [CrossRef]

18.

M. Gross and M. Atlan, “Digital holography with ultimate sensitivity” Opt. Lett. 32, 909–911 (2007) [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

P.K. Jain, K.S. Lee, I.H. El-Sayed, and M.A. El-Sayed, “Calculated absorption and scattering properties of gold nanoparticles of different size, shape, and composition: applications in biological imaging and biomedicine,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 7238–7248 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

M. Atlan, M. Gross, P. Desbiolles, É. Absil, G. Tessier, and M. Coppey-Moisan, “Heterodyne holographic microscopy of gold particles,” Opt. Express 33, 500–502 (2008).

21.

L. Cognet, C. Tardin, D. Boyer, D. Choquet, P. Tamarat, and B. Lounis, “Single metallic nanoparticle imaging for protein detection in cells,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 11350 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

N. Warnasooriya, F. Joud, F. Bun, G. Tessier, M. Coppey-Moisan, P. Desbiolles, M. Atlan, M. Abboud, and M. Gross, “Imaging gold nanoparticles in living cell environments using heterodyne digital holographic microscopy,” Opt. Express 18, 3264–3273 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

E. Shaffer, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Real time, nanometric 3D-tracking of nanoparticles made possible by second harmonic generation digital holographic microscopy,” Opt. Express 18, 17392–17403 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

F. Verpillat, F. Joud, M. Atlan, and M. Gross, “Digital holography at shot noise level,” J. Disp. Technol. 6, 455–464 (2010) [CrossRef]

25.

F. Dubois and P. Grosfils, “Dark-field digital holographic microscopy to investigate objects that are nanosized or smaller than the optical resolution,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2605–2607 (2008) [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

B. Samson, F. Verpillat, M. Gross, and M. Atlan, “Video-rate laser Doppler vibrometry by heterodyne holography,” Opt. Lett. 36, 1449–1451 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27.

T. Shimobaba, Y. Sato, J. Miura, M. Takenouchi, and T. Ito, “Real-time digital holographic microscopy using the graphic processing unit,” Opt. Express 16, 11776–11780 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

28.

L. Ahrenberg, A.J. Page, B.M. Hennelly, J.B. McDonald, and T.J. Naughton, “Using commodity graphics hardware for realtime digital hologram view-reconstruction,” J. Disp. Technol. 5, 111 (2009). [CrossRef]

29.

H. Kang, F. Yaraş, and L. Onural, “Graphics processing unit accelerated computation of digital holograms,” Appl. Opt. 38, 137–143 (2009). [CrossRef]

30.

F. Le Clerc, L. Collot, and M. Gross, “Numerical heterodyne holography with two-dimensional photodetector arrays,” Opt. Lett. 25, 716–718 (2000). [CrossRef]

31.

L. Yu and M.K. Kim, “Wavelength-scanning digital interference holography for tomographic three-dimensional imaging by use of the angular spectrum method,” Opt. Lett. 302092–2094 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

32.

I. Yamaguchi and T. Zhang, “Phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Express 22, 126–1270 (1997).

33.

M.K. Kim, L. Yu, and C.J. Mann, “Interference techniques in digital holography,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8, S518–S523 (2006). [CrossRef]

34.

M. J. Nasse and J. C. Woehl, “Realistic modeling of the illumination point spread function in confocal scanning optical microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, 295–302 (2010). [CrossRef]

35.

PSF Lab, http://onemolecule.chem.uwm.edu/software.

36.

C. Fournier, L. Denis, and T. Fournel, “On the single point resolution of on-axis digital holography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, 1856–1862 (2010). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(090.1760) Holography : Computer holography
(180.0180) Microscopy : Microscopy
(290.5850) Scattering : Scattering, particles
(090.1995) Holography : Digital holography
(100.4999) Image processing : Pattern recognition, target tracking

ToC Category:
Holography

History
Original Manuscript: September 14, 2011
Revised Manuscript: November 9, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: November 13, 2011
Published: December 7, 2011

Virtual Issues
Vol. 7, Iss. 2 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
F. Verpillat, F. Joud, P. Desbiolles, and M. Gross, "Dark-field digital holographic microscopy for 3D-tracking of gold nanoparticles," Opt. Express 19, 26044-26055 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-27-26044


