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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 27 — Dec. 19, 2011
  • pp: 26423–26428
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Fiber-pigtailed temperature sensors based on dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide-ring resonators

Thomas B. Andersen, Sergey I. Bozhevolnyi, Laurent Markey, and Alain Dereux  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 27, pp. 26423-26428 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.026423


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Abstract

We demonstrate optical fiber-pigtailed temperature sensors based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguide-ring resonators (DLSPP-WRRs), whose transmission depends on the ambient temperature. The DLSPP-WRR-based temperature sensors represent polymer ridge waveguides (~1×1 µm2 in cross section) forming 5-µm-radius rings coupled to straight waveguides fabricated by UV-lithography on a 50-nm-thick gold layer atop a 2.3-µm-thick CYTOP layer covering a Si wafer. A broadband light source is used to characterize the DLSPP-WRR wavelength-dependent transmission in the range of 1480-1600 nm and to select the DLSPP-WRR component for temperature sensing. In- and out-coupling single-mode optical fibers are then glued to the corresponding access (photonic) waveguides made of 10-µm-wide polymer ridges. The sample is heated from 21°C to 46 °C resulting in the transmission change of ~0.7 dB at the operation wavelength of ~1510 nm. The minimum detectable temperature change is estimated to be ~5.1∙10−3 °C for the bandwidth of 1 Hz when using standard commercial optical detectors.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

Temperature sensing based on optical techniques is a promising direction in the development of sensor technologies, and remains an area of continuing and intensive research in recent years due to several advantages as compared to other temperature measurement techniques, e.g., high sensitivity, large temperature range, stability and immunity of optical signal to variations and turbulence in the environment [1

1. P. R. N. Childs, J. R. Greenwood, and C. A. Long, “Review of temperature measurement,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(8), 2959–2978 (2000). [CrossRef]

]. Until now, fiber-optic temperature sensors constitute a major category of the optical temperature sensors, and they mainly employ the principles of fiber Bragg gratings [2

2. B. Lee, “Review of the present status of optical fiber sensors,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 9(2), 57–79 (2003). [CrossRef]

] or surface plasmon resonance (SPR) [3

3. A. K. Sharma, R. Jha, and B. D. Gupta, “Fiber-optic sensors based on surface plasmon resonance: A comprehensive review,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(8), 1118–1129 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. In both cases, temperature changes are monitored by detecting variations in the resonance wavelength determined from measured spectra (of Bragg reflection or transmission and SPR excitation). The fiber-optic temperature sensors make use of well-developed fiber-optic techniques, and are very favorable for constructing remote distributed sensing networks, taking advantage of low propagation losses in optical fibers and wavelength division multiplexing techniques. However, all these fiber-optic temperature sensors are bulky and problematic to scale down, and thus can hardly be used as chip-scale temperature sensors. At the same time, recent developments in plasmonic circuitry opened new perspectives for further miniaturization of photonic components based on surface plasmon polariton (SPP) waveguides [4

4. D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. With respect to temperature sensing, fiber-coupled dielectric-loaded SPP (DLSPP) waveguide components developed for thermo-optic switching and modulation of radiation [5

5. J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. B. Andersen, V. S. Volkov, J. Kjelstrup-Hansen, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Thermo-optic control of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1207–1216 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] seem rather promising by offering a straightforward way to designing miniature plasmonic temperature sensors.

In this work, we demonstrate the usage of DLSPP waveguide-ring resonators (WRRs) [6

6. T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide-ring resonators,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2968–2975 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] for sensing the ambient temperature. DLSPP waveguides represent submicron-sized dielectric (polymer) ridges placed atop metal (gold) film surface that confine the SPP modes (supported by the metal-dielectric interface) in the lateral cross section [7

7. T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 75(24), 245405 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. The dielectric refractive index and thus the DLSPP mode effective index depend on the ambient temperature [5

5. J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. B. Andersen, V. S. Volkov, J. Kjelstrup-Hansen, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Thermo-optic control of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1207–1216 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], whose variations change the phase accumulated by the DLSPP mode circulating in a ring waveguide causing thereby changes in the DLSPP-WRR transmission [8

8. T. B. Andersen, Z. H. Han, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Compact on-chip temperature sensors based on dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide-ring resonators,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 11(2), 1992–2000 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. Note that the DLSPP waveguide platform allows one to utilize 5-µm-radius WRRs [6

6. T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide-ring resonators,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2968–2975 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 8

8. T. B. Andersen, Z. H. Han, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Compact on-chip temperature sensors based on dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide-ring resonators,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 11(2), 1992–2000 (2011). [CrossRef]

] resulting in WRR sensor footprints, which are, for example, two orders of magnitude smaller than that of miniature temperature sensors based on silica/polymer microfiber knot resonators [9

9. Y. Wu, Y.-J. Rao, Y.-H. Chen, and Y. Gong, “Miniature fiber-optic temperature sensors based on silica/polymer microfiber knot resonators,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18142–18147 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] that are essentially analogous to WRRs. In the following section, we describe the investigated sample and the experimental setup used in this work. Section 3 is then devoted to the optical characterization of the DLSPP-WRR transmission and its response to the temperature variations. Finally, discussion and conclusion are offered in Section 4.

2. Experimental setup and sample

Sample was resting on a Si-wafer supported by steel shoulders. Placed under the wafer a Peltier element worked as a heating element (Fig. 1(b)). For measuring the sample temperature, a thermocouple was attached the sample about 2-3 mm away from the plasmonic section. No climate chamber was available, so the room temperature and humidity were not controlled. Finally, no dedicated cooling was applied, only radiation and air convection naturally occurred in the laboratory environment contributed to the established temperature. The homogeneity of the temperature distribution across the sample was investigated by using a thermal viewer and found to be within a few degrees.

3. Optical characterization and discussion

LSPP-WRR transmission spectra in the range of 1480-1600 nm were recorded at different temperatures between 21 °C and 46 °C (Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Temperature characterization of DLSPP-WRR transmission: (a) transmission spectra recorded repeatedly at nominal room temperature of 21°C (blue curve) and 46 °C (red curve), (b) blow-up of the spectra in the area marked with a circle in (a) showing the average transmission along with its standard deviation resulting from repeating the same measurements over several hours, (c) typical changes in transmission with increasing temperature as compared to the reference transmission at 21 °C, showing that maximum changes occur at the wavelengths corresponding to the steepest slopes of the transmission spectra shown in (a) as expected [8], (d) temperature dependence of variation in the DLSPP-WRR transmission at the wavelength of 1511 nm resulting in the temperature sensitivity of 0.023 dB/°C ≈2.8 ·10−7 /°C.
) controlled by the Peltier heating element and measured by a thermocouple as explained above. It was found that the spectral features were more complicated and less pronounced than observed in the first experiments [6

6. T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide-ring resonators,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2968–2975 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], being generally similar to those obtained with thermo-optic DLSPP components [5

5. J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. B. Andersen, V. S. Volkov, J. Kjelstrup-Hansen, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Thermo-optic control of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1207–1216 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Similarly to the latter work, we relate this behavior to the circumstance that we used in these experiments slightly wider and taller PMMA ridges than in our first investigations, exceeding the upper limit of single-mode DLSPPW operation [7

7. T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 75(24), 245405 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. Our choice of these DLSPP waveguide parameters was aimed at realization of the fiber-based end-fire DLSPP excitation [10

10. J. Gosciniak, V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, S. Massenot, and A. Dereux, “Fiber-coupled dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5314–5319 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. As noted previously [5

5. J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. B. Andersen, V. S. Volkov, J. Kjelstrup-Hansen, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Thermo-optic control of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1207–1216 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], these parameters result in more complex DLSPP-WRR transmission spectra (Fig. 2(a)), since the coupling from a straight waveguide to a ring and back now involves more modes. Note that the sensitivity of DLSPP-WRR-based temperature sensors is expected to be proportional to the slope of its transmission spectrum that constitutes the strongest contribution to the DLSPP-WRR temperature response [8

8. T. B. Andersen, Z. H. Han, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Compact on-chip temperature sensors based on dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide-ring resonators,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 11(2), 1992–2000 (2011). [CrossRef]

].

The DLSPP-WRR transmission spectra show variations in the transmission between −41 and −52 dB over a wavelength range of ~45 nm giving a slope of dTr/dλ ≈1.8 µm−1, where dTr is the transmission variation when the wavelength change is . This slope is ~42 times less steep as compared to the first reported experiments [6

6. T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide-ring resonators,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2968–2975 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], implying that one easily improve the sensitivity by using the appropriate structure parameters. Continuously repeated (over several hours) transmission measurements at the nominal (with the Peltier heating element being switched off) room temperature of 21 °C and 46 °C indicated considerable variations in the transmission level (Figs. 2(a) and (b)). The results of these measurements of long-term stability can be summarized as follows: ΔTr = (0.69 ± 0.18)dB/25°C, which results in a minimum detectable temperature change of dTmin ≈6.4 °C. These relatively large variations of transmission (measured for the same temperature) and thereby low temperature sensitivity originated from various reasons, of which uncontrolled humidity (that can also influence the PMMA refractive index) and temperature changes in the laboratory in the course of our experiment that lasted several hours were probably the most important ones.

We have also conducted relatively quick measurements of the DLSPP-WRR transmission spectra, varying the temperature in steps of 5 °C in less than 10 minutes. It is to be noted that the sample temperature measured with a thermocouple was found to be settling to a constant value after changing the current in the Peltier element during one minute. Fast measurements of the transmission spectra showed monotonous variations (increase or decrease, depending on the wavelength) in the DLSPP-WRR transmission with the temperature (Fig. 2(c)). In this case, the reference transmission spectrum was first obtained at the room temperature of 21 °C and then changes in transmission were recorded at the corresponding temperature that was varied in steps of 5 °C with the Peltier heating element. It is seen that the changes in transmission are proportional to the temperature changes for practically all wavelengths, especially in the wavelength ranges of strong transmission changes (Fig. 2(c)). Furthermore, upon comparison with the transmission spectra shown in Fig. 2(a) one notices that temperature-induced transmission variations are overall proportional to the slope (dTr/dλ) of the wavelength-dependent transmission as expected [8

8. T. B. Andersen, Z. H. Han, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Compact on-chip temperature sensors based on dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide-ring resonators,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 11(2), 1992–2000 (2011). [CrossRef]

].

The measured spectra of temperature-induced transmission variations allow one to easily identify the most suitable wavelength for temperature sensing, that in our case was chosen to be 1511 nm (Fig. 2(c)). A linear fit to the change in transmission at the wavelength of 1511 nm as a function of the sample temperature (Fig. 2(d)) resulted in the following sensitivity value: dTr(dB)/dT = 0.023 dB/°C or, in absolute units, dTr/dT ≈2.8∙10−7/°C. The minimal detectable temperature change can now be estimated by considering an experimental setup with a conventional optical detector as follows:
dTmin=NEP×B/(PindTrdT),
(1)
where NEP is the noise equivalent power of the optical detector, B is the measurement bandwidth, and Pin is the optical power of radiation reaching the photodetector. Considering a commercial photodetector from Thorlabs (PDA10CS-EC) used in our experiment with NEP = 1.4×10−12W/√(Hz), the measurement bandwidth B = 1 Hz, optical radiation power Pin = 1 mW, and the experimentally obtained sensitivity dTr/dT = 2.8∙10−7/(°C), one arrives at the minimum detectable temperature change dTmin = 5.1∙10−3 °C.

4. Conclusion

The reported experiments open up a new promising application avenue for fiber-coupled DLSPP-based components, viz., environmental sensing. Recently demonstrated on-chip monitoring of the DLSPP waveguide mode power [13

13. A. Kumar, J. Gosciniak, T. B. Andersen, L. Markey, A. Dereux, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Power monitoring in dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(4), 2972–2978 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] adds an exciting possibility of designing integrated plasmonic sensing chips containing temperature sensors along with power monitors (based on integrated Wheatstone bridges [13

13. A. Kumar, J. Gosciniak, T. B. Andersen, L. Markey, A. Dereux, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Power monitoring in dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(4), 2972–2978 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] or integrated Seebeck junctions [14

14. J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas-des-Francs, J. Arocas, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Thermo-electric detection of waveguided surface plasmon propagation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031113 (2011). [CrossRef]

]) for signal detection. This integration can naturally be followed by attaching light sources that are end-fire coupled to access photonic and/or DLSPP waveguides and thereby developing completely autonomous, miniature plasmonic temperature sensors that would preserve the main advantage of conventional optical sensors, viz., the immunity to external electromagnetic signals. Moreover, the very recent development of DLSPP-based waveguide components integrated into a silicon-plasmonic router architecture with 320 Gb/s throughput capabilities [15

15. S. Papaioannou, K. Vyrsokinos, O. Tsilipakos, A. Pitilakis, K. Hassan, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. Miliou, E. E. Kriezis, and N. Pleros, “A 320 Gb/s-throughput capable 2×2 silicon-plasmonic router architecture for optical interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(21), 3185–3195 (2011). [CrossRef]

] opens an important application avenue for the investigated DLSPP-WRR-based temperature sensors, viz., local temperature control inside silicon-plasmonic router chips since both plasmonic interconnect components [15

15. S. Papaioannou, K. Vyrsokinos, O. Tsilipakos, A. Pitilakis, K. Hassan, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. Miliou, E. E. Kriezis, and N. Pleros, “A 320 Gb/s-throughput capable 2×2 silicon-plasmonic router architecture for optical interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(21), 3185–3195 (2011). [CrossRef]

] and sensors can be manufactured using the same fabrication technology platform.

Acknowledgments

This work was financially supported by the Danish Council for Independent Research (FTP-project ANAP, contract No. 09-072949) and by the Regional Council of Bourgogne.

References and links

1.

P. R. N. Childs, J. R. Greenwood, and C. A. Long, “Review of temperature measurement,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(8), 2959–2978 (2000). [CrossRef]

2.

B. Lee, “Review of the present status of optical fiber sensors,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 9(2), 57–79 (2003). [CrossRef]

3.

A. K. Sharma, R. Jha, and B. D. Gupta, “Fiber-optic sensors based on surface plasmon resonance: A comprehensive review,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(8), 1118–1129 (2007). [CrossRef]

4.

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010). [CrossRef]

5.

J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. B. Andersen, V. S. Volkov, J. Kjelstrup-Hansen, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Thermo-optic control of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1207–1216 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide-ring resonators,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2968–2975 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 75(24), 245405 (2007). [CrossRef]

8.

T. B. Andersen, Z. H. Han, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Compact on-chip temperature sensors based on dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide-ring resonators,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 11(2), 1992–2000 (2011). [CrossRef]

9.

Y. Wu, Y.-J. Rao, Y.-H. Chen, and Y. Gong, “Miniature fiber-optic temperature sensors based on silica/polymer microfiber knot resonators,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18142–18147 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

J. Gosciniak, V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, S. Massenot, and A. Dereux, “Fiber-coupled dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5314–5319 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

O. Tsilipakos, E. E. Kriezis, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Thermo-optic microring resonator switching elements made of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 073111 (2011). [CrossRef]

12.

S. Randhawa, A. V. Krasavin, T. Holmgaard, J. Renger, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. V. Zayats, and R. Quidant, “Experimental demonstration of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide disk resonators at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161102 (2011). [CrossRef]

13.

A. Kumar, J. Gosciniak, T. B. Andersen, L. Markey, A. Dereux, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Power monitoring in dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(4), 2972–2978 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas-des-Francs, J. Arocas, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Thermo-electric detection of waveguided surface plasmon propagation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031113 (2011). [CrossRef]

15.

S. Papaioannou, K. Vyrsokinos, O. Tsilipakos, A. Pitilakis, K. Hassan, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. Miliou, E. E. Kriezis, and N. Pleros, “A 320 Gb/s-throughput capable 2×2 silicon-plasmonic router architecture for optical interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(21), 3185–3195 (2011). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(040.0040) Detectors : Detectors
(120.0280) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Remote sensing and sensors
(230.0230) Optical devices : Optical devices
(240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
(250.5460) Optoelectronics : Polymer waveguides
(070.5753) Fourier optics and signal processing : Resonators

ToC Category:
Sensors

History
Original Manuscript: October 11, 2011
Revised Manuscript: November 25, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: November 27, 2011
Published: December 12, 2011

Citation
Thomas B. Andersen, Sergey I. Bozhevolnyi, Laurent Markey, and Alain Dereux, "Fiber-pigtailed temperature sensors based on dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide-ring resonators," Opt. Express 19, 26423-26428 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-27-26423


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References

  1. P. R. N. Childs, J. R. Greenwood, and C. A. Long, “Review of temperature measurement,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.71(8), 2959–2978 (2000). [CrossRef]
  2. B. Lee, “Review of the present status of optical fiber sensors,” Opt. Fiber Technol.9(2), 57–79 (2003). [CrossRef]
  3. A. K. Sharma, R. Jha, and B. D. Gupta, “Fiber-optic sensors based on surface plasmon resonance: A comprehensive review,” IEEE Sens. J.7(8), 1118–1129 (2007). [CrossRef]
  4. D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 83–91 (2010). [CrossRef]
  5. J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. B. Andersen, V. S. Volkov, J. Kjelstrup-Hansen, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Thermo-optic control of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components,” Opt. Express18(2), 1207–1216 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide-ring resonators,” Opt. Express17(4), 2968–2975 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B75(24), 245405 (2007). [CrossRef]
  8. T. B. Andersen, Z. H. Han, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Compact on-chip temperature sensors based on dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide-ring resonators,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland)11(2), 1992–2000 (2011). [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Wu, Y.-J. Rao, Y.-H. Chen, and Y. Gong, “Miniature fiber-optic temperature sensors based on silica/polymer microfiber knot resonators,” Opt. Express17(20), 18142–18147 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Gosciniak, V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, S. Massenot, and A. Dereux, “Fiber-coupled dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express18(5), 5314–5319 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. O. Tsilipakos, E. E. Kriezis, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Thermo-optic microring resonator switching elements made of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys.109(7), 073111 (2011). [CrossRef]
  12. S. Randhawa, A. V. Krasavin, T. Holmgaard, J. Renger, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. V. Zayats, and R. Quidant, “Experimental demonstration of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide disk resonators at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(16), 161102 (2011). [CrossRef]
  13. A. Kumar, J. Gosciniak, T. B. Andersen, L. Markey, A. Dereux, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Power monitoring in dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express19(4), 2972–2978 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas-des-Francs, J. Arocas, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Thermo-electric detection of waveguided surface plasmon propagation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(3), 031113 (2011). [CrossRef]
  15. S. Papaioannou, K. Vyrsokinos, O. Tsilipakos, A. Pitilakis, K. Hassan, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. Miliou, E. E. Kriezis, and N. Pleros, “A 320 Gb/s-throughput capable 2×2 silicon-plasmonic router architecture for optical interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol.29(21), 3185–3195 (2011). [CrossRef]

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