## High-accuracy self-correction of refractive index of air using two-color interferometry of optical frequency combs |

Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 27, pp. 26095-26105 (2011)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.026095

Acrobat PDF (2470 KB)

### Abstract

Long-path pulse-to-pulse interferometers of two-color frequency combs are developed using fundamental and second harmonics of a mode-locked fiber laser. Interferometric phase difference between two-color frequency combs was precisely measured by stabilizing the fundamental fringe phase by controlling the repetition frequency of the comb, and a stability of 10^{−10} for 1000 s was achieved in the measurement of an optical path length difference between two wavelengths. In long-term measurements performed for 10 h, results of phase variation of interferometric measurements were highly consistent with the fluctuations in the calculated difference of refractive indices of air at two wavelengths with an accuracy of 10^{−10}. The difference between the measured optical distances corresponding to two wavelengths and the optical distance corresponding to the fundamental wavelength were used in the two-color method; high-accuracy self-correction of the fluctuation of refractive index of air was performed with an uncertainty of 5 × 10^{−8} for 10-h measurements when the maximum refractive index change was on the order of 10^{−6}.

© 2011 OSA

## 1. Introduction

1. G. Boensch and E. Potulski, “Measurement of the refractive index of air and comparison with modified Edlen's formulae,” Metrologia **35**(2), 133–139 (1998). [CrossRef]

2. P. E. Ciddor, “Refractive index of air: new equations for the visible and near infrared,” Appl. Opt. **35**(9), 1566–1573 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

_{2}concentration. However, correcting the refractive index of air along the exact optical path under measurement is difficult because of its temporal variation and its distribution in space. A precise method for correcting the refractive index of air by directly using the path-length measurements, i.e., a method for self-correction of the refractive index of air would be a powerful tool.

3. P. L. Bender and J. C. Owens, “Correction of optical distance measurements for the fluctuating atmospheric index of refraction,” J. Geophys. Res. **70**(10), 2461–2462 (1965). [CrossRef]

4. J. C. Owens, “The use of atmospheric dispersion in optical distance measurement,” Bull. Geod. **89**(1), 277–291 (1968). [CrossRef]

5. H. Matsumoto and T. Honda, “High-accuracy length-measuring interferometer using the two-colour method of compensating for the refractive index of air,” Meas. Sci. Technol. **3**(11), 1084–1086 (1992). [CrossRef]

8. K. Meiners-Hagen and A. Abou-Zeid, “Refractive index determination in length measurement by two-colour interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. **19**(8), 084004 (2008). [CrossRef]

*D*is measured by simultaneously using two lasers with different wavelengths, optical distances

*D*

_{1}and

*D*

_{2}corresponding to the two wavelengths are obtained. The values of

*D*

_{1}and

*D*

_{2}are

*n*

_{1}

*D*and

*n*

_{2}

*D*, respectively, when

*n*

_{1}and

*n*

_{2}are the air refractive indices at the two wavelengths. The geometrical distance

*D*after correcting the refractive index of air can be described as follows:where

*A*is the so-called

*A*-coefficient in two-color method that represents the dispersion relation for air refractive indices at two wavelengths, i.e.,

*n*

_{1}and

*n*

_{2}as follows:

*n*

_{1}and

*n*

_{2}change because of environmental instability, the dispersion relation

*A*is considerably less sensitive to the environmental changes since (

*n*

_{i}- 1) is nearly proportional to the density of air. According to the Edlen’s and Ciddor’s equations, in the case of dry air (humidity: 0%),

*A*is constant since the terms that include the dependence on the air temperature and that on air pressure are cancelled out [8

8. K. Meiners-Hagen and A. Abou-Zeid, “Refractive index determination in length measurement by two-colour interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. **19**(8), 084004 (2008). [CrossRef]

*A*at a certain experimental condition, although the environmental parameters change, using a constant value of

*A*in Eq. (1), we can determine the geometrical distance

*D*only from the measurement of the objective optical distances

*D*

_{1}and

*D*

_{2}. In other word, we can correct the refractive index of air,

*n*

_{1,2}, by directly using the optical distance measurements. In the case of wet air, dependences of

*A*on the environmental parameters are not cancelled out, and this could lead some deviation in length measurements if

*A*is considered to remain constant. However, acceptable changes in the environmental conditions needed for high-accuracy distance measurements could be significantly mitigated. For example, in order to measure a distance with a relative uncertainty of 1 × 10

^{−7}, in the case of conventional distance measurement using one-color laser, the required measurement uncertainties in environmental parameters are either an uncertainty of 0.1 K in the case of air temperature or 0.4 hPa in the case of pressure. On the other hand, in the case of the two-color method, either 1 K or 70 hPa are sufficient to determine the value of

*A*for realizing the same uncertainty of 1 × 10

^{−7}in the corrected distance. Within these ranges of environmental variations, the variation in the

*A*value of 145 is less than ± 0.06. These calculations were performed using the Ciddor’s equation for phase refractive indices at wavelengths of 1568 nm and 788 nm, air temperature of 20 °C, pressure of 1013.25 hPa, humidity of 50%, and CO

_{2}concentration of 400 ppm. The dependence of

*A*on the variations in the environmental parameters is similar irrespective of the wavelength and initial environmental parameters. In the two-color method, air humidity has to be measured; the required humidity uncertainties for a relative uncertainty of 1 × 10

^{−7}in distance measurements are 12% and 4% for one- and two-color measurements, respectively. In many cases, we can practically measure humidity with sufficient precision, or further improvement is possible by measuring partial water pressure [8

8. K. Meiners-Hagen and A. Abou-Zeid, “Refractive index determination in length measurement by two-colour interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. **19**(8), 084004 (2008). [CrossRef]

*D*is significantly lower than the accuracy of the measured optical distances

*D*

_{2}and

*D*

_{1}; this is because the small difference between the measured distances, i.e.,

*D*

_{2}-

*D*

_{1}, is used to calculate the distance, as given by Eq. (1). The degradation factor is the same as

*A*, and its value is normally high, e.g., 145 under the experimental conditions we used in this study. Therefore, high-precision distance-measurement techniques are essential for high-accuracy refractive-index correction using the two-color method. An optical frequency comb is a powerful tool for performing such measurements. Various ultrahigh-precision length measurements ranging from picometers to hundreds of meters have been performed using optical frequency combs [7

7. K. Minoshima and H. Matsumoto, “High-accuracy measurement of 240-m distance in an optical tunnel by use of a compact femtosecond laser,” Appl. Opt. **39**(30), 5512–5517 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9. T. Yasui, K. Minoshima, and H. Matsumoto, “Stabilization of femtosecond mode-locked Ti: Sapphire laser for high-accuracy pulse interferometry,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. **37**(1), 12–19 (2001). [CrossRef]

20. M. Cui, M. G. Zeitouny, N. Bhattacharya, S. A. van den Berg, and H. P. Urbach, “Long distance measurement with femtosecond pulses using a dispersive interferometer,” Opt. Express **19**(7), 6549–6562 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7. K. Minoshima and H. Matsumoto, “High-accuracy measurement of 240-m distance in an optical tunnel by use of a compact femtosecond laser,” Appl. Opt. **39**(30), 5512–5517 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21. Y. Nakajima, H. Inaba, K. Hosaka, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, M. Yasuda, T. Kohno, S. Kawato, T. Kobayashi, T. Katsuyama, and F.-L. Hong, “A multi-branch, fiber-based frequency comb with millihertz-level relative linewidths using an intra-cavity electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express **18**(2), 1667–1676 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10. Y. Yamaoka, K. Minoshima, and H. Matsumoto, “Direct measurement of the group refractive index of air with interferometry between adjacent femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Opt. **41**(21), 4318–4324 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

*D*

_{2}-

*D*

_{1}, was successfully measured with a high stability by stabilizing one of the interference fringes by precisely controlling the comb frequency. In long term measurements, the results were in good agreement with the variations of air refractive indices calculated using environmental parameters. High-accuracy measurement of the two-color difference is essential for a high-accuracy two-color method, as mentioned above. The standard deviation of the difference between the measurement and calculation was 3×10

^{−10}for 10 h of continuous measurements. Finally, by applying the two-color method, high-accuracy self-correction of the refractive index of air with an uncertainty of 5×10

^{−8}was realized when the refractive index change was on the order of 10

^{−6}.

## 2. Two-color pulse-to-pulse interferometer

22. H. Inaba, Y. Daimon, F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, H. Matsumoto, M. Hirano, T. Okuno, M. Onishi, and M. Nakazawa, “Long-term measurement of optical frequencies using a simple, robust and low-noise fiber based frequency comb,” Opt. Express **14**(12), 5223–5231 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

*f*

_{rep}) and the carrier-envelope-offset frequency (

*f*

_{ceo}) are fully stabilized or controlled referenced to the microwave frequency reference synthesized from a hydrogen maser linked to the coordinated universal time (UTC), operated by the National Metrology Institute of Japan (UTC-NMIJ). The repetition rate of the comb (

*f*

_{rep}) is 54.0 MHz, and it can be varied precisely up to 20 Hz by PZT-driven fiber stretching and coarsely up to 900 kHz by a fiber delay line.