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. B. Huang, W. Wang, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Three-dimensional super-resolution imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy,” Science319, 810 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. Bewersdorf, B.T. Bennett, and K.L. Knight, “H2AX chromatin structures and their response to DNA damage revealed by 4Pi microscopy,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA103, 18137 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S.R. Pavani, M.A. Thompson, J.S. Biteen, S.J. Lord, N. Liu, R.J. Twieg, R. Piestun, and W.E. Moerner, “Three-dimensional, single-molecule fluorescence imaging beyond the diffraction limit by using a double-helix point spread function,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA106, 2995 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M.F Juette, T.J. Gould, M.D. Lessard, M.J. Mlodzianoski, B.S. Nagpure, B.T. Bennett, S.T. Hess, and J. Bewersdorf, “Three-dimensional sub–100 nm resolution fluorescence microscopy of thick samples,” Nat. Methods5, 527–529 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Ram, P. Prabhat, J. Chao, E.S. Ward, and R.J. Ober, “High Accuracy 3D Quantum Dot Tracking with Multi-focal Plane Microscopy for the Study of Fast Intracellular Dynamics in Live Cells,” Biophys. J.95, 6025 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. U. Schnars and W. Jüptner, “Direct recording of holograms by a CCD target and numerical reconstruction,” Appl. Opt.33, 179–181 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. Leith and J. Upatniek, “Wavefront Reconstruction Photography,” Phys. Today18, 26 (1965). [CrossRef]
  8. H.C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles, (Dovers Publications Inc, 1957).
  9. F.C. Cheong, B. Sun, R. Dreyfus, J. Amato-Grill, K. Xiao, L. Dixon, and D.G. Grier, “Flow visualization and flow cytometry with holographic video microscopy,” Opt. Express17, 13071–13079 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. F.C. Cheong, S. Duarte, S.H. Lee, and D.G. Grier, “Holographic microrheology of polysaccharides from Streptococcus mutans biofilms” Rheol. Acta48, 109–115 (2009). [CrossRef]
  11. F.C. Cheong, B.J. Krishnatreya, and D.G. Grier, “Strategies for three-dimensional particle tracking with holographic video microscopy,” Opt. Express18, 13563–13573 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. W. Xu, M.H. Jericho, H.J. Kreuzer, and I.A. Meinertzhagen, “Tracking particles in four dimensions with in-line holographic microscopy,” Opt. Lett.28, 164–166 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. Sheng, E. Malkiel, and J. Katz, “Digital holographic microscope for measuring three-dimensional particle distributions and motions,” Appl. Opt.45, 3893–3901 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S.H Lee, Y. Roichman, G.R. Yi, S.H. Kim, S.M. Yang, A. Van Blaaderen, P. Van Oostrum, and D.G. Grier, “Characterizing and tracking single colloidal particles with video holographic microscopy,” Opt. Express15, 18275–18282 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Speidel, L. Friedrich, and A. Rohrbach, “Interferometric 3D tracking of several particles in a scanning laser focus,” Opt. Express17, 1003–1015 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. E. Leith and J. Upatnieks, “Microscopy by wavefront reconstruction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.55, 569–570 (1965). [CrossRef]
  17. E. Cuche, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Spatial filtering for zero-order and twin-image elimination in digital off-axis holography,” Appl. Opt.39, 4070–4075 (2000). [CrossRef]
  18. M. Gross and M. Atlan, “Digital holography with ultimate sensitivity” Opt. Lett.32, 909–911 (2007) [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. P.K. Jain, K.S. Lee, I.H. El-Sayed, and M.A. El-Sayed, “Calculated absorption and scattering properties of gold nanoparticles of different size, shape, and composition: applications in biological imaging and biomedicine,” J. Phys. Chem. B110, 7238–7248 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. M. Atlan, M. Gross, P. Desbiolles, É. Absil, G. Tessier, and M. Coppey-Moisan, “Heterodyne holographic microscopy of gold particles,” Opt. Express33, 500–502 (2008).
  21. L. Cognet, C. Tardin, D. Boyer, D. Choquet, P. Tamarat, and B. Lounis, “Single metallic nanoparticle imaging for protein detection in cells,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA100, 11350 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. N. Warnasooriya, F. Joud, F. Bun, G. Tessier, M. Coppey-Moisan, P. Desbiolles, M. Atlan, M. Abboud, and M. Gross, “Imaging gold nanoparticles in living cell environments using heterodyne digital holographic microscopy,” Opt. Express18, 3264–3273 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. E. Shaffer, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Real time, nanometric 3D-tracking of nanoparticles made possible by second harmonic generation digital holographic microscopy,” Opt. Express18, 17392–17403 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. F. Verpillat, F. Joud, M. Atlan, and M. Gross, “Digital holography at shot noise level,” J. Disp. Technol.6, 455–464 (2010) [CrossRef]
  25. F. Dubois and P. Grosfils, “Dark-field digital holographic microscopy to investigate objects that are nanosized or smaller than the optical resolution,” Opt. Lett.33, 2605–2607 (2008) [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. B. Samson, F. Verpillat, M. Gross, and M. Atlan, “Video-rate laser Doppler vibrometry by heterodyne holography,” Opt. Lett.36, 1449–1451 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. T. Shimobaba, Y. Sato, J. Miura, M. Takenouchi, and T. Ito, “Real-time digital holographic microscopy using the graphic processing unit,” Opt. Express16, 11776–11780 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. L. Ahrenberg, A.J. Page, B.M. Hennelly, J.B. McDonald, and T.J. Naughton, “Using commodity graphics hardware for realtime digital hologram view-reconstruction,” J. Disp. Technol.5, 111 (2009). [CrossRef]
  29. H. Kang, F. Yaraş, and L. Onural, “Graphics processing unit accelerated computation of digital holograms,” Appl. Opt.38, 137–143 (2009). [CrossRef]
  30. F. Le Clerc, L. Collot, and M. Gross, “Numerical heterodyne holography with two-dimensional photodetector arrays,” Opt. Lett.25, 716–718 (2000). [CrossRef]
  31. L. Yu and M.K. Kim, “Wavelength-scanning digital interference holography for tomographic three-dimensional imaging by use of the angular spectrum method,” Opt. Lett.302092–2094 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. I. Yamaguchi and T. Zhang, “Phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Express22, 126–1270 (1997).
  33. M.K. Kim, L. Yu, and C.J. Mann, “Interference techniques in digital holography,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.8, S518–S523 (2006). [CrossRef]
  34. M. J. Nasse and J. C. Woehl, “Realistic modeling of the illumination point spread function in confocal scanning optical microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A27, 295–302 (2010). [CrossRef]
  35. PSF Lab, http://onemolecule.chem.uwm.edu/software .
  36. C. Fournier, L. Denis, and T. Fournel, “On the single point resolution of on-axis digital holography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A27, 1856–1862 (2010). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited