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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 27 — Dec. 19, 2011
  • pp: 26095–26105
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High-accuracy self-correction of refractive index of air using two-color interferometry of optical frequency combs

Kaoru Minoshima, Kaoru Arai, and Hajime Inaba  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 27, pp. 26095-26105 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.026095


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Abstract

Long-path pulse-to-pulse interferometers of two-color frequency combs are developed using fundamental and second harmonics of a mode-locked fiber laser. Interferometric phase difference between two-color frequency combs was precisely measured by stabilizing the fundamental fringe phase by controlling the repetition frequency of the comb, and a stability of 10−10 for 1000 s was achieved in the measurement of an optical path length difference between two wavelengths. In long-term measurements performed for 10 h, results of phase variation of interferometric measurements were highly consistent with the fluctuations in the calculated difference of refractive indices of air at two wavelengths with an accuracy of 10−10. The difference between the measured optical distances corresponding to two wavelengths and the optical distance corresponding to the fundamental wavelength were used in the two-color method; high-accuracy self-correction of the fluctuation of refractive index of air was performed with an uncertainty of 5 × 10−8 for 10-h measurements when the maximum refractive index change was on the order of 10−6.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

High-accuracy absolute long-distance measurements are essential for many applications such as industrial sensing and monitoring of large-scale facilities such as particle accelerators. In the case of practical long-distance measurements in air, the refractive index of air is one of the most important causes of uncertainties. Conventionally, its correction is performed by using empirical equations such as the Edlen’s equation (updated version) [1

1. G. Boensch and E. Potulski, “Measurement of the refractive index of air and comparison with modified Edlen's formulae,” Metrologia 35(2), 133–139 (1998). [CrossRef]

] or Ciddor’s equation [2

2. P. E. Ciddor, “Refractive index of air: new equations for the visible and near infrared,” Appl. Opt. 35(9), 1566–1573 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and by using measured environmental parameters such as the air temperature, pressure, humidity, and CO2 concentration. However, correcting the refractive index of air along the exact optical path under measurement is difficult because of its temporal variation and its distribution in space. A precise method for correcting the refractive index of air by directly using the path-length measurements, i.e., a method for self-correction of the refractive index of air would be a powerful tool.

The two-color method, which is a method for such self-correction of the refractive index of air on the basis of length measurements by using different-colored lasers, was proposed by Bender et al. [3

3. P. L. Bender and J. C. Owens, “Correction of optical distance measurements for the fluctuating atmospheric index of refraction,” J. Geophys. Res. 70(10), 2461–2462 (1965). [CrossRef]

, 4

4. J. C. Owens, “The use of atmospheric dispersion in optical distance measurement,” Bull. Geod. 89(1), 277–291 (1968). [CrossRef]

], and this method has been employed to perform several types of length measurements [5

5. H. Matsumoto and T. Honda, “High-accuracy length-measuring interferometer using the two-colour method of compensating for the refractive index of air,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 3(11), 1084–1086 (1992). [CrossRef]

8

8. K. Meiners-Hagen and A. Abou-Zeid, “Refractive index determination in length measurement by two-colour interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19(8), 084004 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. In this method, the dispersion relation for the refractive index of air is used. When a distance D is measured by simultaneously using two lasers with different wavelengths, optical distances D1 and D2 corresponding to the two wavelengths are obtained. The values of D1 and D2 are n1D and n2D, respectively, when n1 and n2 are the air refractive indices at the two wavelengths. The geometrical distance D after correcting the refractive index of air can be described as follows:
D=D1A(D2D1),
(1)
where A is the so-called A-coefficient in two-color method that represents the dispersion relation for air refractive indices at two wavelengths, i.e., n1 and n2 as follows:

A=(n11)/(n2n1).
(2)

While the refractive indices n1 and n2 change because of environmental instability, the dispersion relation A is considerably less sensitive to the environmental changes since (ni - 1) is nearly proportional to the density of air. According to the Edlen’s and Ciddor’s equations, in the case of dry air (humidity: 0%), A is constant since the terms that include the dependence on the air temperature and that on air pressure are cancelled out [8

8. K. Meiners-Hagen and A. Abou-Zeid, “Refractive index determination in length measurement by two-colour interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19(8), 084004 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. Therefore, once we know the value of A at a certain experimental condition, although the environmental parameters change, using a constant value of A in Eq. (1), we can determine the geometrical distance D only from the measurement of the objective optical distances D1 and D2. In other word, we can correct the refractive index of air, n1,2, by directly using the optical distance measurements. In the case of wet air, dependences of A on the environmental parameters are not cancelled out, and this could lead some deviation in length measurements if A is considered to remain constant. However, acceptable changes in the environmental conditions needed for high-accuracy distance measurements could be significantly mitigated. For example, in order to measure a distance with a relative uncertainty of 1 × 10−7, in the case of conventional distance measurement using one-color laser, the required measurement uncertainties in environmental parameters are either an uncertainty of 0.1 K in the case of air temperature or 0.4 hPa in the case of pressure. On the other hand, in the case of the two-color method, either 1 K or 70 hPa are sufficient to determine the value of A for realizing the same uncertainty of 1 × 10−7 in the corrected distance. Within these ranges of environmental variations, the variation in the A value of 145 is less than ± 0.06. These calculations were performed using the Ciddor’s equation for phase refractive indices at wavelengths of 1568 nm and 788 nm, air temperature of 20 °C, pressure of 1013.25 hPa, humidity of 50%, and CO2 concentration of 400 ppm. The dependence of A on the variations in the environmental parameters is similar irrespective of the wavelength and initial environmental parameters. In the two-color method, air humidity has to be measured; the required humidity uncertainties for a relative uncertainty of 1 × 10−7 in distance measurements are 12% and 4% for one- and two-color measurements, respectively. In many cases, we can practically measure humidity with sufficient precision, or further improvement is possible by measuring partial water pressure [8

8. K. Meiners-Hagen and A. Abou-Zeid, “Refractive index determination in length measurement by two-colour interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19(8), 084004 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. Thus, the two-color method is a powerful tool with practical applications.

However, this method has a drawback. The accuracy of the corrected distance D is significantly lower than the accuracy of the measured optical distances D2 and D1; this is because the small difference between the measured distances, i.e., D2 - D1, is used to calculate the distance, as given by Eq. (1). The degradation factor is the same as A, and its value is normally high, e.g., 145 under the experimental conditions we used in this study. Therefore, high-precision distance-measurement techniques are essential for high-accuracy refractive-index correction using the two-color method. An optical frequency comb is a powerful tool for performing such measurements. Various ultrahigh-precision length measurements ranging from picometers to hundreds of meters have been performed using optical frequency combs [7

7. K. Minoshima and H. Matsumoto, “High-accuracy measurement of 240-m distance in an optical tunnel by use of a compact femtosecond laser,” Appl. Opt. 39(30), 5512–5517 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 9

9. T. Yasui, K. Minoshima, and H. Matsumoto, “Stabilization of femtosecond mode-locked Ti: Sapphire laser for high-accuracy pulse interferometry,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(1), 12–19 (2001). [CrossRef]

20

20. M. Cui, M. G. Zeitouny, N. Bhattacharya, S. A. van den Berg, and H. P. Urbach, “Long distance measurement with femtosecond pulses using a dispersive interferometer,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6549–6562 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Moreover, the optical frequency comb generated by a mode-locked laser is suitable for multicolor measurements using efficient optical nonlinearity. Two-color distance measurements using the electronic phase of intermode beats of frequency combs have also been reported [7

7. K. Minoshima and H. Matsumoto, “High-accuracy measurement of 240-m distance in an optical tunnel by use of a compact femtosecond laser,” Appl. Opt. 39(30), 5512–5517 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

In this study, we developed a long-path interferometric technique for two-color frequency combs generated by a mode-locked laser, and we demonstrated the efficacy of the technique for a high-accuracy two-color method. We developed a pulse-to-pulse interferometer with the fundamental and second harmonic generation (SHG) of a mode-locked laser. In the case of the pulse-to-pulse interferometer, interference fringes are observed at distances equal to the multiples of the pulse separation. Because of the narrow linewidth, i.e., long coherence length of each mode of the comb [21

21. Y. Nakajima, H. Inaba, K. Hosaka, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, M. Yasuda, T. Kohno, S. Kawato, T. Kobayashi, T. Katsuyama, and F.-L. Hong, “A multi-branch, fiber-based frequency comb with millihertz-level relative linewidths using an intra-cavity electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1667–1676 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], interference is observed between separated pulses in a mode-locked pulse train. Therefore, an unbalanced interferometer with a long measurement path and a short stable reference path can be used in long-distance measurements. Since in the case of the pulse-to-pulse interferometer, interferometric phase delay can be precisely controlled by changing the frequencies of the frequency combs, such as mode separation [10

10. Y. Yamaoka, K. Minoshima, and H. Matsumoto, “Direct measurement of the group refractive index of air with interferometry between adjacent femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Opt. 41(21), 4318–4324 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and offset frequencies, the phase difference between the two-color interferometers, i.e., difference between the two-color optical distances, i.e., D2 - D1, was successfully measured with a high stability by stabilizing one of the interference fringes by precisely controlling the comb frequency. In long term measurements, the results were in good agreement with the variations of air refractive indices calculated using environmental parameters. High-accuracy measurement of the two-color difference is essential for a high-accuracy two-color method, as mentioned above. The standard deviation of the difference between the measurement and calculation was 3×10−10 for 10 h of continuous measurements. Finally, by applying the two-color method, high-accuracy self-correction of the refractive index of air with an uncertainty of 5×10−8 was realized when the refractive index change was on the order of 10−6.

2. Two-color pulse-to-pulse interferometer

Figure 1
Fig. 1 Experimental set up for the pulse-to-pulse interferometer using two-color optical combs. The output of the fiber comb is separated into three branches; one of them is used for stabilizing the comb (not shown) and other two are used for interferometric experiments for fundamental (ω) and SHG (2ω). EDFA: Er-doped fiber amplifier; FC: fiber collimator; H: half-wave plate; L: lens; C: SHG crystal; DM: dichroic mirror; BS: beam splitter of 10 mm cube; PD1,2: photodetectors. Path difference between the probe and reference is 5.55 m, which corresponds to the repetition rate of 54.0 MHz. In the interferometer, the pulses were highly chirped by propagation in fibers and a PPLN crystal. The pulse durations estimated by the coherence lengths were about 1 ps and 3 ps for fundamental and SHG, respectively.
shows the experimental setup. We used a home-built diode-laser-pumped nonlinear-polarization-rotation mode-locked Er:fiber ring laser with a central wavelength of 1568 nm, spectral width 34 nm, and average power of 2 mW as a frequency comb source. The laser system is similar to the one described in reference [22

22. H. Inaba, Y. Daimon, F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, H. Matsumoto, M. Hirano, T. Okuno, M. Onishi, and M. Nakazawa, “Long-term measurement of optical frequencies using a simple, robust and low-noise fiber based frequency comb,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5223–5231 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and the repetition frequency (frep) and the carrier-envelope-offset frequency (fceo) are fully stabilized or controlled referenced to the microwave frequency reference synthesized from a hydrogen maser linked to the coordinated universal time (UTC), operated by the National Metrology Institute of Japan (UTC-NMIJ). The repetition rate of the comb (frep) is 54.0 MHz, and it can be varied precisely up to 20 Hz by PZT-driven fiber stretching and coarsely up to 900 kHz by a fiber delay line.

The output of the fiber comb is separated into three branches, and one of them is used for stabilizing the comb and other two are used for interferometric experiments. The output beam of the one of the experimental ports (average power of 0.6 mW) is introduced to an unbalanced long-path interferometer with a path difference of 5.55 m corresponding to the repetition rate of the comb. A pulse-to-pulse interferometer in which adjacent pulses in a mode-locked pulse train interfere with each other was constructed. The setup for the interferometers was placed in a thermally isolated box in a temperature controlled room. The other branch of the fiber comb output was amplified by an Er-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA), and the second harmonics of the fundamental comb were generated by using a 5-mm-thick piece of periodically poled LiNbO3 (PPLN) heated at 120 °C with central wavelength of 788 nm, spectral width 2 nm, and average power 2 mW. To construct the SHG interferometer, the SHG beam was collimated and coaxially overlapped with the fundamental beam to be introduced into the same optical setup. Alignment was done by confirming the beam overlapping after travelling 5.55 m path length. Interference fringe signals with the two wavelengths were separated by using a dichroic mirror, and each color of the fringe signal was detected by a photodetector (response time: 100 kHz). The intensities of the signals were recorded by a digital oscilloscope simultaneously, and the interference phase was calculated using the fringe signal intensity and the fringe amplitude. Path-length change was calculated by the interference phase change and the wavelength. For further improvement in practical distance measurements, interference phase errors due to intensity fluctuations that might be caused by such as air turbulence or mechanical instabilities need to be suppressed. The use of phase measurement methods such as heterodyne detection would help in suppressing these influences.

The phase of the interference fringe can be precisely controlled and/or measured by changing either frep or fceo. Figure 2
Fig. 2 Interference fringe signals for (a) fundamental and (b) SHG wavelengths. Optical path length was changed by the scanning of the repetition frequency, frep. Cross: measurement results; Line: sine curve fitting for guide for eyes.
shows the interference fringe signals for fundamental and SHG wavelengths when the repetition frequency was changed. When fceo is changed by changing the current to drive the pump diode laser, the intensity of the interference fringe signal is also changed. On the other hand, precise control of the interference fringe is possible by controlling frep, so in this experiment, frep was controlled to tailor the interference fringe, while fceo was stabilized to the frequency standards. Coherence lengths of the interference fringes were estimated as 344 μm and 936 μm for fundamental and SHG wavelengths, respectively. To extend the range of the measurements, the frep can be scanned up to 900 kHz, which is 2% of the frep. Therefore the maximum range of the length scanning is about 100 mm when the total path length is 5.55 m, and the range becomes longer for longer distance proportionally. Moreover, by changing the repetition frequency over a wide range and measuring the frequency that gives the peak of the envelope of the fringe, we can determine the absolute distance [10

10. Y. Yamaoka, K. Minoshima, and H. Matsumoto, “Direct measurement of the group refractive index of air with interferometry between adjacent femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Opt. 41(21), 4318–4324 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Please note that envelope follows group refractive index, while fringe phase follows phase refractive index.

3. Measurement of precise difference between optical distances corresponding to two colors

3.1 Stabilization of wavelength of the fundamental comb modes in air

To do this, the fundamental interference fringe signal was stabilized so that it became constant by feedback control of the repetition frequency of the comb and so that changes in the optical path length were cancelled. Stabilizing the interference phase signal was done as follows. The interference signal was detected by a photodetector and the output voltage was stabilized to a reference voltage by a proportional–integral–derivative controller (PID controller, SIM960, Stanford Research Systems). The error signal was applied to the PZT-driven fiber stretcher in the laser oscillator. Servo bandwidth was limited by the response time of the PZT driver, which is on the order of kHz. Fringe signal intensity was kept at the signal level near one of the zero phases of the sine function. The phase zero was chosen such that it gives the steepest slope versus the path-length change. Here, fceo is stabilized according to time and frequency standards. Simultaneously, the SHG fringe signal was measured. All the wavelengths in air of the comb modes, which are the products of the wavelengths in vacuum and the air refractive indices, were stabilized accordingly if the dispersion of the air refractive index is negligible [13

13. T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, Y. Bitou, F. L. Hong, H. Inaba, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, “Displacement metrology with sub-pm resolution in air based on a fs-comb wavelength synthesizer,” Opt. Express 14(13), 5984–5993 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In other words, if an interference signal change is observed at the other wavelength, it is due to the effect of dispersion, and therefore, we can precisely measure only the difference between the air refractive indices corresponding to the two colors. In our experiment, since the variation in the fundamental interference fringe signal caused by the changes in the optical path-length at fundamental wavelength is cancelled by feedback, the detected SHG interference fringe signal shows only the optical path-length difference between the fundamental and SHG wavelengths, i.e., D2 - D1.

3.2 Performance of short-term measurement

4. Two-color method for self-correction of variation in refractive index of air

Next, long-term continuous measurements were carried out to investigate the efficacy of the developed method in the case of large variations in environmental parameters. By using Eq. (1), relative variation in the distance after refractive index correction ΔD/D can be represented by a simple modification of Eq. (1):

ΔD/D={ΔD1AΔ(D2D1)ΔA(D2D1)ΔAΔ(D2D1)}/D,
(3)

In order to test the efficacy of the method, we performed the distance measurement to a stationary target and investigate the level of stability of the ΔD/D after correcting the refractive index variation by two-color method. In the case of perfect correction, corrected distance D should be constant i.e., ΔD should be zero, therefore the stability of D will show the accuracy of the refractive index correction. In order to test the efficacy of the method by comparing to the well-established refractive index equation, the setup of the interferometer was placed in thermally isolated box in order to avoid the thermal deformation of mechanical components. Observed changes of air temperature, pressure and humidity during the long-term measurement which will be described in this section were ΔT = 0.01 K, ΔP = 3 hPa, ΔH = 1%, respectively, and main sources of air refractive index change was air pressure change. Although environmental variation causes the variation of A, i.e., ΔA, the third and fourth terms of the right hand side of Eq. (3) were negligible as will be discussed in subsection 4.3. Measurements of the second and first terms in the right hand side of Eq. (3), i.e., Δ(D2 - D1)/D and ΔD1/D corresponding to the relative variations of (D2 - D1) and D1, will be described in the following subsections 4.1 and 4.2, respectively.

4.1 Performances of long-term measurements

4.2 One-color distance measurement by frequency measurement

In order to apply the two-color method, we need to measure the one-color optical distance D1 simultaneously. In this subsection, long-term measurements of the relative variations of the one-color optical path difference ΔD1/D will be discussed. In the developed method for the two-color phase-difference measurement described in the section 3.1, variation in the fundamental optical distance D1 is compensated by changing frep. Therefore, by simultaneously measuring frep during the interference measurements, the variation in D1 is calculated as follows,

ΔD1=cΔfrepfrep2.
(4)

By using frequency measurement without moving the mechanical stage, which is normally used in conventional interferometric measurements, the distances can be measured precisely. The maximum range of the frep scanning is 900 kHz, which is 2% of the frep (54 MHz). In order to compensate the air refractive index fluctuation, the current frequency scanning range is sufficient. Figure 6(a) shows the long-term measurement results of D1, which were obtained by Eq. (4) using frep, which were measured using a frequency counter (Agilent 53132A, gate time: 10 s) at the same time as the results shown in Fig. 5. Using the results of D1, the refractive index of air, n1, was calculated by assuming that the geometrical distance D remained constant, and these calculated n1 values were plotted. Figure 6(c) shows the difference between the measured (Fig. 6(a)) n1 values and the values calculated using the Ciddor’s equation (Fig. 6(b)). The standard deviation of this difference is 4.4 × 10−8, which means that variation of D1 is measured accurately using frep. The residual deviation in the observed data in Fig. 6(c) could be caused by the real geometrical length variation such as temperature deformation of optical table. By simple estimation, temperature change of 0.01 K could cause deformation of 10−7 of a stainless steel optical table.

4.3 Correction of the variation in refractive index of air by employing two-color method

5. Conclusion

In conclusion, we have developed high-accuracy two-color interferometry by using two-color frequency combs, and we have demonstrated the efficacy of the technique for high-accuracy correction of the refractive index of air. The interference fringe of the fundamental wavelength was stabilized to suppress the influence of fluctuations in the environmental parameters by changing the repetition frequency of the frequency comb. By employing this method, the wavelengths of the modes of the comb in air near the spectral region were stabilized and only the dispersion effect was measured precisely. The stability of 10−10 for 1000 s was achieved in the measurement of an optical path length difference between two wavelengths, and the calculation and the measurement results were in agreement with a standard deviation of 3 × 10−10 throughout the 10-h period. Finally, high-accuracy correction of the refractive index of 10−8 for 10 h was achieved by the two-color method. Note that the correction was realized by directly using the distance measurement results, without additional precise measurements of environmental parameters. Such a self-correction of the refractive index of air is a powerful tool since measurement of precise environmental parameters along the measurement path is difficult and causes major uncertainty. The developed technique is a key for high-accuracy length metrology in various practical applications.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by System Development Program for Advanced Measurement and Analysis (Program-S), Development of Systems and Technology for Advanced Measurement and Analysis, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST).

References and links

1.

G. Boensch and E. Potulski, “Measurement of the refractive index of air and comparison with modified Edlen's formulae,” Metrologia 35(2), 133–139 (1998). [CrossRef]

2.

P. E. Ciddor, “Refractive index of air: new equations for the visible and near infrared,” Appl. Opt. 35(9), 1566–1573 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

P. L. Bender and J. C. Owens, “Correction of optical distance measurements for the fluctuating atmospheric index of refraction,” J. Geophys. Res. 70(10), 2461–2462 (1965). [CrossRef]

4.

J. C. Owens, “The use of atmospheric dispersion in optical distance measurement,” Bull. Geod. 89(1), 277–291 (1968). [CrossRef]

5.

H. Matsumoto and T. Honda, “High-accuracy length-measuring interferometer using the two-colour method of compensating for the refractive index of air,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 3(11), 1084–1086 (1992). [CrossRef]

6.

H. Matsumoto, Y. Zhu, S. Iwasaki, and T. O’ishi, “Measurement of the changes in air refractive index and distance by means of a two-color interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 31(22), 4522–4526 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

K. Minoshima and H. Matsumoto, “High-accuracy measurement of 240-m distance in an optical tunnel by use of a compact femtosecond laser,” Appl. Opt. 39(30), 5512–5517 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

K. Meiners-Hagen and A. Abou-Zeid, “Refractive index determination in length measurement by two-colour interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19(8), 084004 (2008). [CrossRef]

9.

T. Yasui, K. Minoshima, and H. Matsumoto, “Stabilization of femtosecond mode-locked Ti: Sapphire laser for high-accuracy pulse interferometry,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(1), 12–19 (2001). [CrossRef]

10.

Y. Yamaoka, K. Minoshima, and H. Matsumoto, “Direct measurement of the group refractive index of air with interferometry between adjacent femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Opt. 41(21), 4318–4324 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

J. Ye, “Absolute measurement of a long, arbitrary distance to less than an optical fringe,” Opt. Lett. 29(10), 1153–1155 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

J. Zhang, Z. H. Lu, and L. J. Wang, “Precision measurement of the refractive index of air with frequency combs,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3314–3316 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, Y. Bitou, F. L. Hong, H. Inaba, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, “Displacement metrology with sub-pm resolution in air based on a fs-comb wavelength synthesizer,” Opt. Express 14(13), 5984–5993 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

W. C. Swann and N. R. Newbury, “Frequency-resolved coherent lidar using a femtosecond fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 31(6), 826–828 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

N. Schuhler, Y. Salvadé, S. Lévêque, R. Dändliker, and R. Holzwarth, “Frequency-comb-referenced two-wavelength source for absolute distance measurement,” Opt. Lett. 31(21), 3101–3103 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

S. Hyun, Y. J. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Jin, and S. W. Kim, “Absolute length measurement with the frequency comb of a femtosecond laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(9), 6 (2009). [CrossRef]

17.

P. Balling, P. Kren, P. Masika, and S. A. van den Berg, “Femtosecond frequency comb based distance measurement in air,” Opt. Express 17(11), 9300–9313 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

D. Wei, S. Takahashi, K. Takamasu, and H. Matsumoto, “Analysis of the temporal coherence function of a femtosecond optical frequency comb,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7011–7018 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

J. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, K. Lee, S. Lee, and S.-W. Kim, “Time-of-flight measurement with femtosecond light pulses,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 716–720 (2010). [CrossRef]

20.

M. Cui, M. G. Zeitouny, N. Bhattacharya, S. A. van den Berg, and H. P. Urbach, “Long distance measurement with femtosecond pulses using a dispersive interferometer,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6549–6562 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

Y. Nakajima, H. Inaba, K. Hosaka, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, M. Yasuda, T. Kohno, S. Kawato, T. Kobayashi, T. Katsuyama, and F.-L. Hong, “A multi-branch, fiber-based frequency comb with millihertz-level relative linewidths using an intra-cavity electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1667–1676 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

H. Inaba, Y. Daimon, F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, H. Matsumoto, M. Hirano, T. Okuno, M. Onishi, and M. Nakazawa, “Long-term measurement of optical frequencies using a simple, robust and low-noise fiber based frequency comb,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5223–5231 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(120.3180) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Interferometry
(120.3940) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Metrology

ToC Category:
Instrumentation, Measurement, and Metrology

History
Original Manuscript: October 10, 2011
Revised Manuscript: November 18, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: November 21, 2011
Published: December 7, 2011

Citation
Kaoru Minoshima, Kaoru Arai, and Hajime Inaba, "High-accuracy self-correction of refractive index of air using two-color interferometry of optical frequency combs," Opt. Express 19, 26095-26105 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-27-26095


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References

  1. G. Boensch and E. Potulski, “Measurement of the refractive index of air and comparison with modified Edlen's formulae,” Metrologia35(2), 133–139 (1998). [CrossRef]
  2. P. E. Ciddor, “Refractive index of air: new equations for the visible and near infrared,” Appl. Opt.35(9), 1566–1573 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. L. Bender and J. C. Owens, “Correction of optical distance measurements for the fluctuating atmospheric index of refraction,” J. Geophys. Res.70(10), 2461–2462 (1965). [CrossRef]
  4. J. C. Owens, “The use of atmospheric dispersion in optical distance measurement,” Bull. Geod.89(1), 277–291 (1968). [CrossRef]
  5. H. Matsumoto and T. Honda, “High-accuracy length-measuring interferometer using the two-colour method of compensating for the refractive index of air,” Meas. Sci. Technol.3(11), 1084–1086 (1992). [CrossRef]
  6. H. Matsumoto, Y. Zhu, S. Iwasaki, and T. O’ishi, “Measurement of the changes in air refractive index and distance by means of a two-color interferometer,” Appl. Opt.31(22), 4522–4526 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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