_{3}(PPLN) heated at 120 °C with central wavelength of 788 nm, spectral width 2 nm, and average power 2 mW. To construct the SHG interferometer, the SHG beam was collimated and coaxially overlapped with the fundamental beam to be introduced into the same optical setup. Alignment was done by confirming the beam overlapping after travelling 5.55 m path length. Interference fringe signals with the two wavelengths were separated by using a dichroic mirror, and each color of the fringe signal was detected by a photodetector (response time: 100 kHz). The intensities of the signals were recorded by a digital oscilloscope simultaneously, and the interference phase was calculated using the fringe signal intensity and the fringe amplitude. Path-length change was calculated by the interference phase change and the wavelength. For further improvement in practical distance measurements, interference phase errors due to intensity fluctuations that might be caused by such as air turbulence or mechanical instabilities need to be suppressed. The use of phase measurement methods such as heterodyne detection would help in suppressing these influences.

*f*

_{rep}or

*f*

_{ceo}. Figure 2 shows the interference fringe signals for fundamental and SHG wavelengths when the repetition frequency was changed. When

*f*

_{ceo}is changed by changing the current to drive the pump diode laser, the intensity of the interference fringe signal is also changed. On the other hand, precise control of the interference fringe is possible by controlling

*f*

_{rep}, so in this experiment,

*f*

_{rep}was controlled to tailor the interference fringe, while

*f*

_{ceo}was stabilized to the frequency standards. Coherence lengths of the interference fringes were estimated as 344 μm and 936 μm for fundamental and SHG wavelengths, respectively. To extend the range of the measurements, the

*f*

_{rep}can be scanned up to 900 kHz, which is 2% of the

*f*

_{rep}. Therefore the maximum range of the length scanning is about 100 mm when the total path length is 5.55 m, and the range becomes longer for longer distance proportionally. Moreover, by changing the repetition frequency over a wide range and measuring the frequency that gives the peak of the envelope of the fringe, we can determine the absolute distance [10

10. Y. Yamaoka, K. Minoshima, and H. Matsumoto, “Direct measurement of the group refractive index of air with interferometry between adjacent femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Opt. **41**(21), 4318–4324 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

*A*value in the case of two-color method as mentioned above, when independent two length measurement results are subtracted and used in Eq. (1). In order to avoid the ambiguity and to achieve precise measurement of the two-color phase difference required for the two-color method, in the next section, we developed a method for directly measuring the phase difference between the two color fringes instead of measuring each fringe signal independently.

## 3. Measurement of precise difference between optical distances corresponding to two colors

### 3.1 Stabilization of wavelength of the fundamental comb modes in air

*f*

_{ceo}is stabilized according to time and frequency standards. Simultaneously, the SHG fringe signal was measured. All the wavelengths in air of the comb modes, which are the products of the wavelengths in vacuum and the air refractive indices, were stabilized accordingly if the dispersion of the air refractive index is negligible [13

13. T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, Y. Bitou, F. L. Hong, H. Inaba, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, “Displacement metrology with sub-pm resolution in air based on a fs-comb wavelength synthesizer,” Opt. Express **14**(13), 5984–5993 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

*D*

_{2}-

*D*

_{1}.

### 3.2 Performance of short-term measurement

^{−10}of the measured path length of 5.55 m. The results show that both colors of the optical wavelengths were controlled simultaneously and precise phase-difference measurement on the order of 10

^{−10}was achieved.

## 4. Two-color method for self-correction of variation in refractive index of air

*D*/

*D*can be represented by a simple modification of Eq. (1):

*D*/

*D*after correcting the refractive index variation by two-color method. In the case of perfect correction, corrected distance

*D*should be constant i.e., Δ

*D*should be zero, therefore the stability of

*D*will show the accuracy of the refractive index correction. In order to test the efficacy of the method by comparing to the well-established refractive index equation, the setup of the interferometer was placed in thermally isolated box in order to avoid the thermal deformation of mechanical components. Observed changes of air temperature, pressure and humidity during the long-term measurement which will be described in this section were Δ

*T*= 0.01 K, Δ

*P*= 3 hPa, Δ

*H*= 1%, respectively, and main sources of air refractive index change was air pressure change. Although environmental variation causes the variation of

*A*, i.e., Δ

*A*, the third and fourth terms of the right hand side of Eq. (3) were negligible as will be discussed in subsection 4.3. Measurements of the second and first terms in the right hand side of Eq. (3), i.e., Δ(

*D*

_{2}

*- D*

_{1})/

*D*and Δ

*D*

_{1}/

*D*corresponding to the relative variations of (

*D*

_{2}

*- D*

_{1}) and

*D*

_{1}, will be described in the following subsections 4.1 and 4.2, respectively.

### 4.1 Performances of long-term measurements

*D*

_{2}

*- D*

_{1}), i.e., Δ(

*D*

_{2}

*- D*

_{1})/

*D*will be discussed. Figure 5 shows the results of continuous 10 h measurements. The phase difference of the two-color interferometers, i.e.,

*D*

_{2}

*- D*

_{1}, was measured by employing the method mentioned in the previous section, and the corresponding difference between the air refractive indices,

*n*

_{2}-

*n*

_{1}, was determined by assuming that the geometrical distance

*D*remained constant (Fig. 5(a)). In the case of the measurement of two-color optical path difference

*D*

_{2}

*- D*

_{1}, sensitivity to the real length change Δ

*D*is negligible since it is a common-path measurement and it detects only small difference, (

*n*

_{2}-

*n*

_{1}) × Δ

*D*where

*n*

_{2}-

*n*

_{1}is on the order of 10

^{−6}. Therefore even though the stability of the geometrical distance

*D*is in the level of 10

^{−4}, measurement uncertainty of 10

^{−10}is possible in the variation of

*n*

_{2}-

*n*

_{1}.

^{−8}over 10 h. Simultaneously, air temperature, pressure, and humidity were measured by sensors during the measurements, and the air refractive indices were calculated using the Ciddor’s equation. Variations in the difference between the calculated air refractive indices,

*n*

_{2}-

*n*

_{1}, is shown in Fig. 5(b). The calculation and the measurement results were in agreement throughout the 10-h period, and the difference between these results showed a standard deviation of 3 × 10

^{−10}(Fig. 5(c)). Here, the change in the air refractive index,

*n*

_{1}, was 10

^{−6}(will be shown in the next subsection and Fig. 6(b) ), which was also calculated by environmental parameters. The obtained results demonstrated the efficacy of the developed technique for measurements of the difference between two-color optical distances, i.e.,

*D*

_{2}-

*D*

_{1}, with high consistency, which is essential for the high-accuracy two-color method.

### 4.2 One-color distance measurement by frequency measurement

*D*

_{1}simultaneously. In this subsection, long-term measurements of the relative variations of the one-color optical path difference Δ

*D*

_{1}/

*D*will be discussed. In the developed method for the two-color phase-difference measurement described in the section 3.1, variation in the fundamental optical distance

*D*

_{1}is compensated by changing

*f*

_{rep}. Therefore, by simultaneously measuring

*f*

_{rep}during the interference measurements, the variation in

*D*

_{1}is calculated as follows,

*f*

_{rep}scanning is 900 kHz, which is 2% of the

*f*

_{rep}(54 MHz). In order to compensate the air refractive index fluctuation, the current frequency scanning range is sufficient. Figure 6(a) shows the long-term measurement results of

*D*

_{1}, which were obtained by Eq. (4) using

*f*

_{rep}, which were measured using a frequency counter (Agilent 53132A, gate time: 10 s) at the same time as the results shown in Fig. 5. Using the results of

*D*

_{1}, the refractive index of air,

*n*

_{1}, was calculated by assuming that the geometrical distance

*D*remained constant, and these calculated

*n*

_{1}values were plotted. Figure 6(c) shows the difference between the measured (Fig. 6(a))

*n*

_{1}values and the values calculated using the Ciddor’s equation (Fig. 6(b)). The standard deviation of this difference is 4.4 × 10

^{−8}, which means that variation of

*D*

_{1}is measured accurately using

*f*

_{rep}. The residual deviation in the observed data in Fig. 6(c) could be caused by the real geometrical length variation such as temperature deformation of optical table. By simple estimation, temperature change of 0.01 K could cause deformation of 10

^{−7}of a stainless steel optical table.

### 4.3 Correction of the variation in refractive index of air by employing two-color method

*D*

_{2}-

*D*

_{1}) and Δ

*D*

_{1}in previous subsections 4.1 and 4.2, relative variation in the distance during the measurement, Δ

*D*/

*D*, can be obtained by using Eq. (3). The results are shown in Figs. 7(a) and 7(b), which are obtained from the variation of

*n*

_{1}and

*n*

_{2}-

*n*

_{1}in Figs. 6(a) and 5(a), respectively, and

*A*= 144.66. Using the measurement uncertainties of sensors for air temperature, pressure and humidity, δ

*T*= 0.04 K, δ

*P*= 0.05 hPa, and δ

*H*= 3%, respectively, uncertainty of the determination of the initial value of

*A*was calculated as δ

*A*= 0.05, where the effect of δ

*H*is dominant. Note that this level of absolute uncertainty in the initial value of

*A*= 144.66, gives only uncertainty of 10

^{−10}in the two-color correction of the final length measurement

*A*× Δ(

*D*

_{2}-

*D*

_{1}), whose total range of variation is at most 10

^{−6}. On the other hand, the observed environmental variation causes the variation of

*A*during the measurement, i.e., Δ

*A*= 0.01 (standard uncertainty). As mentioned after Eq. (3), the third and fourth terms of the right hand side of Eq. (3) give uncertainty less than 2 × 10

^{−8}and 1 × 10

^{−10}, respectively, at this Δ

*A*value; thus, the effect of Δ

*A*on the final results was negligible. Finally, by substituting these values in Eq. (3), two-color correction was achieved. The corrected distance is shown in Fig. 7(c), which shows the relative variation in the geometrical distance Δ

*D*/

*D*; this variation should have been constant if the correction was perfect. For clarity, the vertical origin of the plot was shifted so that the average of data is 0.2 × 10

^{−6}. The results are constant with a standard deviation of 5 × 10

^{−8}, which corresponds to 270 nm for a path length of 5.55 m, while the relative change in the optical distance itself was on the order of 10

^{−6}over the same period, as shown in Fig. 7(a). As discussed in the previous subsection 4.2, part of the residual deviation in the geometrical distance in Fig. 7(c) could be caused by the real geometrical length variation such as temperature deformation of optical table.

## 5. Conclusion

^{−10}for 1000 s was achieved in the measurement of an optical path length difference between two wavelengths, and the calculation and the measurement results were in agreement with a standard deviation of 3 × 10

^{−10}throughout the 10-h period. Finally, high-accuracy correction of the refractive index of 10

^{−8}for 10 h was achieved by the two-color method. Note that the correction was realized by directly using the distance measurement results, without additional precise measurements of environmental parameters. Such a self-correction of the refractive index of air is a powerful tool since measurement of precise environmental parameters along the measurement path is difficult and causes major uncertainty. The developed technique is a key for high-accuracy length metrology in various practical applications.

## Acknowledgments

## References and links

1. | G. Boensch and E. Potulski, “Measurement of the refractive index of air and comparison with modified Edlen's formulae,” Metrologia |

2. | P. E. Ciddor, “Refractive index of air: new equations for the visible and near infrared,” Appl. Opt. |

3. | P. L. Bender and J. C. Owens, “Correction of optical distance measurements for the fluctuating atmospheric index of refraction,” J. Geophys. Res. |

4. | J. C. Owens, “The use of atmospheric dispersion in optical distance measurement,” Bull. Geod. |

5. | H. Matsumoto and T. Honda, “High-accuracy length-measuring interferometer using the two-colour method of compensating for the refractive index of air,” Meas. Sci. Technol. |

6. | H. Matsumoto, Y. Zhu, S. Iwasaki, and T. O’ishi, “Measurement of the changes in air refractive index and distance by means of a two-color interferometer,” Appl. Opt. |

7. | K. Minoshima and H. Matsumoto, “High-accuracy measurement of 240-m distance in an optical tunnel by use of a compact femtosecond laser,” Appl. Opt. |

8. | K. Meiners-Hagen and A. Abou-Zeid, “Refractive index determination in length measurement by two-colour interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. |

9. | T. Yasui, K. Minoshima, and H. Matsumoto, “Stabilization of femtosecond mode-locked Ti: Sapphire laser for high-accuracy pulse interferometry,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. |

10. | Y. Yamaoka, K. Minoshima, and H. Matsumoto, “Direct measurement of the group refractive index of air with interferometry between adjacent femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Opt. |

11. | J. Ye, “Absolute measurement of a long, arbitrary distance to less than an optical fringe,” Opt. Lett. |

12. | J. Zhang, Z. H. Lu, and L. J. Wang, “Precision measurement of the refractive index of air with frequency combs,” Opt. Lett. |

13. | T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, Y. Bitou, F. L. Hong, H. Inaba, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, “Displacement metrology with sub-pm resolution in air based on a fs-comb wavelength synthesizer,” Opt. Express |

14. | W. C. Swann and N. R. Newbury, “Frequency-resolved coherent lidar using a femtosecond fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. |

15. | N. Schuhler, Y. Salvadé, S. Lévêque, R. Dändliker, and R. Holzwarth, “Frequency-comb-referenced two-wavelength source for absolute distance measurement,” Opt. Lett. |

16. | S. Hyun, Y. J. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Jin, and S. W. Kim, “Absolute length measurement with the frequency comb of a femtosecond laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol. |

17. | P. Balling, P. Kren, P. Masika, and S. A. van den Berg, “Femtosecond frequency comb based distance measurement in air,” Opt. Express |

18. | D. Wei, S. Takahashi, K. Takamasu, and H. Matsumoto, “Analysis of the temporal coherence function of a femtosecond optical frequency comb,” Opt. Express |

19. | J. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, K. Lee, S. Lee, and S.-W. Kim, “Time-of-flight measurement with femtosecond light pulses,” Nat. Photonics |

20. | M. Cui, M. G. Zeitouny, N. Bhattacharya, S. A. van den Berg, and H. P. Urbach, “Long distance measurement with femtosecond pulses using a dispersive interferometer,” Opt. Express |

21. | Y. Nakajima, H. Inaba, K. Hosaka, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, M. Yasuda, T. Kohno, S. Kawato, T. Kobayashi, T. Katsuyama, and F.-L. Hong, “A multi-branch, fiber-based frequency comb with millihertz-level relative linewidths using an intra-cavity electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express |

22. | H. Inaba, Y. Daimon, F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, H. Matsumoto, M. Hirano, T. Okuno, M. Onishi, and M. Nakazawa, “Long-term measurement of optical frequencies using a simple, robust and low-noise fiber based frequency comb,” Opt. Express |

**OCIS Codes**

(120.3180) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Interferometry

(120.3940) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Metrology

**ToC Category:**

Instrumentation, Measurement, and Metrology

**History**

Original Manuscript: October 10, 2011

Revised Manuscript: November 18, 2011

Manuscript Accepted: November 21, 2011

Published: December 7, 2011

**Citation**

Kaoru Minoshima, Kaoru Arai, and Hajime Inaba, "High-accuracy self-correction of refractive index of air using two-color interferometry of optical frequency combs," Opt. Express **19**, 26095-26105 (2011)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-27-26095

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### References

- G. Boensch and E. Potulski, “Measurement of the refractive index of air and comparison with modified Edlen's formulae,” Metrologia35(2), 133–139 (1998). [CrossRef]
- P. E. Ciddor, “Refractive index of air: new equations for the visible and near infrared,” Appl. Opt.35(9), 1566–1573 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- P. L. Bender and J. C. Owens, “Correction of optical distance measurements for the fluctuating atmospheric index of refraction,” J. Geophys. Res.70(10), 2461–2462 (1965). [CrossRef]
- J. C. Owens, “The use of atmospheric dispersion in optical distance measurement,” Bull. Geod.89(1), 277–291 (1968). [CrossRef]
- H. Matsumoto and T. Honda, “High-accuracy length-measuring interferometer using the two-colour method of compensating for the refractive index of air,” Meas. Sci. Technol.3(11), 1084–1086 (1992). [CrossRef]
- H. Matsumoto, Y. Zhu, S. Iwasaki, and T. O’ishi, “Measurement of the changes in air refractive index and distance by means of a two-color interferometer,” Appl. Opt.31(22), 4522–4526 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- K. Minoshima and H. Matsumoto, “High-accuracy measurement of 240-m distance in an optical tunnel by use of a compact femtosecond laser,” Appl. Opt.39(30), 5512–5517 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- K. Meiners-Hagen and A. Abou-Zeid, “Refractive index determination in length measurement by two-colour interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol.19(8), 084004 (2008). [CrossRef]
- T. Yasui, K. Minoshima, and H. Matsumoto, “Stabilization of femtosecond mode-locked Ti: Sapphire laser for high-accuracy pulse interferometry,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.37(1), 12–19 (2001). [CrossRef]
- Y. Yamaoka, K. Minoshima, and H. Matsumoto, “Direct measurement of the group refractive index of air with interferometry between adjacent femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Opt.41(21), 4318–4324 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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